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two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence on another and perceive one another as 'us'
1) the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2) the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence
a degradation or loss of group decision making (2 types: group think and group polarization)
Risk factors for groupthink
cohesive group, group isolation, directive leader, and pressure to conform
signs and symptoms of groupthink
illusion of invulnerability, stereotyping outsiders, self censorship, mindguards, illusion of unanimity
consequences of groupthink
incomplete review of alternatives, failure to examine risks, poor information search, lack of contingency plans, poor decisions
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information
1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
1) and individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex
believing in the superiority of one's own think and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgrips and those lower in status
realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
the 'we' aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to 'who am i?' that comes from our group memberships
'them' - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup
according to 'terror management theory' people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortailty
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgrip members as more similar to one another than are in-group members. thus, 'they are alike; we are diverse'
explaining away outgrip members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior from one's own group)
the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as 'exceptions to the rule'
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
the perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
emotional release. the catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one 'releases' aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
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