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56 terms

Social Behavior Test 3

STUDY
PLAY
group
two or more people who, for longer than a few moments, interact with an influence on another and perceive one another as 'us'
social facilitation
1) the tendency of people to perform simple or well-learned tasks better when others are present 2) the strengthening of dominant (prevalent, likely) responses in the presence of others
co-actors
co-participants working individually on a noncompetitive activity
evaluation apprehension
concern for how others are evaluating us
social loafing
the tendency for people to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable
free riders
people who benefit from the group but give little in return
deindividuation
loss of self-awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations that foster responsiveness to group norms, good or bad.
group polarization
group-produced enhancement of members' preexisting tendencies; a strengthening of the members' average tendency, not a split within the group
social comparison
evaluating one's opinions and abilities by comparing oneself with others
pluralistic ignorance
a false impression of what most other people are thinking or feeling, or how they are responding
groupthink
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence-seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in-group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
leadership
the process by which certain group members motivate and guide the group
task leadership
leadership that organizes work, sets standards, and focuses on goals
social leadership
leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support
transformational leadership
leadership that, enabled by a leader's vision and inspiration, exerts significant influence
sucker effect
the person carrying the weight of group when their are free riders
process loss
a degradation or loss of group decision making (2 types: group think and group polarization)
Risk factors for groupthink
cohesive group, group isolation, directive leader, and pressure to conform
signs and symptoms of groupthink
illusion of invulnerability, stereotyping outsiders, self censorship, mindguards, illusion of unanimity
consequences of groupthink
incomplete review of alternatives, failure to examine risks, poor information search, lack of contingency plans, poor decisions
how to avoid group think
impartial leader, seek opinions, use of subgroups, voting procedures
prejudice
a preconceived negative judgment of a group and its individual members
stereotype
a belief about the personal attributes of a group of people. are sometimes overgeneralized, inaccurate, and resistant to new information
discrimination
unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members
racism
1) an individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given race or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given race
sexism
1) and individual's prejudicial attitudes and discriminatory behavior toward people of a given sex or 2) institutional practices (even if not motivated by prejudice) that subordinate people of a given sex
social dominance
a motivation to have one's group dominate others social group
ethnocentric
believing in the superiority of one's own think and cultural group, and having a corresponding disdain for all other groups
authoritarian personality
a personality that is disposed to favor obedience to authority and intolerance of outgrips and those lower in status
realistic group conflict theory
the theory that prejudice arises from competition between groups for scarce resources
social identity
the 'we' aspect of our self-concept; the part of our answer to 'who am i?' that comes from our group memberships
ingroup
'us' - a group of people who share a sense of belonging, a feeling of common identity
outgroup
'them' - a group that people perceive as distinctively different from or apart from their ingroup
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
terror management
according to 'terror management theory' people's self-protective emotional and cognitive responses (including adhering more strongly to their cultural worldviews and prejudices) when confronted with reminders of their mortailty
outgroup homogeneity effect
perception of outgrip members as more similar to one another than are in-group members. thus, 'they are alike; we are diverse'
own-race bias
the tendency for people to more accurately recognize faces of their own race
stigma consciousness
a person's expectation of being victimized by prejudice of discrimination
group-serving bias
explaining away outgrip members' positive behaviors; also attributing negative behaviors to their dispositions (while excusing such behavior from one's own group)
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe that the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get
subtyping
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by thinking of them as 'exceptions to the rule'
subgrouping
accommodating individuals who deviate from one's stereotype by forming a new stereotype about this subset of the group
stereotype threat
a disruptive concern, when facing a negative stereotype, that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype. unlike self-fulfilling prophecies that hammer one's reputation into one's reputation into one's self-concept, stereotype threat situations have immediate effects
aggression
physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
hostile aggression
aggression driven by anger and performed as an end in itself
instrumental aggression
aggression that is a means to some other end (spanking)
instinctive behavior
an innate, unlearned behavior pattern exhibited by all members of a species
frustration-aggression theory
the theory that frustration triggers a readiness to agress
frustration
the blocking of goal-directed behavior
displacement
the redirection of aggression to a target other than the source of the frustration. generally, the new target is a safer or more socially acceptable target
relative deprivation
the perception that one is less well-off than others with whom one compares oneself
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded and punished
catharsis
emotional release. the catharsis view of aggression is that aggressive drive is reduced when one 'releases' aggressive energy, either by acting aggressively or by fantasizing aggression
prosocial
positive, constructive, helpful social behavior; the opposite of antisocial behavior
social scripts
culturally provided mental instructions for how to act in various situations
pain-attack response
when people experience pain they lash out (Gary)