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108 terms

Anatomy - Chapters 13 and 14

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throat
pharynx
windpipe
trachae
voice box
larynx
opening to the larynx
glottis
the trachae branches into these tubes
main bronchi
tube posterior to the trachae
esophagus
smallest conducting pasageways in the lungs
bronchioles
air sacs within the lungs
alveoli
what is a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine
microvilli, villi, circular folds
the accessory digestive organ that produces enzymes that break down all food groups is the
pancreas
what are the subdivisions of the large intestine
cecum, appendix, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum
amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest
starch
the number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is
32
the anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called
incisors
the organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces
large intestine
what serves as a passageway for both food and air
pharynx and larynx
what routes air and food into their proper channels and plays an important role in speech
larynx
the "guardian of the airways" that prevents food from entering the superior opening of the larynx is the what
epiglottis
what is the air-blood barrier, where gases are exchanged
respiratory membrane
sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are what?
hiccups
the general term for inadequate oxygen delivery to body tissues regardless of the cause is called what
hypoxia
labored breathing often referred to as "air hunger" is called what
dyspnea
the C-shaped rings of cartilage that reinforce the trachae are made of what cartilage
hyaline
the lungs of the fetus fill with what late in pregnancy
fluid
another name for the alimentary canal is the what
GI tract
the rhythmic wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called what
peristalsis
what is simply known as chewing
mastication
the first portion of the small intestine is the what
duodenum
the voluntary phase of swallowing is called what phase
buccal
what are projections of the mucosa of the small intestine
villi
bile enters the duodenum of the small intestine through what duct
bile duct
the ascending colon is found on which side of the abdominal cavity
right
sugars and starched are classified as what
carbohydrates
watery stool that results when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before sufficient water has been reabsorbed
diarrhea
large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called
rugae
what is not absorbed by the large intestine
nutrients
the energy value of foods, commonly counted by dieters, is measured in units called
calories
ATP is produced in greatest quantity during
electron transport chain
what does the liver do?
detoxify, degrade hormones, produce cholesterol, process nutrients
voluntary process of placing food into the mouth is referred to as
ingest
the process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called
defecation
amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal tidal expiration
expiratory reserve volume
normal quiet breathing which moves approximately 500 mL of air per breath
tidal volume
air that enters the respiratory tract and remains within the conducting zone passageways
dead space volume
amount of air that can be inhaled forcibly over the tidal volume
inspiratory reserve volume
total amount of exchangeable air
vital capacity
air that remains in the lungs even after the most strenuous expiration
residual volume
sum total of tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume and expiratory reserve volume
vital capacity
hypoventilation dramatically increases carbonic acid concentration and involves
extremely slow breathing
hyperventilation leads to
brief periods of apnea, cyanosis, dizziness, fainting
what are features of COPD
dsypnea becomes progressively more severe, frequent pulmonary infections are common, most COPD victims are hypoxic, most patients have a history of smoking
emphysema results in what
enlarged alveoli, lung fibrosis, expanded barrel chest, decreased lung elasticity
the smallest conducting passageways of the lungs are called
bronchioles
the abbreviation IRDS stands for
infant respiratory distress syndrome
what is cystic fibrosis
the most common lethal genetic disease in the US causing over secretion of thick mucus that clogs the respiratory passage which is fatal
what are currently the most damaging and disabling respiratory diseases in the US
lung cancer and COPD
what are organs of the alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
which one of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary canal
mouth, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus
primary absorption of water
large intestine
site where starch digestion begins
mouth
site where protein digestion begins
stomach
tube through which food is propelled but no digestion takes place
esophagus
site where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal
duodenum
site of vitamin K synthesis by bacteria
large intestine
site of initiation of defecation reflex
rectum
the flap of elastic cartilage that protects food from entering the larynx when swallowing is the
epiglottis
cilia of the trachae that beat continually propel contaminated mucus
toward the throat to be coughed up or swallowed
when oxygen enters the respiratory system, what is the next structure to which it travels immediately upon leaving the trachea
main bronchi
what are the respiratory zones
alveoli sac, alveoli duct, respiratory bronchioles
the walls of the alveoli are composed largely of
simple squamous
exchange of both oxygen and carbon dioxide through the resporatory membrane occurs by
simple diffusion
the lipid molecule critical to lung function that coats the gas-exposed alveolar surfaces and prevents lung collapse by lowering surface tension of the water film on the alveolar sac is
surfactant
air moving in and out of the lungs
pulmonary ventilation
what are the conducting passageways of the respiratory system
nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles
what are the functions of the respiratory conducting passageways
allow air to reach the lungs, purify air, humidify, warm incoming air
what are the parts of the nose
external nares, nostrils, nasal cavity, nasal septum
what is the role of mucus in the nasal cavity
trap incoming bacteria and other foreign debris
the nasal cavity is separated from the oral cavity by
both the hard and soft palate
what is a function of the paranasal sinuses
lighten the skull, act as a resonance chamber for speech, produce mucus, help to moisten the air
air from the nasal cavity enters the superior portion of the pharynx called the
nasopharynx
tonsils that lie at the base of the tongue are
lingual tonsils
following the removal of the larynx, a person would be unable to
speak
the opening between the vocal cords is called the
glottis
what happens during inspiration
Contraction of the diaphragm muscle and external intercostals muscles helps increase the size of the thoracic cavity, decrease gas pressure causes air to be sucked in increasing the volume until it equalizes
the gas exchange that occurs between blood and tissue cells at systemic capillaries is called
internal respiration
an emotionally induced response during which air movement is similar to crying is
laughing
a very deep inspiration that ventilate all the alveoli
yawn
the respiratory movement representing the total amount of exchangeable air
vital capacity
the amount of air remaining in the lungs even after the greatest possible expiration effort is
residual volume
the bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation of the skin and mucosa is called
cyanosis
what is a factor influencing respiratory rate and depth
physical exercise, volition, emotional factors, levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide
cessation of breathing is called
apnea
the structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the
hard palate
the fold of the mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement is called
lingual frenulum
protein digestion begins in the
stomach
the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine is regulated by
pyloric sphincter
the small intestine extends from the
pyloric sphincter to the illocecal valve
which one of the following is the middle section of the small intestine
jejunum
enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the
duodenum
the primary function of the small intestine is
absorption of nutrients
bile is produced by the ____ but stored in the ____
liver, gallbladder
buildup of bile within the liver leading to bile pigments circulating through the body could cause tissues to turn yellow and a condition called
jaundice
the sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes within hydrolysis reactions is called
chemical digestion
what carbohydrate can't human digestive system break down into simple sugars
cellulose
proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called
amino acids
transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluids is called
absorption
the first nutrient to be chemically digested is
starch
the opening of the large intestine is called the
anus