ch 4 food additives
Terms in this set (34)
Which of the following is NOT a food standard under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act of 1938?
a. Standard of identity
b. Standard of fill of container
c. Standard of minimum quality
d. Standard of sanitary packaging
The Delaney Clause
a. requires that food additives be nontoxic.
b. is part of the first pure food law passed in 1906.
c. disallows any food additive that is found to induce cancer.
d. is administered primarily by the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
The tolerance limits for pesticide residuals on foods are set by
a. U.S. Department of Agriculture
b. Food and Drug Administration
c. Centers for Disease Control
d. Environmental Protection Agency
Which of the following is NOT required on food labels, according to federal legislation?
a. common name of product
b. net contents in terms of weight, measure, or count
c. name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor
d. percentage of each ingredient
The FDA does NOT allow on food labels health claims for the following relationships
a. fat and cancer.
b. sodium and hypertension.
c. vitamin B12 and pernicious anemia.
d. fruits, vegetables, and grain products and cancer. 15. Which of the following activities is NOT supervised by the U.S. Department of Agriculture?
Which of the following activities is NOT supervised by the U.S Department of Agriculture?
a. inspection of egg processing plants
b. grading of fresh fruits and vegetables
c. inspection of meat and poultry for wholesomeness
d. administration of the National Marine Fisheries Service
The Pulse Net system is a
a. computer data base that "fingerprints" microorganisms
b. surveillance network that tracks incidence of foodborne illness
c. method for the inspection of meat and poultry.
d. computer system that assesses safe pesticide exposure
Voluntary inspection of fishery products is offered by the
a. Federal Trade Commission.
b. U.S. Department of Agriculture.
c. U.S. Department of Commerce.
d. Federal Food and Drug Administration.
What government department or administration requires seafood processors to have HACCP plans and inspects plants for compliance?
a. U.S. Department of Agriculture
b. U.S. Department of Commerce
c. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
d. Food and Drug Administration
any chemical added directly or indirectly during the growing, storing, or processing of a food
types of additives
1)untentional: cannot be avoided-plastics, etc 2)inintentional: a)functional:preservatives, antioxidants, etc b)cosmetic:colors and flavors-banned in some countries
why additives are used
public:toxins, reality:functional, in food for a reason:improves shelf life, taste, etc
acceptable purposes of intentional additives
1)enhance nutrition, 2)preserve quality, 3)improve acceptability, 4)aid food prep/process
unacceptable purposes of intentional additives
conceal spoilage, disguise inferior food
approval of intentional additives
required by FDA, toxicity tests, set limits-maximum amts, specific purposes, specific foods
desirable % moisture for popcorn
in whipping cream allows it to form a cloud like texture
food made w/ crushed grass seeds, hallite, and fungus
chemical that causes tears when peeling an onion
90% of hotness of a pepper located
ribs, capizum produces heat in pepper
generally recognized as safe, 1958 people started getting worried about additives, long history of use, spices, sugar, baking products
1958, Prohibbited any additive shown to cancer in humans or animals, repealed in 1995, now:banned if risk of caner is increased by 1/1000000
principles of toxicology
all substances are poisonous, acute vs. chronic toxicity, acute:immediate death, chronic:gradual loss of function, cancer, etc
LD50=lethal dose for 50% population, ex. of LD50-how much it takes to kill, nacl=40 G/KG(grams per kg body weight), caffeine=200Mg/Kg (very toxin when entered directly in bloodstream), botulinum toxin= 100 NG/Kg(most toxic) (1tbsp spread through so cal can kill many people)
more difficult to evaluate, most data from lab animals, are they a good model? rats give off decent data but some arguments state otherwise
1)nitrate/nitrite, 2)sulfites/SO2, 3)MSG (can produce redness in cheeks), 4) FD & C yellow #5, 5)Benzoate
inhibit c. bot, form nitrosamines(not worst but not good)
inhibit M/O and browning, asthmatic RXN, label if >10PPM
MSG(can produce redness in cheeks, etc)
flavor enhancer (doesnt produce much on its own), natural in food, chinese restaurant syndrome(many asians add to food)
FD & yellow #5
artificial flavor, allergic RXN in people sensitive to aspirin, label required
Benzoate (not to bad)
antifungal, not related to benzene (certain similarities but no chem rxns to it), soft drinks cause cancer
souces of unintentional additives
1)industrial wastes(happens more in urban areas), 2)pesticides(no residue:49%), acceptable levels in ~50%, unacceptable levels in 1%
regulations on unintentional additives
trace amounts cannot be avoided, FDA sets limits for safe levels