50 terms

Chapter 23

In life -threatening starvation the kidneys synthesize glucose by
deaminating amino acids
This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste
Which organ system does not excrete waste
the cardiovascular system
Which is not a function of the kidneys
they release waste into the bloodstream
Which of the following is not an organ of the urinary system
collecting duct
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident but not the urinary bladder
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assistancing in staving off infection is known as
the fibrous capsule
A single lobe of a kidney is compromised of
one pyramid and the overlying cortex
A renal pyramid voids urine into
the minor calyx
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex
segmental a. - interlobular a. - arcuate a. - interlobular a.
The transition from an afferent arteriole to an efferent arteriole occurs in the
The average person has approximately ___ nephrons per kidney
1.2 million
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein
interlobular v. - arcuate v. - interlobar v. - renal v.
Blood plasma is filtered in
the renal corpuscle
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus
All of the following are comprised of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of
the thin segment of the nephron loop
Which are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla
juxtamedullary nephrons
In the nephron, the fluid that immediately precedes urine is known as
tubular fluid
Glucose and amino acids are reabsorbed from the glomerular filtrate by
the renal corpuscle
In a healthy kidney, very little ___ is filtered by the glomerulus
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what
the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet
angiotensin II
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg
20 mm Hg out
Renin hydrolyzes angiotensinogen released from the _____ to for angiotensin I
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here the ____ of all nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption
proximal convoluted tubules
Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
hydrogen ions
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
appearance of that solute in the urine
Which of the following is a direct result of antidiuretic hormone
decreased urine volume
Aldosterone acts on
the distal convoluted tubule
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
preventing sodium loss in the urine
Hypocalcemia stimulates
secretion of parathyroid hormone
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic waste and NaCl to pass through
collecting duct
The urine is most likely to be hypotonic when
the body's water volume is high
Which of the following does not contribute to water conservation
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ____ and is based on fluid flowing in _____ direction in two adjacent tubules
sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchanges system is
to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume
Normal urine from a healthy person can be expected to contain all of the following except
What is the term for the pigment responsible for the color of urine
The minimum daily output of urine to meet the definition of polyuria is
2.0 L
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of urine as a sign of
diabetes mellitus
Loop diuretics reduce body water content by acting on
the countercurrent multiplier system
A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentrationof 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate
insulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearanceof 140mL/min due to the fact that
it is secreted by the renal tubules
Which of the following is not found in the ureter
skeletal muscle
Which muscle is located in the bladder
Which is not a portion of the urethra
internal urethral sphincter
Micturition is another term for
the elimination of urine