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This byproduct of protein catabolism constitutes approximately one-half of all nitrogenous waste
A patient enters a hospital after a motorcycle accident. He complains of mid-back pain. X-rays reveal both rib and pelvic fractures. His emergency room examination includes urinalysis. Which of the following findings from the urinalysis would most likely suggest trauma to the kidneys from the accident but not the urinary bladder
The innermost connective tissue layer protecting the kidney and assistancing in staving off infection is known as
the fibrous capsule
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal artery into the renal cortex
segmental a. - interlobular a. - arcuate a. - interlobular a.
Which of these correctly traces blood flow from the renal cortex to the renal vein
interlobular v. - arcuate v. - interlobar v. - renal v.
Which of these form the inner layer of the glomerular capsule and wrap around the capillaries of the glomerulus
All of the following are comprised of cuboidal epithelium with the exception of
the thin segment of the nephron loop
Which are primarily responsible for maintaining the salinity gradient of the renal medulla
Which of the following would reduce the glomerular filtration rate
vasoconstriction of the afferent arteriole
The mechanism of stabilizing the GFR based on the tendency of smooth muscle to contract when stretched is known as what
the myogenic mechanism
In response to a drop in overall blood pressure _____ stimulates constriction of the glomerular inlet and even greater constriction of the outlet
Assuming all other values are normal, calculate the net filtration pressure in a patient with a drop in capsular hydrostatic pressure to 8 mmHg
20 mm Hg out
Because of the great deal of active transport that occurs here the ____ of all nephrons collectively account for about 6% of one's daily resting ATP and caloric consumption
proximal convoluted tubules
Proximal convoluted tubules are responsible for reabsorbing all of the following except
Total saturation of protein transporters for a given solute in the renal tubules would result in
appearance of that solute in the urine
Atrial natriuretic peptide reduces blood volume and pressure by all of the following means except
preventing sodium loss in the urine
Which renal structure is responsible for producing hypertonic urine by reabsorbing water while allowing metabolic waste and NaCl to pass through
The countercurrent multiplier recaptures ____ and is based on fluid flowing in _____ direction in two adjacent tubules
sodium; the opposite
The overall purpose of the countercurrent exchanges system is
to supply salt and urea to the renal medulla
Which of these induces renin secretion, constricts afferent arterioles, and reduces GFR and urine volume
Prior to chemical tests for glycosuria, clinicians checked for sweetness of urine as a sign of
A hospital patient produces 4 mL/min of urine with a urea concentrationof 8 mg/mL. Venous blood draw reveals urea concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. What is the percentage of cleared urea from glomerular filtrate?
Which two substances are most useful for determining a patient's glomerular filtration rate
insulin and creatinine
Creatinine has a renal clearanceof 140mL/min due to the fact that
it is secreted by the renal tubules
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