186 terms

Concept Checks, Quiz Qs, & WAs - Exam 3

Explain the difference between the Piagetian concepts of object permanence and conservation.
object permanence: the ability to be aware of an object's existence even when it is not visible.

conservation: The understanding that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily mean changes in the quantity of the object.
On a sheet of paper, draw a table with 4 columns and 4 rows (plus a row for labels). Label the columns as follows: Stage, Age Range, Characteristics, and Stage Milestones. Now populate the table with the relevant information on Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development.
See Table 6.3, or the slide show for Day 19.
Figure 6.13 shows the results of a study comparing older and younger participants from both the US and from China. The dependent measure memory-test performance. Summarize the results of this study.
In one important study concerning the role of expectations on memory, Becca Levy and Ellen Langer (1994)[388] found that, although young American and Chinese students performed equally well on cognitive tasks, older Americans performed significantly more poorly on those tasks than did their Chinese counterparts. Furthermore, this difference was explained by beliefs about aging—in both cultures, the older adults who believed that memory declined with age also showed more actual memory declines than did the older adults who believed that memory did not decline with age. In addition, more older Americans than older Chinese believed that memory declined with age, and as you can see in Figure 6.13, "", older Americans performed more poorly on the memory tasks.
What are the 3 measurable components of emotion? How are they measured?
What are the 3 measurable components of emotion? How are they measured?

1. Physiological: This would include things like changes in vital signs such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure; sweating (measured by galvanic skin response).
2. Subjective: This is the internal experience of an emotion -- the physical sensation of (for example) sadness, which cannot be directly measured. It can only be inferred from response to self-report questionnaires.
3. Behavioral: While this may include all of the factors listed on Table 10.1 (nonverbal communicators), particularly for the primary emotions, facial expression constitutes a reliable index of emotional state.
Explain the common characteristics (and the differences between) the James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, and Shachter-Singer theories of emotion.
Cannon-Bard: the experience of an emotion is accompanied by physiological arousal
James-Lange: our experience of an emotion is the result of the arousal that we experience
Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory: experience of emotion is determined by the intensity of the arousal we are experiencing, but that the cognitive appraisal of the situation determines what the emotion will be
Explain the methodology and results of Shachter and Singer's study that involved men who walked across either a stationary or a swinging bridge.
In one interesting field study by Dutton and Aron (1974),[687] an attractive young woman approached individual young men as they crossed a wobbly, long suspension walkway hanging more than 200 feet above a river in British Columbia, Canada. The woman asked each man to help her fill out a class questionnaire. When he had finished, she wrote her name and phone number on a piece of paper, and invited him to call if he wanted to hear more about the project. More than half of the men who had been interviewed on the bridge later called the woman. In contrast, men approached by the same woman on a low solid bridge, or who were interviewed on the suspension bridge by men, called significantly less frequently. The idea of misattribution of arousal can explain this result—the men were feeling arousal from the height of the bridge, but they misattributed it as romantic or sexual attraction to the woman, making them more likely to call her.
Embarrassment is a self-conscious emotion, but it is intensely social: explain this statement, and elaborate with discussion of the research presented in class.
Researchers propose that embarrassment serves to restore and maintain social relationships in the wake of social-norm violations. While experiencing embarrassment, many individuals exhibit the series of facial expressions shown in the slide show ("I like 'ta died"). The net effect is to show evidence of submission. In addition more recent research (see the slide titled Blushing = Trustworthy), participants who thought that another person had behaved dishonorably was more trustworthy if depicted showing embarrassment and also blushing, compared to pictures of the same woman who only showed either blushing or embarrassment (or neither). The original study is available at this URL: 10.1037/a0022774
Describe the two pathways of emotion processing.
1. Fast pathway - stimulus goes through thalamus to amygdala, which then issues a response

2. Slow pathway - stimulus goes through thalamus to frontal cortex
What are the two axes along which can be distinguished secondary emotions? How would you label the ends of the horizontal and vertical axis? What are 2 examples of emotions from each quadrant?
Secondary emotions can be distinguished based on the strength of arousal and their valence. The horizontal axis is valence, from pleasant to unpleasant. The vertical one is arousal, from mild to intense. For example:
intense arousal, pleasant valence - excited, astonished;

mild arousal, positive valence - relaxed, serene;

mild arousal, unpleasant valence - bored, gloomy;

intense arousal, unpleasant valence - afraid, angry.
What specifically does the term "development" refer to and what guides development across the lifespan?
Development refers to the physiological, behavioral, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout human life, which are guided by both genetic predispositions (nature) and by environmental influences (nurture).
What are Erikson's 8 stages of development and what are the key challenges of each?
-Oral-Sensory: Birth - 12-18 months. Trust vs. mistrust. A child develops a feeling of trust in his or her caregivers.

-Muscular-anal: 18 months - 3 years. Autonomy vs. shame/doubt. The child learns what he or she can and cannot control and develops a sense of free will.

-Locomotor: 3-6 years. Initiative vs. guilt. The child learns to become independent by exploring, manipulating, and taking action.

-Latency: 6-12 year. Industry vs. inferiority. The child learns to do things well or correctly according to standards set by others, particularly in school.

-Adolescence: 12-18 years. Identity vs. role confusion. the adolescent develops a well-defined and positive sense of self in relationship to others.

-Young adulthood: 19-40 years. Intimacy vs. isolation. The person develops the ability to give and receive love and to make long-term commitments.

-Middle adulthood: 40-65 years. Generativity vs. stagnation. The person develops an interest in guiding the development of the next generation, often by becoming a parent.

-Late adulthood: 65 years-death. Ego integrity vs. despair. The person develops acceptance of his or her life as it was lived.

See Table 6.1
What is the chronological order of prenatal development? Give a definition of each stage.
1) Conception
2) Zygote: the product of an egg and sperm that merge together during conception.
3) Embryo: the status of a zygote once it is implanted in the uterine wall.
4) Fetus: the stage of the embryo from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
What 3 things make up the protective environment for the embryo? Give a definition of each.
1) Amniotic Sac: Acts as a cushion and temperature regulator for the fetus. Fluid-filled reservoir where the fetus lives till birth.

2) Placenta: The organ that allows the exchange of nutrients between the mother and the fetus, while also filtering out harmful materials.

3) Umbilical Cord: A cord that links the embryo directly to the placenta and transfers all material to the embryo from the mother.
What are the implications of lack of attachment for the Romanian orphans with regards to emotional and behavioral problems?
Romanian orphans who were adopted were compared to orphans adopted within the UK and observed at ages 6 and 11.

For emotional problems, there was almost no difference at age 6 between the two groups of adopted children. However, by age 11 the Romanian institutionalized adoptees showed a much greater percentage of emotional problems than within-UK adoptees.

For behavioral/conduct problems, the Romanian orphans showed more problems at age 6 and at age 11.

These findings suggest that deprivation of attachment in early life may cause serious consequences throughout the lifetime.
What are Mary Ainsworth's 4 types of attachment styles of children and parents? Describe each attachment style as seen in the Strange Situation.
Secure Attachment: The child explores freely while the mother is present and engages with the stranger. The child may be upset when the mother leaves the room but is happy to see her when she returns.

Ambivalent Attachment (secure-resistant): The child is wary about the situation in general and the stranger in particular. He or she will stay close or cling to the mother rather than exploring and playing with the toys. When the mother leaves, the child is extremely upset and is ambivalent when she returns.

Avoidant Attachment (secure-avoidant): The child will avoid or ignore the mother and show little emotion when the mother leaves or return. He or she may run away from the mother when she approaches. The child will not explore very much regardless of who is there, and the stranger may not be treated very differently from the mother.

Disorganized Attachment: The child seems to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the strange situation. He or she may cry when the mother leaves but avoid the mother when she returns. Or the child may approach the mother but then freeze or fall to the floor.
What are Piaget's 4 stages of cognitive development? Give the age range and the stage attainments of each stage.
1) Sensorimotor: Birth - 2 years. Object permanence
-The child experiences the world through the fundamental senses of seeing, hearing, touch, and tasting.

2) Preoperational: 2-7 years. Theory of mind, rapid language ability increases.
-Children acquire the ability to internally represent the world through language and mental imagery. They also start to see the world from other people's perspectives (Theory of Mind).

3) Concrete Operational. 7-11 years. Conservation.
-Children become able to think logically. They can increasingly perform operation on objects that are only imagined.

4) Formal Operational. 11 years - adulthood. Abstract logic.
-Adolescents can think systematically, can reason about abstract concepts, and can understand ethics and scientific reasoning.
WA Set 8 - How do self-monitoring and self-perception differ? Which of these factors has more influence on cognitive dissonance?
Self-monitoring refers to the ability to change how you behave to reflect the social scene.
Whereas Self-perception is how our actions help us determine our thoughts and emotions. Acting in a manner that we perceive as being counter to our attributed internal qualities can create cognitive dissonance, a feeling of discomfort resulting from disagreements in self-perception, and cause a change in behavior.
(Ch. 10) In Schachter and Singer's classic experiment, participants were injected with epinephrine and either informed or not informed about the drug's effects. Participants were later asked to rate their own emotional states. Which alternative below correctly names and identifies a variable in this experiment?
independent variable-whether participants were informed about epinephrine's effects

Misattribution of Arousal, discussed on pg. 297, correct. A dependent variable is that which is dependent on the independent variable, in other words, what the experiment is used to determine the effect of the treatment. The dependent variable in this case was the subject's own emotional state.
Ch. 10) When blood pH becomes overly acidic, respiration and kidney function change to bring the acidity back to its normal pH level of 7.4. What does this process best exemplify?

discussed on pg 291, correct.
about as happy as he is now

income and happiness, which is discussed in your textbook starting on page 310.
(Ch. 10) Dewey just won the lottery-big-time. One year from now, he will likely be:
Hypothalamus - Pituitary - Adrenal

the HPA axis. This topic is discussed on page 302.
(Ch. 10) Which of the following correctly describes the parts of the HPA axis?
overweight BMI, which is discussed on page 315 in your textbook.
(Ch. 10) Natalie's BMI is 26. She is best described as:
alarm -> resistance -> exhaustion

general adaptation syndrome correct. This topic is discussed on page 301
(Ch. 10) Which of the following sequences correctly orders the stages of the general adaptation syndrome, from first to last?
• had less energy to perform a physical task.

emotion regulation in the Muraven, Tice, and Baumeister (1998) study, which is discussed on pages 307-308.
Ch. 10) Muraven, Tice, and Baumeister (1998) asked some of their participants to suppress their emotions while they watched a movie and other participants to increase their emotions while they watched a movie. Compared to a control condition, the people who either suppressed or increased their emotions
cognitive appraisal.

Secondary Emotions, discussed on pg. 292 and shown in Figure 10.2, correct.
(Ch. 10) In comparison to the basic emotions, the secondary emotions have more
(Ch. 10) According to the facial-feedback hypothesis,

facial feedback hypothesis, discussed on pg. 299 and in Figure 10.7,
our facial expressions may determine our emotional experience.
(Ch. 10) Which of the following defines affect?

affect, discussed on pg 290, correct
The experience of feeling or emotion
(Ch. 10) Which of the following describes the James-Lange theory of emotion?

James-Lange theory of emotion, discussed on pg. 296, correct.
Arousal leads to emotion

motivation, discussed on pg. 290, correct.
(Ch. 10) Dr. Schmidt studies the factors that activate and direct behavior toward an individual's goals. Dr. Schmidt studies:

hardiness correctly. This topic is discussed on page 309
(Ch. 10) When confronted with stressful events, Bobby keeps a positive outlook, does what he can to control the stressors, and tries to see the situation as a learning experience. Bobby is best described as:
tend-and-befriend; cortisol

fight-or-flight response and the tend-and-befriend response. This topic is discussed on page 305.
(Ch. 10) Consider the fight-or-flight and the tend-and-befriend responses to stress. Of the two, the __________ is healthier, because it is not associated with the release of the stress hormone _______.
neither valence, nor arousal

secondary emotions, discussed on pg. 293 and in figure 10.2, correct.
(Ch. 10) Fear and anger differ greatly in:
During adolescence, the limbic system, which is responsible for our emotional life, is faster to develop than other parts of brain, especially the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is responsible for reasoning, planning, and decision making and its development spans across adolescence into emerging adulthood
What areas of the in brain develop at different rates and are thought to be responsible for emotional instability and poor decision making among adolescents?
1. Identity diffusion status - individual does not have firm commitments regarding the issues in question and is not making progress toward them.

2. Foreclosure status - The individual has not engaged in any identity experimentation and has established an identity based on the choices or values of others.

3. Moratorium status - The individual is exploring various choices but has not yet made a clear commitment to any of them.

4. Identity-achievement status - The individual has attained a coherent and committed identity based on personal decisions.

(For reference, please see Table 6.4, p. 180)
What are the names of identity development stages described by James Marcia and how are they described?
-Emerging adulthood is a period usually between 18 and the middle or late 20s of individual's age, in between adolescence and early adulthood.

-It is a stage of identity exploration.

-Emerging adults often report that they are not longer adolescents, but are also not yet adults. Many emerging adults choose to postpone committing to adult responsibilities.

-Compared to adolescence, romantic relationships of emerging adulthood tend to be more emotionally and physically intimate and more serious. Emerging adult romantic relationships also tend to last longer.

-During adolescence, work is often aimed at making money, whereas during emerging adulthood, having a job is aimed at getting experience toward a future career path.

-Worldviews also change. Emerging adults want to reexamine beliefs they got from their parents and want to make their own values. They often explore just for the sake of exploring.
What age range is considered to be "emerging adulthood" and what are some characteristic features of this developmental stage? Describe some differences in the social life of emerging adult, as compared to adolescents.
Among things considered most important for entering adulthood are the notions of self-sufficiency, taking responsibility, making independent decisions and being financially independent.

Finding a long-term, "real" job
Moving away from the parents
Taking responsibilities, and initiatives, independent decisions, self sufficient
Someone may rely on you, either children or in a relationship
Adult attachment
Risky behaviors decrease
What is most important in helping one transition to adulthood?
At first, the alcohol consumption rises sharply from the age of 18, reaching its peak at around 20-21 years of age (more pronounced for males), and with the transition to young adulthood, the consumption decreases significantly.

Increased risk behavior going in from emerging adulthood into adulthood.
For girls/women: there is a peak at 18, then it decreases
For boys/men: there is a peak around 21 and then it decreases

less alcohol dependence in transitioning to young adults, and continues to decrease throughout life
According to the figures shown in class, what pattern do we see in alcohol consumption in emerging adulthood and progressing toward adulthood?
Individual often commit to adult role responsibilities, such as getting married, having a child, or pursuing a career. The degree of risk behavior decreases. There is a shift in developmental tasks. Individuals are often more concerned with finding someone to cultivate a meaningful relationship with and to feel a sense of closeness and belongingness with (see Erikson's developmental stages).

-commitment to adult responsibilities : marriage, parenthood, pursuit of a career (etc)
- risky behaviors decrease
- shift in developmental tasks (
Erikson (giving and receiving love)
What changes are typical for transition to early adulthood?
There are two dimensions that can characterize different attachment styles: level of avoidance and level of anxiety. A combination of their endpoints creates 4 different attachment styles:
1. Low avoidance, low anxiety - secure attachment style
2. Low avoidance, high anxiety - preoccupied attachment style
3. High avoidance, low anxiety - dismissing-avoidant attachment style
4. High avoidance, high anxiety - fearful-avoidant attachment style
What dimensions of attachment can we distinguish and what are attachment styles based on these dimensions?
1. authoritative - high demandingness, high responsiveness - parents have high expectancy and demands, set boundaries, but explain the rules and can be flexible
2. authoritarian - high demandingness, low responsiveness - parents have strict rules and expect obedience without providing any explanation of where the rules came from
3. permissive - make few demands and give little punishment, do not set boundaries and let children make their own rules
4. rejecting - neglecting - parents are undemanding and unresponsive overall
(for reference, see p. 184)
Can you describe different parenting styles based on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness?
Affect is the experience of feeling or emotion, which is a mental and physiological state that directs out attention and guides our behavior.
Affect is associated with what cognitive process, and how does the book describe that process?
Research has found that social support is essential for happiness and wellbeing, even in the wake of being diagnosed with a serious illness, whereas happy doesn't vary as a factor of wealth.
Which is more important to happiness: friends or money? Discuss.
Daily hassles are exactly that: minor issues that trouble each of us throughout each day adding to the stress we normally experience.
How does the book refer to the minor environmental stressors that besiege us throughout the day?
-Nonverbal communication is how we express ideas or emotions to others without using words.

-The Facial Feedback hypothesis suggests that when we physically express the appearance of an emotion, such as a smile, we also tend to experience the cognitive emotion as well.
Gestures, body positioning and facial expression are all aspects of what form of communication? How might smiling affect your mood?
The two-factor theory of emotion suggests that the physiological arousal is consistent across many emotions and requires a cognitive label to associate it with a specific feeling.
The two-factor theory of emotion
Arousal is associated with the sympathetic nervous system, part of the autonomic nervous system which controls fight or flight response.

The ANS is involved in arousal. When we feel experiences, our sympathetic system responds (heart pumping, pupils dilating etc).
The nervous system, specifically the two division of the ANS work to create a homeostasis.
Describe the nervous system associated with arousal.
Basal metabolic rate describes the amount of energy an individual expends when not exercising, and can have a profound impact on weight, depending on individual differences in that rate.

i.e. the lower it is the more difficult to manage weight, takes longer to metabolize food
What is the term that describes the energy expended by a body while at rest, and how does it influence weight?
Gay : 3-4 %
Lesbian : 1-2 %
Bisexual : 1%

• Homosexuality has been reported through the entire recorded history of humanity.

• love/sexual lives no different than heterosexuals, unless seen constrained by cultural norms
What percentage of the population is gay, lesbian and bisexual? For what span of time has homosexuality been reported in human historical records?
Testosterone in men, estrogen in women, though testosterone is also important in the female sex cycle.

Estrogen is found in women only, enabling women to develop for sexual activity and to experience sexual desire.
Testosterone is vital for men to perform sexually, for their penis to enlarge and to experience an orgasm. Testosterone is also important in women and is synthetically given when women lack it during menopause.
What are the major sex hormones for males and females?
It is the leading cause of death worldwide, and contributes to a large variety of health problems. It contributes to higher rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, sleep apnea, etc!

Genetics are partly to blame, but it is also due to overeating and a lack of physical activity.
Why is obesity such a concern for so many people? What causes it?
• Anorexia nervosa is characterized by unhealthily low body weight, fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image

• whereas Bulimia Nervosa involves binge eating followed by purging of the food.
Describe the difference between Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa.
Ovum => Zygote => Embryo => Fetus

An ovum is an unfertilized egg, which is released from the fallopian tube at ovulation.

A zygote is an egg, which has been fertilized by sperm, and once it attaches to the wall of the uterus the zygote is known as an embryo.

At the 9th week following conception, the embryo is considered a fetus.
Place the following words in chronological order: Fetus, zygote, ovum, embryo. Describe each, and describe each stage of human development.
Teratogens are substances that can cause damage to a fetus.

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy, and can result in abnormalities of the limbs, sex organs and mental retardation.
Describe teratogens. Describe an illness that can be attributed them, and the resulting symptoms.
Children like sugary foods at first, developing a taste for salt at 4 months. They also enjoy the smell and face of their own mother over those of other women.
Children are born with a variety of preferences, name a few.
Habituation is an organism's tendency to decrease response to familiar and repeated stimuli, and the habituation procedure involved presenting a stimulus to a child, waiting until he or she turns away, then removing and presenting the stimulus again until the child's attention to that object lessens.
A new stimulus is then presented, and if the child stares as it for a longer duration than it had stared at the previous object, then he or she is presumed to be able to tell the difference.
Describe habituation and how it can influence a child's development. Describe how the habituation procedure exemplifies this process.
Schemas are a way of describing how long term memory is organized;
patterns of info in LTM

-assimilation adds novel information to an existing schema,

-accommodation removes an idea from a schema once it becomes clear that two ideas are separate.
What is the term Jean Piaget used to describe how humans pattern knowledge as they mature, and how do assimilation and accommodation apply to it?
The sensorimotor stage ranges from birth until age 2 and involves the experience of the world through the basic senses. Preoperational stage occurs 2 to 7 years and children learn to use language and mental concepts to grasp the world, becoming aware of others. Concrete operational stage lasts from 7 to 11, and during this time logic and imagination become possible. Formal operational stage allows the child to engage in systematic thinking, reasoning and ethical considerations, and lasts until adulthood.
Piaget theorized four stages of development: Concrete operational, sensorimotor, preoperational and formal operational. Put these concepts in chronological order, describe their characteristics, and state the ages at which a child is expected to go through this stage.
Theory of mind is the ability to understand another person's opinions and consider their viewpoint; it develops during the preoperational stage (2.5 yeras, roughly around 4 years of age)
Describe the theory of mind. During which of Piaget's stages is this expected to develop?
• Your book defines self-concept as "a knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals."

• Essentially, it is the knowledge that we are real and unique individuals, and how we perceive ourselves in the world, socially, physically and intellectually.
Describe self-concept, and describe your own self-concept in a sentence or two.
• Females tend to reach puberty between 10 to 12 and experience menarche at around 12 or 13, whereas males begin the maturation process around 14 to 16.

• Early-developing boys will grow taller and stronger, and as a result achieve greater social success, in spite of being more likely to engaged in delinquent behavior.

•Girls who mature at a younger age are more likely to have emotional difficulties, including anxiety, depression and eating disorders, as well as a lower self-image.
Menarche is the term that describes a female's first menstrual period. At what age does it typically occur? For males, when do they typically enter puberty? What are the social and physical consequences for those who reach puberty outside biological norms?
Primary sex characteristics are the organs involved in reproduction,
i.e. uterus, testicles

Secondary sex characteristics aren't involved in reproduction, but still distinguish the two sexes.
i.e. pubic hair
Describe the difference between primary and secondary sex characteristics.
The longitudinal research design allows investigators to follow subjects over an extended periods of time, significant portions of a lifetime in some cases, and collect information from them throughout the timeframe, comparing new data to old from the SAME individual.
What research design is best for investigating the development of a child over time?
The strange situation is designed to increase a child's need for his or her parents by exposing them to a novel context in which the mother is first present in a room full of toys, then a strange enters to speak with the mother, then the mother leaves and the stranger stays in the room for a few minutes before the mother returns and the strange leaves.
What is the strange situation test?
A secure child can explore and feel safe while the mother is present.

An ambivalent child is wary in general, and disturbed when the mother leaves, but ambivalent when she returned.

An avoidant child ignores the mother, having no emotional response when the mother leaves or returns.

A disorganized child has an inconsistent response to the test, alternatively expressing traits from each of the other attachment styles.

What do they mean? May be a Significant predictor of the child later in life.
What are the four attachment styles used to describe the child's behaviors and what do they mean?
The pre-frontal cortex, responsible for sound decision making, is slower to develop than the emotionally-driven limbic system. Also, myelin, the fatty tissue that insulates neurons and aids in their conduction, is (not?) fully formed until after adolescence.
What neurological explanation is there for why youth engage in risky or dangerous activities?
Social identity is used to describe a person's sense of self as it relates to social groups, and how those social groups influence identity.
How does your social group define you as an individual? What term does Introduction to Psychology use to describe this concept?
Preconventional morality, present in young children, is a time when children focus on self-interest and self-involvement.

Conventional morality, present from 9 years of age on, is the time when situational ethics become a concern and social norms begin to be understood.

Post-Conventional Morality - abstract reasoning to explain moral behavior, self-chosen (yet usually universal) ethical principles (i.e. justice, dignity, equality), many adults
What are Lawrence Kohlber's Stages of Moral Reasoning and how do they relate to age?
Carol Gillian has expressed concerns that it applies better to males than to females, as males tend to value social justice and individual rights while females tend to prefer assisting and caring for others. Whether you agree or disagree with this outlook, there is research that supports this critique (Jaffee & Hyde, 2000).
What is the most important critique of Lawrence Kohlber's Stages of Moral Reasoning? Why is it so, and do you agree?
Menopause is the time in a woman's life when the menstrual cycle ends, usually beginning around 50.
What term describes the end of the menstrual cycle? At what age does it usually occur?
A social clock is the culturally determined proper time to engage in certain major life events, such as childbirth or buying a car.

i.e. Any coming of age ceremony, such as Confirmation in Catholic families, is one example.
leaving the home and living on one's one
What is a social clock? Can you think of an example?
Denial: "I feel fine." "This can't be happening; not to me."

Anger: "Why me? It's not fair!" "Who is to blame?"

Bargaining: "Just let me live to see my children graduate." "I'd give my life savings if..."< /p>

Depression: "I'm so sad, why bother with anything?" "I'm going to die. What's the point?"

Acceptance: "I know my time has come; it's almost my time."
List the five phases of grief described by Elizabeth Kübler-Ross and a statement an individual working through that phase might make.
• Dementia is a form of illness that results in serious neurological atrophy and tends to afflict senior individuals.

• Alzheimer's disease is a slow acting form of dementia that degrades the memory, intelligence, emotions and motor abilities of the sufferer.
What is dementia? At what time of life is it likely to occur? Name and describe an example.
Social Psychology examines, investigates and predicts how we think, feel and act in regards to those around us, and how those people influence all of those facets.

The social situation describes the social environment, the people with whom we are interacting.
Social Psychology pertains to the study of what aspect of human nature? Name a term that describes the environment as relates to social psychology
Social cognition is a mechanism of human thought that allows us to predict the actions of both ourselves and of others.
Social cognition serves what role in the psychology of an individual?
Attitudes describe our enduring understanding of people and things.
What term describes our perceptions, judgments and evaluations of people or things?
Social norms are standards of behavior that are accepted and understood to be appropriate in social contexts.
i.e. binge drinking at college after a game

If you are doing this task alone in a room or dorm, then you are likely not engaging in any social norms, as they require the presence of others to meet that definition.
What are social norms, and how do they affect behavior? What social norms are you participating in as you respond to these questions?
Health, facial symmetry and average features have been experimentally shown to be more attractive than faces that don't possess these qualities around the world. Thinness, however, may be an example of a culturally learned preference.

Baby-faced people : large foreheard, large and widely spaced eyes, high & prominant cheek bones etc..
Young = healthier, more attractive
Symmetry = healthier
Average is prefered over unique/unusual looking

Thinness in Western Culture
What standards of attractiveness are found across cultures? What standards are culturally specific?
Stereotyping is the tendency to judge the internal, personality characteristics of people based on their external, physical characteristics. Physically attractive people have been shown to receive better grades, perform better at job interviews and to receive preferential treatment in court cases. Any number of inferences can be made on how appearance negatively affects those not possessing qualities of health, symmetry and average features.
Define stereotyping. How might stereotyping affect physically attractive people? Unattractive people?
Discrimination, negative behaviors towards individuals of an appearance or group membership disliked based on prejudice, can have many unfortunate consequences, including creating a self-fulfilling prophecy in which the individual suffering from discrimination will be forced to act in a manner confirming the prejudice based purely on the discrimination, rather than any internal tendencies.

Prejudice may cause discriminating behaviors such as racism or sexism.
These behaviors may be self-fulfilling prophecies, in that the perception of how we view others may change our behavior towards them, and then in turn their behaviors are affected and change to make the stereotype true.
What behaviors are caused by prejudice? How can these behaviors create a self-fulfilling prophecy?
Social identity describes the positive aspects of group membership, as differentiated from stereotyping and prejudice.
What term is used to describe the positive experience and emotions we experience as part of group membership?
Mere exposure is the psychological effect by which individuals tend to prefer people or things they come in contact with frequently. Close relationships may start with the mere exposure effect, but are defined by interpersonal attraction, culminating in lengthy, intimate relationships.
What phenomenon does the term mere exposure describe? How does this relate to close relationships?
Causal attributions are the means by which we determine apparent causes for a person's behavior based on our observations of them, and the behavior can either be attributed to them, a person attribution, or to the environment, a situation attribution. It is possible to overlook situational effects on a person's behavior, and that make a fundamental attribution error (or correspondence bias).
Why is it important to make causal attributions? How can this process lead to incorrect beliefs? What term describes this effect?
Self-monitoring refers to the ability to change how you behave to reflect the social scene, whereas

Self-perception is how our actions help us determine our thoughts and emotions.

Acting in a manner that we perceive as being counter to our attributed internal qualities can create cognitive dissonance, a feeling of discomfort resulting from disagreements in self-perception, and cause a change in behavior.
How do self-monitoring and self-perception differ? Which of these factors has more influence on cognitive dissonance?
• Altruism is behavior that helps others, especially that which doesn't seem to benefit the person who engages in that behavior. Some of the things that can make engaging in altruistic behavior more likely are: Positive mood, similarity- of the person needing help, in terms of appearance and personality, to the person helping-, guilt, empathy, benefits- specifically feeling good about yourself afterward-, personal responsibility- if it's clear others aren't helping-, and self-presentation- if it shows that you are a good person.

• Reciprocal altruism describes the concept that if we help people now, they will return the favor in the future.
What is altruism, and what are some factors known to increase it? Name and describe as many as you can. How might altruism help the person being altruistic in the future?
Diffusion of responsibility suggests that we assume someone else will take action, and so do nothing ourselves.

Conformity can interfere with reaction to emergency. They may suppose others are already on the scene, or
Being in groups makes people less likely to notice, properly interpret, or appropriately respond to an emergency. People try to understand the situation through others that they are with, and make false assumptions about what others may be thinking about the situation.
Why is that entire crowds of people can watch tragic events unfolding, such as someone being injured or killed in an accident, according to social psychology?
Catharsis can prevent acts of extreme violence by engaging in minor acts of aggression in the meantime.

Aggression - behavior where the intent is to harm another

constructive purposes for aggression : protection from attack of another, access to resources, setting status
What is aggression and what constructive purpose can it serve?
We conform to be liked by others (normative conformity) and because we believe others know more than we do (informational conformity). Conforming behaviors can be increased by number in the majority and the presence of those of high status or authority, and decreased by an already existing lack of conformity.

Factors to greater conformity : low self esteem, loyalty to a group,
What are two types of conformity, and what are some factors that lead to greater conformity?
A subject recruited as a 'teacher' was instructed to administer shocks to a confederate of the experimenters every time a learning task was unsuccessfully performed. In fact, the confederate would in fact play a serious of prerecorded audio responses to the 'shocks', and the experimenters would measure how long the 'teacher' was willing to administer those punishments for wrong answers. 65% of participants applied what they believed to be the maximum electrical shock under the urging of the experimenter. Milgram felt that this study revealed the power of legitimate authority to modify behavior.

Experiment with "teacher" (participant) who could shock learners
Experimenter acted as authoritative figure, and pressured a lot of people to think they were "shocking" someone even tot he point of death.
Social variables mattered too, if experimenter not there than less likely to be obedient, and if participant given more freedom to make rules => less obedient
Stanley Migram conducted a classic study that demonstrated the power of authority on the behavior. Describe that experiment and what it found.
-Social Facilitation describes when social pressures can assist performance, and Social Inhibition describes how such pressure can make performance worse; learned expertized determines which of these effects occurs.

-Social loafing occurs when people are in a group, and thus don't work as hard as they would if working alone.

-The things determine which of these we are more likely to engage in, are the expertise of each individual in the group as well as your own personal knowledge, the group's process ( the events that occur while a group is working on a task).
Describe social facilitation, inhibition and loafing. What things determine which of these we are more likely to engage in?
• When people of high expertize are in a group together, they may make poor decisions due to social conformity pressures and flawed group process.
i.e. cuban missile crisis, gw

• These pressures can cause juries to make decisions not in response to preponderance of evidence, but due to compulsion to conform.

• In the decisions of juries, the group process determines the decision of the jury, how they establish group norms, how they deliberate information and opinions. Conformity can also come into play when some jury members hold a dominant position within the jury itself and their opinion becomes the dominant response.
What phenomenon does groupthink describe? How can this effect the decisions of juries?
• High-stakes lying is associated with fleeting facial expressions of fear and disgust. These are examples of physiological arousal that our body does to cope with our subconscious belief that what we are doing is unethical or wrong. It is almost like we know that lying is bad and our body gives us away and is disgusted with our own behavior.

• The man without the glasses was lying, there was evidence of disgust and fear in his facial expressions.

• other characteristics : eye movement, over compensation with an elaborate story, or cliche details, defensiveness, etc.
What is an example of a characteristic of high-stakes lying that can help us distinguish whether someone is lying or not? Which man in the videos was lying, the man with glasses or the man without glasses?
Stage 1: General alarm reaction- The first reaction to stress, the body releases stress hormones, including cortisol.

Stage 2: Resistance- After a period of chronic stress the body adapts to the ongoing threat and tries to return to its normal functions. Glucose levels increases to sustain energy, and blood pressure increases.

Stage 3: Exhaustion- In this stage, the body has run out of its reserves of energy and immunity. Blood sugar levels decrease, leading to decreased stress tolerance, progressive mental and physical exhaustion, illness, and collapse. The body's organs begin to fail, and eventually illness or death occurs.
What are the three stages of physiological stress response? Describe each phase.
Positive emotion, which is broader than "happiness."
Engagement (in one's life and activities)

For more details, you can see the article linked on the slide show.
Martin Seligman now proposes that optimal functioning is achieved not with an emphasis on "happiness," but on the factors summed up in the acronym, PERMA. What are these factors?
Rozin and colleagues recruited 4 individuals who had brain damage, two of whom had profound memory disturbance (they basically had no short-term memory). All participants were asked to rate their hunger. They were offered a meal, and they rated their hunger again. After about a 30-minute break, this procedure was repeated two more times, for a total of up to 3 meals in a 2-hour period, over 3 days.

The researchers found that the participants with intact memories behaved as we'd expect: they were less hungry after the meal, and they refused a second meal (a third wasn't offered). However, the two participants with short-term memory loss did not systematically rate their hunger lower after the meal, and they accepted all three meals, all three days.

Although there were aspects of the data that are a bit messy, they were largely consistent with the hypothesis that eating and hunger are profoundly influenced by memory: we eat and are hungry (in part, at least) based on our memory of our most-recent meal.
Rozin and colleagues conducted a study to examine the relationship between eating, hunger, and memory. What was the research procedure? Who were the participants? And what were the results?
• A Longitudinal study is an observational study that involves repeated observations of the same variables and the same individuals over long periods of time. They are especially beneficial for studying the effects of variables over the life span or generations.

• A cross-sectional study recruits participants of different ages, measures them on the same variables, and looks for differences that might then suggest change over time. It is sensitive to cohort effects, which are factors that people of the same age may share, which make them distinct and impossible to really compare with others.

• A confound is any factor that obscures the relationship between the independent and the dependent variables (in an experimental design). As a result, it makes it impossible to draw any firm conclusions about the effect of the experimental manipulation.
Define the terms, longitudinal study, cross-sectional study, cohort effects and confound.

The fetal stage of development, which is covered on page 162. The zygotic stage occurs immediately after conception, followed by the embryonic stage. The neonatal stage begins when a child is born.
(Ch. 6) Harriet is pregnant. Her developing baby is moving and sleeping. It is developing the ability to breathe and swallow. Harriet's baby is in the _________ period of prenatal development.
does not yet understand conservation.

conservation, discussed on pg.171, correct.
(Ch. 6) Mr. Eseston asks Colin if he wants his sandwich in one piece, or cut into two pieces. Colin asks her to keep it in one piece because he isn't hungry enough to eat two pieces. Colin's answer suggests that he
authoritarian; authoritative

parenting styles, discussed on pg. 184, correct.
(Ch. 6) Hailey's parents demand her strict obedience; "backtalk" is not tolerated. Isabella's parents are firm as well, but are more likely to reason with her and explain the consequences of her behavior. In terms of the parenting styles discussed in your text, Hailey's parents are _________; Isabella's are __________.
assimilation; accommodation

assimilation and accommodation, which is covered on pages 169-170. During assimilation, an individual uses an existing schema to understand new information. Accommodation involves the change of an existing schema due to new information. When a child understands the principle of conservation, s/he understands that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily indicate that the quantity of the object has changed.
(Ch. 6) According to Piaget, the process of fitting new experiences into existing schemata is called _________, whereas the process of changing or modifying existing schemata to make sense of new experiences is called ________.
cohort effect, discussed on pg. 176. Cohort effects are actually a confound for cross-sectional research designs, which are often used as an alternative to longitudinal research designs, as they don't requires such long-term commitment from the researcher.
(Ch. 6) In a cross sectional research design the people at different ages were also born in different years. This fact makes comparing across ages difficult. Which of the following refers to this problem?

attachment, discussed on pg. 173 and in Figure 6.7, correct.
(Ch. 6) Psychologists use the term __________ to refer the emotional bonds we develop with those to whom we feel closest.
rooting; locate food

survival reflexes in newborns, which is covered on page 165 in Table 6.2.
(Ch. 6) Baby Hannah automatically turns her head in the direction of a touch on the cheek. This is the ________ reflex; it helps an infant to _________.
18 months; oral-sensory stage

Piaget's stages of cognitive development, which is covered on pages 169-172, including Table 6.3.
(Ch. 6) Which age below is INCORRECTLY labeled with a developmental stage, in Piaget's theory?

operational definition - precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable

operational definition of "paying attention." When a researcher identifies an operational definition of a construct, s/he is clarifying that the construct is defined by the operations used to measure the construct. In this instance, an infant's heart rate is the measure by which "paying attention" is defined. Operational definitions are discussed on page 33.
(Ch. 6) In its discussion of habituation, your text notes that when infants pay attention to a stimulus, their heart rate Increased heart rate may therefore serve as a(n) _________ definition of "paying attention."
a general sense of mistrust

Erikson's oral-sensory stage, which is covered on page 160. During this stage, the key challenge is to resolve the trust vs. mistrust conflict or challenge. Positive resolution of this developmentally "normal" stage is for the infant to develop a feeling of trust in his or her caregivers. According to Erikson, this stage occurs from birth until approximately 12 to 18 months of age.
(Ch. 6) Bonnie is 3 months old and her parents inconsistently attend to her. Sometimes they are very attentive, feeding her promptly when she cries and comforting her when she seems upset. Other times, Bonnie cries for a long time before her parents attend to her. Based on Erikson's theory, it is likely that Bonnie will develop:
zygote ->embryo ->fetus

development from conception to birth, which is covered on pages 161-164.
(Ch. 6) Which of the following sequences accurately reflects the order of development from conception to birth?
external consequences
i.e. punishment/reward

Lawrence Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Reasoning, discussed on pg. 182 and on Table 6.5, correct.
(Ch. 6) According to Kohlberg, moral decisions at the preconventional level are based on

strange situation, discussed on pg. 174 and in Figure 6.8. The strange situation refers to a specific test script in which children are exposed to possibly anxiety provoking situations in novel environments. Avoidant, Ambivalent, Disorganized and Secure are all ways to describe the response of children to this experience.
(Ch. 6) Which attachment style describes an infant who is mildly disturbed at his mother's departure in the strange situation, but who is easily soothed on her return?
aging, discussed on pg. 188 and Figure 6.12.

Aging with grace is dependent upon positive outlooks on age itself, at least to a degree.

While good expectations may have some determination on how long an individual can live, it's not the most powerful determinant in the equation. Other factors, such as overall health and genetic predisposition, play a much larger role.
(Ch. 6) Which of the following is the correlation coefficient one would most likely find between life expectancy and scores on a measure of positive self-perceptions of aging?

cognitive development in adolescence, discussed on pg. 179, correctly.
(Ch. 6) During adolescence, brain development proceeds relatively slowly in the _______ lobe, a region implicated in self-regulation.
Social psychology is scientific study of how we feel about, think about, and behave toward the other people around us, and how those people influence our thoughts, feelings, and behavior.

The three main areas of social-psychological study are:

Social cognition - the part of human thinking that helps us understand and predict the behavior of ourselves and others

Attitudes - our enduring evaluations of people or things

Social norms - the accepted beliefs about what we do or what we should do in particular situations
What is social psychology as defined by Charles Stangor, what are the three main areas of its research, and how are these described?
Mischel proposed that behavior was predictable when EITHER personality or the situation is strong, but not when both are. Also, behavior will be least predictable when both personality and the situation are weak.
Walter Mischel proposed that social behavior can be analyzed as being a function of the interplay between personality characteristics and social situations. He also proposed that both of these could be described as "weak" or "strong."

This can be used to define a sort of theoretical space with personality on the vertical axis and social situation on the horizontal axis. Draw that (on a piece of paper) and explain how the predictability of behavior will vary depending on the zone of the space (in other words, when personality is weak but the situation is strong, or vice versa; or when both are weak or strong).
More visits were associated with higher likability ratings. This is evidence of the mere-exposure effect: the tendency to like things more when we are exposed to them more often. See figure 14.5, but note that the labels for each axis are switched.
The textbook describes a study where a research confederate made either 0, 5, 10, or 15 visits to a classroom during the course of a semester. Students taking the class then rated the confederate's likability. What was the result, and what principle does this illustrate?
People prefer the mirror image of their face -- the one seen in a mirror. This is another example of the mere-exposure effect at work. We see that version far more often than even photographs.
People tend to prefer a particular 'version' of their own face. Which one, and why?
Bem & Bem's self-perception theory proposes that we rely on our own behavior to determine our own thoughts, feelings, and attitudes. In the experiment by Wells and Petty, participants all read a newspaper editorial. Half were instructed to nod their heads up and down, the other half, to shake it side to side. Then their level of agreement with the editorial's position was measured. Nodders agreed with it significantly more than shakers.

An outcome of getting somebody to do you a favor is that they may like you more as a result. Why? Because they will need to explain to themselves why they are doing you favors: it must be because they like you, right?
Explain self-perception theory, and how it was demonstrated in an experiment where participants read an editorial. And also, what might it have to do with the effect of getting somebody to do you a favor?
Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a measure designed to detect individual's associations between mental objects in memory. It is used to asses implicit prejudice, i.e. a type of prejudice that the individual is not aware of, and its strength is in getting around social desirability bias of classic explicit measures, such as questionnaires.
Individual is supposed to sort words into two categories that appear on each side of the screen, e.g. pleasant words (good, nice) to category Pleasant and unpleasant words (bad, death) to category Unpleasant. Next task might be sorting pictures of Whites to category White and pictures of Blacks to category Black. Then, the categories and words would be combined, such as Unpleasant/White, Pleasant/Black, and after that, Pleasant/White, Unpleasant/Black. The measure of implicit prejudice is the speed of answering and the number of errors (miscategorizing).
See IAT:
What is Implicit Association Test and what is the rationale behind its measure?
Each of these psychological theories has been discredited in the modern age, and is no longer considered a legitimate predictor of personality.

Phrenology suggested the bumps on a person's head could determine their personality traits in great detail.

Somatology proposed personality could be determined by body types, Ectomorph, Mesomorph and Endomorph.
(Ectomorph - thinner=> more introverted , Endomorph - Thicker => more assertive/bold, Mesomorph)

Physiognomy suggested that facial characteristics could determine personal attributes.
The psychological theories of phrenology, somatology and physiognomy have what in common? Describe each of them.
Nisbett and colleagues determined that we're more likely to attribute a greater number of consistent traits to others than we do to ourselves.
Is the person you sit next to in class Energetic, Relaxed or does it depend on the situation? What about yourself? What did researcher Richard Nisbett and his colleagues determine about trait attribution for yourself and others?
The Barnum effect describes the tendency of people to believe in descriptions of traits that they're led to believe apply to them, but in fact could apply to anyone.

i.e. The astrological signs are a perfect example, with descriptions so vague that the personal attributions could apply to any individual, but because they're associated with a particular time of birth, we're led to believe they apply only to us.
Based on the Barnum effect, what is one logical explanation of why people find horoscopes, fortune telling and other concepts that prescribe traits to individuals? Describe the Barnum effect.
• Projective measures ask the participant to make observe an unstructured and supposedly meaningless stimulus and describe what comes to mind.

• The Rorschach inkblot test uses 10 symmetrical inkblots in which the subject describes what he or she sees as a way to predict personality.

• The TAT, on the other hand, asks the participant to write a short stories about ambiguous sketches.
How do projective personality measures work? In particular, how do the Rorschach test and the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) utilize this measure to describe personality?
Freud, one of the founders of the psychodynamic approach to psychology, proposed three competing components that interact to create personality:
-the id, an unconscious motive force driven by the pleasure principle,
-the ego, the self and the decision maker, and the
-super ego, a mental component driven by morality and social consciousness.
Describe the id, the ego and the superego, and how they relate to psychodynamic psychology. Under which of these divisions does the pleasure principle reside?
Oral- Birth to 18 months: Pleasure comes from putting things in the mouth.

Anal- 18 months to 3 years: Pleasure comes from defecation and urination.

Phallic- 3 years to 6 years: Pleasure comes from the genitals, and sexual attraction to the parent of the opposite sex creates conflict.

Latency- 6 years to puberty: Sexual feelings become less central to personality for a time.

Genital- puberty and older: mature sexual orientation, if development has been normal until this point.
Put Freud's stages of psychosexual development in order, list the age at which they occur, and describe each: Phallic, Genital, Latency, Oral and Anal.
• In addition to the personal unconscious, the collective unconsciousness is a storehouse of shared cultural, ancestral memories. Within the collective unconsciousness dwell archetypes, multicultural symbols that are universal to all of us.

i.e. mother, the hero, the goddess, mandala/circle = wholeness & unity
Carl Jung is an important neo-Freudian theorist; describe his belief in the collective unconsciousness, how it relates to the personal unconsciousness and what role archetypes play in this theory.
The hierarchy of needs describes the motivations that propel us to act every day of our lives, from the most basic for survival to the most essential to self-esteem:

What is Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Arrange the following in order from bottom to top: Love/belonging, Esteem, Physiological, Self-actualization and safety.
• Self-actualization is an internal need to live up to the fullness of our personal potential
• people who achieve self-actualization have more peak experiences, moments of clarity and transcendence typified by a feeling of connectedness with others.

i.e. Self actualized people : gandhi, Einstein, hellen Keller- believed to be creative, spontaneious, productive, successful, have more real versus superficial friendships, confident in thoughts/beliefs and not swayed easily, more likely to have 'peak experiences' (sublime moments of calmness followed by a strong sense of connection to others)
Define self-actualization and the benefits associated with it.
• Humans, as a species, have 99% identical genetics.

•Instincts are inborn behaviors strongly influenced by your genetics that aid in survival and reproduction.
What percentage of your genes, approximately, are exactly the same as those of the person who sits next to you in class? How do your genetics relate to instinct?
• Behavioral genetics examines how behavior is effected by our genetics by comparing our traits with our biologically and nonbiologically related family members.

• In family studies, a trait of interest is examined throughout an entire family tree to determine if it might be inherited; this is far from a certain study, however, as environment, not just genetics, may play a role in trait development.

• Twin studies compare twins, both identical and fraternal, to determine the degree to which they possess the same traits; however, this still doesn't take environment into account.

• Adoption studies, however, account for environment by examining siblings or twins that have been raised in separate households and determining the degree to which they possess the same traits; this accounts for the failings in the previous study types, as the environment is different for the related individuals, and only the genetics are constant.

• All these studies point to genetics as being a great influence on behavior, but not the sole influence. The environment (measured finally in adoption studies) as well as random experiences influence behavior as well.
Define behavioral genetics and describe three important studies that are commonly done by those interested in this field: family, twin and adoption studies. What do these studies tell us about the relationship between genetics and behavior.
Using genetic manipulation, researchers are able to remove a key gene from a line of knockout mice, who are then examined to see whether their behavior is altered as a result of the loss of that gene. This is a form of molecular genetics, which attempts to understand behavior as a function of the genetic code.
What is a knock-out study and how does it relate to molecular genetics?
• Self-efficacy is an individual's ability to create change within their immediate environment.
• Group efficacy is a similar concept that refers to the area of control a group has.

• Individuals may perceive the environmental crisis as something that can only be dealt with as a group through collective action, rather than as individuals, and thus inhibit personal action.
How does self-efficacy differ from group efficacy? Why might perceptions of group efficacy impede action regarding climate change?
• The paper intends to challenge the outlook that raising fears about the threat to the environment may actually hamper attempts to save it.

• After reading several papers, it should be clear that the purpose of an article is always stated in the Introduction, and usually in the first sentence of the Abstract.
What is the key aim of this paper (BB3)? Which section of a typical paper- Introduction, Methods, Results or Discussion- would it be appropriate to state the purpose of the article?
The emotional experience of the threat to the group, as well as the group's apparent ability to solve the problem, constitute two subjective pathways that lead to communal action.

-fear (emotion-focused pathway)

-group efficacy (problem-focused pathway) (more effective if the problem seems collective and yet the group seems resourceful and better able to achieve their goal)
According to the dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage, what are the two causal pathways that lead to collective action?
• Emotion-focused coping deals with maintaining emotional regulation in the face of a fear-inducing situation.

• Problem-focused coping is based on the perception that group action can change reality in a positive direction.

• Avoidance coping is characterized by denying or minimalizing the problem, thus avoiding the emotional stress of the problem.
What is the difference between emotion-focused approach to problems and the problem-focused approach in the dual pathway model? How is avoidance-coping different?
Homburg and Stolberg (2006) showed through correlation that belief in group efficacy, but not self-efficacy, is associated with environmental behavior.

group-efficacy is more associated than self-efficacy with taking action to protect the environment, because the collective action will hopefully prompt the individual to not only think of themselves but of others and see the problem as more conquerable,
Are beliefs about self-efficacy or group efficacy more associated with taking action to protect the environment?
• The participants in both studies were University students that received required course credit for their participation in this study.

• This suggests that your research requirement not only benefits you, by giving you first hand exposure to the scientific method in action, but also could benefit society for generations to come by adding to our society's knowledge of psychological phenomena.
How are the participants in Experiments 1 and 2 similar to you and your classmates? What does this imply about your contribution to the wealth of scientific knowledge?
What was measured: the students' environmental intentions
looking more at how fear and self-efficacy are interrelated

Procedure : participants asked to take survey on perceptions of crisis, then read about crisis and either read about actions they could take or didnt

How it was scored : perceptions of crisis before reading material on it, then read material on it, then completing a brief and bogus survey after they read about the climate crisis, 7 point response scale - measured fear & anger on crisis, whether they would take action, group efficacy beliefs, and intentions

2 Experimentally manipulated conditions : 1) whether they read about the crisis in a negative way or not
2) whether they read about actions (self efficacy instructions) to take or not (no self efficacy condition)
Describe the procedure of Experiment 1 in broad terms, including what was measured and how it was scored. There were two experimentally manipulated conditions in Experiment 1: name or describe them.
• Experimentally manipulated Fear did not significantly motivate self-efficacy, but was associated with greater beliefs in group efficacy and intent to act to protect the environment
• manipulated self-efficacy did not change fear scores or group efficacy beliefs.

• Because perceptions of group efficacy were not manipulated, making causal inferences of the effect of those beliefs on environmental protection action is not possible.
• Fear and self-efficacy scores were correlated, and thus varied together, suggesting that the two scores may interact with each other in some way, with score on one predicting the score on the other.

• Basically :
-self efficacy beliefs - didn't effect fear or group efficacy beliefs
-results did not correspond with hypothesis that predicted a two-way path between fear and self-efficacy beliefs
What did Experiment 1 find? What are some of its limitations?
- Choose effective communicators

-Consider the goals of the listener

-Use humor

-Use classical conditioning

-Make use of the listener's emotions

-Use the listener's behavior to modify his or her attitude

See Table 14.2 in the textbook or on the slide show for examples
What are some of the factors associated with making a message more persuasive?
Emergency --> Notice the event --> Interpret the event as an emergency --> Assume responsibility --> Know appropriate form of assistance --> Provide help
Darley and Latane, in seeking to understand the brutal murder of Kitty Genovese, conducted many experiements on the nature of helping behavior. What is the series of events that make it most likely that a person will give aid to one in distress?
In this study, college students wrote an ESSAY that was given a very low grade, which served to make them angry. Then half of the participants were allowed to "VENT" their anger by hitting a PUNCHING BAG. They all then played a VIDEO GAME, supposedly against somebody else. Upon winning a round of the game, they all had the chance to 'PUNISH' their opponent with a loud, obnoxious NOISE. The participants who 'vented' delivered a much louder punishment for significantly longer than those who did not hit the bag. This CONTRADICTS the catharsis HYPOTHESIS, suggesting that 'VENTING' only serves to make people behave with MORE AGGRESSION.

maybe better just to CALM down
Bushman, Baumeister, and Stack conducted experiments to test what's sometimes called the "catharsis hypothesis." This is the notion that aggression should be vented, lest it build up. What was the procedure and what were their findings?
Cognitive dissonance is the discomfort we feel when we behave in ways that we see as inappropriate. To justify the unpleasantness of a hazing, a new initiate may then come to value group membership even more highly, because being disappointed with the group at that point would make them feel like they had gone through all of that for nothing (or at least for not enough).

cognitive dissonance - when one's behavior is not in line with one's belief system
perhaps it explains behavior because people conform to behavior when they are being hazed, and try to make excuses to be in a group at all costs, merely for the sense of belonging or entitlement.
Explain the concept of cognitive dissonance, and how it might help us understand the pervasiveness of hazing.
See Figure 14.10, and the slide show. Men from the south responded to the insult with more aggression, as well as a rise in cortisol and testosterone. This has been interpreted as evidence for the impact of the "culture of honor," where a man's reputation for toughness cannot be challenged (and if it is, the challenge must be addressed). This is believed to be the result of the south's history as a pastoral-agricultural economy, where men must tend flocks or herds over a large tract of land, making it impossible to physically guard them all. For this reason, it is important to develop a reputation for toughness, which will fend off potential thieves.
The textbook reviewed research by Cohen, Nisbett, Bowdle, & Schwartz, where male college students from either the south or the north were insulted (or not). Their aggressiveness and other factors were measured. What were the other factors, what was the result, and what might explain the north-south difference?
• Milgram didn't use any of the major designs; it could be said that it was a Demonstration.

• It wasn't an experiment because there was NO true INDEPENDENT variable.

• It wasn't a quasi-experiment because there was NO CHARACTERISTIC that categorized participants into groups.

• It wasn't correlational, because there WEREN'T 2 CONTINUOUS VARIABLES being measured (ONLY ONE: the degree of shock delivered).

• Finally, it wasn't a case study because it did NOT provide very 'thick' DESCRIPTION of the research volunteers, who were drawn from a general population.
What was the research design for Milgram's obedience studies? And why? In your response, explain your answer, and explain the characteristics of the major options (experiment, quasi-experiment, correlational study, or case report).
There are several factors.

• First, this may show the GAP between what people PREDICT they would do, and what, in fact, they are LIKELY to do in a SITUATION.

• Second, it may be a SOCIAL-DESIRABILITY BIAS, as (even though the question was anonymous), people may be RELUCTANT to report their true opinion.

• It could also be what's known as the FALSE-UNIQUENESS EFFECT, which is our TENDENCY to IMAGINE ourselves as being especially IMMUNE to SOCIAL pressure and SITUATIONAL demands.
When asked to estimate how much (fake) shock you would administer, if you found yourself to be a participant in Milgram's study on obedience, the distribution was rather different than what was actually seen in the study. What might explain this discrepancy?
• See Figure 14.15. The physiological arousal most people feel in the presence of others (for example, while taking a test) will enhance the 'dominant' response to challenge (things like test questions).

• As a result, when at all under-prepared, this tends to create unhelpful reactions that lead to an exam result that is lower than might have been true had the test been administered to the student in a room alone; this is known as social inhibition.

• But when well prepared, the dominant response is likely to be enhanced performance -- better than would be expected if the test-taker was alone. This is social facilitation.
Explain how social facilitation helps us understand both under-performance and over-performance in high-stakes testing situations.
• Group projects can be a set-up for social loafing, a group process loss that occurs when people do not work as hard in a group as they do when they are working alone. See Figure 14.6 for a graphic demonstration of this effect. Some solutions to social loafing are summarized in the slide show, on the slide titled, Minimizing Social Loafing.

• irresponsibility - everyone expects somebody else to do the job
stress - concern for others
high stakes & => no individual accountability
• how to minimize odds - feel responsibility in a good way, connected way "in it together", exclusion is painful
Why do group projects often seem to go poorly, and what can be done to minimize the odds of a bad outcome?
Janis proposed that Groupthink was the result of a too-insulated and too-cohesive group. See Figure 14.17. While it may describe what went on leading up to some highly publicized BAD decisions, other researchers have found that it is ALSO in evidence in organizational contexts where there was a POSITIVE outcome. In other words, Groupthink may have some unappealing aspects, but it does NOT SEEM to inevitably lead to disaster.

Groupthink - under certain pressing conditions and when working in a group, the negatives that arise : diffusion of irresponsibility, everybody thinks the other will do the work, lots of stress, leader takes over and makes decision may be good or bad
What is Groupthink, and what is known about the outcomes of organizational decisions where it was evident?
• Fundamental Attribution Error (also known as Correspondence Bias) is a general tendency to over-state the influence of personality and under-state the role of environment when making inferences (attributions) about someone else's behavior.
Can you describe the concept of Fundamental Attribution Error?
See Figure 11.9.
• Freud came to believe that behavior was influenced by intra-psychic conflict (or balance) between the
- Id (the pleasure principle),
- the Ego (reality) and
- the Superego (morality). Distress resulted from a lack of balance between the parts.

• He explained their behavior through the subconscious and repressed emotions, as well as a lot of influential contribution from early childhood sexual experiences.
• Structure of Personality : 3 terms : Id, Superego, and Ego. Like an iceburg - ego mostly on top, superego sticks out slightly and a lot underwater, and Id is all submerged
How did Freud attempt to explain the behavior in his patients? What was the structure of personality (or the psyche) that resulted from his clinical work?
• Heritability estimates will contain a term for the genetic contribution, the shared environment, and the unshared environment. The last of these accounts for the fact that even identical twins do not have identical experiences, even when raised in the same household.

• Fraternal vs. Identical - how much genes matter

• Shared Environment vs Non Shared

• Environment - how much enviro matters
Non-Environmental Factors (anything else that may contribute to their differences, i.e. unique situations)
In behavior-genetics research on twins, variability is broken out into three factors. What are they, and what do they tell us?
In her book, The Nurture Assumption, Harris challenged the notion that parenting has a sizable influence on children's personality once they reach adulthood. This is consistent with a good deal of the behavior-genetic evidence, for example, as seen on Table 11.6, the fact that general cognitive ability is estimated to be about 56% genetic, with the rest on the non-shared environment term. Harris' conclusions are not without critics, however, her writing has generated a sizable body of research.
In reviewing the evidence on how parenting influences adult behavior, what did Judith Rich Harris conclude?

Openness to experience
What are the dimensions used to describe personality in the "Big Five Model" and what is the common acronym of this model?
• Self-efficacy is one's sense of having the capacity to succeed. It's like "The Little Engine that Could," saying I think I can I think I can I think I can!

• Group Efficacy - refers to the belief that a relevant group is capable of action.

• As discussed in the research article on sustainability, people may have a sense of their own efficacy as well as a sense of collective or group efficacy.
What is meant by the term, self-efficacy? Also, what is the distinction between individual and collective self-efficacy?
• The researchers experimentally manipulated fear and individual self-efficacy.

• By comparing the numbers in the first two columns to the means in the second two columns, we can see that participants in the "Fear" condition reported higher levels of fear than those in the "No Fear" condition.

• Similarly, for self-efficacy, if you compare the first and third column (4.93 and 4.37), to the second and fourth (4.04 and 2.69), you see that self-efficacy was also successfully manipulated.

- people with fear message => more fearful
- self efficacy kind of worked
- dep variable measured - biggest effect with fear, but not mobilizing
Look at Table 1A in the sustainability article (van Zomeren, Spears, & Leach, 2010). Remember to disregard the numbers in the rows, SD, and concentrate on the means (labeled as "M"). Which numbers can be thought of as a manipulation check of the independent variables in this first experiment?
• The last row of numbers, 3.

• succeeded in manipulating variables.

• Environmental action intentions, provided support to the research hypothesis. This is because the level of intention was highest for participants who were both MADE AFRAID AND also exposed to a message that COLLECTIVE ACTION could help solve the climate crisis (5.18), compared to the other conditions (4.48, 4.59, and 3.95).
Look at Table 2A -- from the second experiment. Where do we see evidence that the researchers' hypothesis was supported?

discussed on pg. 328, correct.
(Ch. 11) Relatively enduring characteristics that influence behavior in many situations are termed _________.
Individualists; collectivists

personality traits, discussed on pg. 329 and in Table 11.1, correct.
(Ch. 11) ____________ act in ways to stand out from others. By contrast, _________ acts in ways to emphasize their similarity to others
CORRECT - A general appreciation for art, adventure, and experience

INCORRECT-> A tendency to experience positive emotions

RIGHT - the Five-Factor Model of Personality, discussed on pg. 330 and Table 11.2. Openness to experience is one of the traits that influence behavior in this theory.
(Ch. 11) Which of the following describes the Five-Factor model dimension of openness to experience?

Allport's levels of traits, discussed on pg. 330. Allport theorized three levels of traits: Cardinal, Central and Secondary.
(Ch. 11) An all-consuming need for power is sometimes known as Machiavellianism. Because the trait is named in his honor, it would be reasonable to suppose that the need for power was a ________ trait for the Italian prince.
Wrong - psychoticism


the Five-Factor Model, discussed on pg. 330 and Table 11.2
(Ch. 11) Which of the following is NOT one of the "Big Five" personality dimensions?
Barnum effect

discussed on pg. 333 and in Figure 11.4, correct.
(Ch. 11) Bernie faithfully dials 1-866-PSYCHIC when he faces a big decision or when he simply feels uncertain. He believes the prognostications of the "gifted advisor," even though the personality attributions are so vague that virtually anyone's experiences would confirm them. Bernie's example illustrates the _______ effect.

the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, discussed on pg. 334, correct
(Ch. 11) Dr. Abbott is an industrial/organizational psychologist. She is examining the relationships among scores on certain MMPI-2 scales and measures of job satisfaction in a particular industry. Dr. Abbott's work exemplifies _________ research.
id; superego

Freud's components of personality, discussed on pg. 339, correct.
(Ch. 11) Very broadly, nature is to nurture as the ____ is to the _____ in Freud's theory of personality.
defense mechanism

discussed on pg. 340. Defense mechanisms are how Freud theorized we avoid anxiety; this defense mechanism is Projection.
(Ch. 11) In order to protect herself from experiencing anxiety, Nancy is attributing her own unacceptable aggressive impulses to another individual. Nancy is using a:

Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development, discussed on pg. 341 and Table 11.5. Freud theorized that fixation on a certain point in one's development resulted in changes in personality.
(Ch. 11) In Freud's theory, developmental concerns that persist into adulthood and continue to influence personality are termed:
Unconscious processes contribute importantly to thought and behavior.

Freud's theory, discussed on pg. 338 and in Figure 11.8, correct.
(Ch. 11) Which of the following Freudian notions appears to have been supported in subsequent empirical research?

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, discussed on pg. 344 and in Figure 11.11, correct.
(Ch. 11) Humanistic psychologists suggest that people are consciously motivated to reach their maximum potential; that is, people have a fundamental drive toward self-:
The difference between how Julie sees herself and how she would like to be.

Self-discrepancies, discussed on pg. 345, correct.
(Ch. 11) Which of the following is an example of a self-concept discrepancy?
.40 - .50

twin studies, discussed on pg. 349 and in Table 11.6. The degree to which one twin have a particular personality trait predicts the degree to which the other twin will have that trait is between 43 and 52%.
(Ch. 11) Your text suggests that at most, the correlation coefficients for identical twins' scores on behavioral and personality measures are around:
attitude toward the moratorium

attitudes, which is discussed on page 429 and 439-441 in your textbook.
(Ch. 14) Mr. Muller has an unfavorable view of an offshore drilling moratorium enacted in the wake of a major oil rig explosion in the Gulf of Mexico. A social psychologist would most likely say that Mr. Muller has a(n):

preferences and perceiving others, which is discussed starting on page 430 in your textbook.
(Ch. 14) Which of the following physical characteristics DOES NOT seem to be preferred universally?
self-fulfilling prophecy

self-fulfilling prophecy, which is discussed on page 432.
(Ch. 14) In Juanita's community, girls are not expected to enjoy or excel at mathematics. Juanita's algebra grades drop. By the time she is a high-school junior, she in enrolled only in consumer mathematics courses. Which concept does Juanita's example BEST illustrate?
within seconds

forming judgements about people in seconds, discussed on page 433.
(Ch. 14) Research has found that we can form accurate impressions of another individual:
mere exposure

which is discussed on page 435.
(Ch. 14) We tend to like people we see again and again: Social psychologists refer to this phenomenon as the effect of ________.
The test was very hard

situational attribution, which occurs when we determine that a behavior is caused by a situation. This concept is discussed on page 438 in your textbook.
(Ch. 14) Which of the following reflect a situational attribution?
the self-serving attributions

'self-serving attribution' and this concept is discussed on page 438.
(Ch. 14) If we do well on a test, we say, "I got an A!" If we do poorly, we say, "She gave me an F." This best illustrates:
someone who waited 7 hours in the rain to get tickets

cognitive dissonance. This concept is discussed on page 440.
(Ch. 14) According to cognitive dissonance theory, which of the following individuals would be most likely to rate the same concert as enjoyable?
social responsibility norm

social responsibility norm, discussed on page 443.
(Ch. 14) "Help because it is the right thing to do." This is a definition of the

amygdala and prefrontal cortex activity in relation to aggression, which is discussed on page 445. Amygdala stimulation leads to aggressive behavior, while the prefrontal cortex serves to control aggression.
(Ch. 14) Activation of the amygdala and activation of the prefrontal cortex have ___________ effects on aggression.

which is discussed on page 447
(Ch. 14) Over time, people tend to show weaker responses to emotional stimuli. This tendency is termed ___________.
honor; South and West

culture of honor, discussed on page 447.
(Ch. 14) The social norm that condones responding to insults with aggression is termed the culture of _________; in the U. S., it is most prevalent in the ___________.
It would greatly reduce it.

Soloman Asch's (1955) research, which is discussed on page 449.
(Ch. 14) How might the presence of a single dissenter influence the degree of conformity seen in a study modeled on Asch's classic investigation?

person attributions in relation to Milgrim's (1974) research, which is discussed on page 450. Types of attributions are discussed starting on page 438.
(Ch. 14) On hearing you describe Milgram's results, your friend remarks that the participants must have been really weak-willed. This explanation of the participants' behavior reflects a _________ attribution for the behavior of the participants.
psychological reactance

psychological reactance, which is discussed on page 452. Psychological reactance is defined as a strong emotional reaction that leads people to resist conformity.
(Ch. 14) Joey's mom wants him to wear his rain boots to school today because it is raining. She nags him several times to take the boots but he argues that he doesn't need them. Finally Joey's mom says "OK, I don't care - don't wear the boots" after which Joey puts the boots on. Before his mom changed her mind, Joey was probably experiencing which of the following?

group process gain, which is discussed on page 456.
(Ch. 14) Charlene can stitch 40 shirts in a day, Toni can stitch 25 shirts in a day, and Harriet can stitch 60 shirts in a day. They are working together in a group, and there is a process gain in the group. How many shirts might they stitch in a day?
"I'm glad that we are again in agreement about this decision"

groupthink, which is discussed on page 457.
(Ch. 14) Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
social loafing

social loafing, discussed on page 456.
(Ch. 14) Your text states that "group members will work harder if they feel that their contributions to the group are known . . . ." Keeping group member contributions identifiable may therefore guard against: