the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
payment for damages after a war. As part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was ordered to pay fines to the Allies to repay the costs of the war. Opposed by the U.S., it quickly lead to a severe depression in Germany.
War Guilt Clause
a provision in the Treaty of Versailles by which Germany acknowledged that it alone was responsible for WWI
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
Led by Vladimir Lenin it was the Russian communist party that took over the Russian goverment during WWI
Vladimir Lenin: Leninism
Lenin's interpretation of Marxism. This included his belief that workers alone cannot organize a revolution; they need professional revolutionaries to give them a "shove" (inspiration), as well as his belief that sometimes a revolution must be slowed or reversed to ensure that power can be maintained by the proletariat. And finally, this made clear his belief that revolution can occur at any time, in any place, and not just in an advanced capitalist nation. This three points justified the need for Lenin and the Bolsheviks, the NEP, and all this occuring in Russia respectively.
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.
A system introduced under Bolshevik rule after 1917 which involved land being seized and redistributed, factories given to the workers, banks being nationalized, and church property being granted to the state. This was enforced by the Cheka. STRICT communism under Stalin. ultimately fails
New Economic Policy N.E.P.
set up by Lenin after his return, he temporarily put aside his plan for state-controlled economy. Small-scale capitalism. Allowed peasants to sell crops for profit, individuals to buy and sell goods, for the government to keep control of major industries, banks and means of communication, he also encouraged foreign investment. Communism mixed with capitalism. Way of easing into communism
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.) TerrorEnemies of stateAge of re-birthMobilize CultinizationLeaderIndoctrinationPropagandaState control
National Socialist German Workers Party [NAZIS]
Dominant German party of the 1930-39;s, through World War II - led by Adolph Hitler. The party believed in the superiority of the Aryan race, embracing biological determinism and the hierarchy of races. NAZI comes from the German pronunciation of the first two syllables in the word national.
Placed severe restrictions of Jews, prohibited from marrying non- Jews, attending schools or universities, holding government jobs, practicing law or medicine or publishing books.
Night of Broken Glass, Nov 9 1938 night when the Nazis killed or injured many jews & destroyed many jewish properties
General Francisco Franco
In 1936 the Spanish Civil War began. Franco led the Fascists, fighting republican forces. In 1939, the Fascist forces won (with help from Italy and Germany). Franco ruled until his death in 1975.
Pablo Picasso: Guernica
Guernica considered one of Picasso's (most significant artist of 20th century) greatest work. The mournful white, black and blue colors of the mural were inspired by the Spanish Civil War and the deadly terror bombing of Guernica by fascist planes in a single night. Picasso's cubist techniques heighten the terror of the complex work.
John Maynard Keynes: Keynsian Economics
Theory that states it's fine for a nation to spend more money than it has as long as it's for domestic improvement. Modern merchantilism
a New Deal-inspired party in France led by Léon Blum that encouraged the union movement and launched a far-reaching program of social reform, complete with paid vacations and a forty-hour work week; number of Communists in parliament jumped, Socialists (leon blum) gained control, radicals and conservatives lost ground; fell apart because rapid inflation and threat of revolution from fascists and conservatives; wealthy sneaked money out of country, labor unrest grew, and financial crisis returned; Spanish civil war also provoked dissension, Communists supported Spanish republicans, Conservatives supported Hitler and Mussolini in aiding Spanish fascists; extremism grew, civil war loomed, and BLum resigned in June 1937