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Endocrinology Lecture 2.1
First half of second lecture. Anterior Pituitary Gland
5 anterior pituitary cell types
Hypothalamus communication to Anterior Pituitary
Via hormones sent through portal vessel system.
Causes production of other hormones in Anterior Lobe
Produce Growth Hormone, which stimulates production of IGF-1 in Liver and other organs
Produce Prolactin, which stimulates production of milk in mammary glands. Inhibited by dopamine
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) causes production of ACTH, which ultimately results in production of cortisol in adrenal gland
Produce glycoproteins like FSH and LH that act on gonads
Produce TSH, which causes hormone production in Thyroid
Transcription factor necessary for transcription of ACTH and LH/FSH genes. Also essential for transcription of Pit1
Transcription factor for GH, PRL, and TSH
Transcriptionally regulated by Prop1
Three types of anterior pituitary hormones
Largest hormones known to date
TSH, FSH, LH, hCG(but placental, not pituitary)
Heterodimeric glycoproteins: all have same α subunit, but each has own β subunit
Pre-prohormone that is cleaved into several hormones, including ACTH
GH and PRL receptors
Both bind to Class 1 cytokine receptors: tyrosine kinase associated receptors.
Are very similar. GH can bind prolactin receptor, but not as strongly
Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
Loss of hormone: Many or just one
Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency
Mutation in GH gene or the receptor
Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
mutations that can affect multiple hormones, many times in Prop-1 NOT sydromic
Syndromic Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
Involves head development. Not prop-1 related
Overproduction of hormone, usually just one hormone because the tumor arises from one cell