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First half of second lecture. Anterior Pituitary Gland

5 anterior pituitary cell types


Hypothalamus communication to Anterior Pituitary

Via hormones sent through portal vessel system.
Causes production of other hormones in Anterior Lobe


Produce Growth Hormone, which stimulates production of IGF-1 in Liver and other organs


Produce Prolactin, which stimulates production of milk in mammary glands. Inhibited by dopamine


Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) causes production of ACTH, which ultimately results in production of cortisol in adrenal gland


Produce glycoproteins like FSH and LH that act on gonads


Produce TSH, which causes hormone production in Thyroid


Transcription factor necessary for transcription of ACTH and LH/FSH genes. Also essential for transcription of Pit1


Transcription factor for GH, PRL, and TSH
Transcriptionally regulated by Prop1

Three types of anterior pituitary hormones



Largest hormones known to date
TSH, FSH, LH, hCG(but placental, not pituitary)
Heterodimeric glycoproteins: all have same α subunit, but each has own β subunit


Pre-prohormone that is cleaved into several hormones, including ACTH

GH and PRL receptors

Both bind to Class 1 cytokine receptors: tyrosine kinase associated receptors.
Are very similar. GH can bind prolactin receptor, but not as strongly

Pituitary Hormone Deficiency

Loss of hormone: Many or just one

Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency

Mutation in GH gene or the receptor

Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency

mutations that can affect multiple hormones, many times in Prop-1 NOT sydromic

Syndromic Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency

Involves head development. Not prop-1 related

Pituitary Adenoma

Overproduction of hormone, usually just one hormone because the tumor arises from one cell

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