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18 terms

Endocrinology Lecture 2.1

First half of second lecture. Anterior Pituitary Gland
STUDY
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5 anterior pituitary cell types
Somatotrophs
Lactotrophs
Corticotrophs
Gonadotrophs
Thyrotrophs
Hypothalamus communication to Anterior Pituitary
Via hormones sent through portal vessel system.
Causes production of other hormones in Anterior Lobe
Somatotrophs
Produce Growth Hormone, which stimulates production of IGF-1 in Liver and other organs
Lactotrophs
Produce Prolactin, which stimulates production of milk in mammary glands. Inhibited by dopamine
Corticotrophs
Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) causes production of ACTH, which ultimately results in production of cortisol in adrenal gland
Gonadotropes
Produce glycoproteins like FSH and LH that act on gonads
Thyrotropes
Produce TSH, which causes hormone production in Thyroid
Prop1
Transcription factor necessary for transcription of ACTH and LH/FSH genes. Also essential for transcription of Pit1
Pit1
Transcription factor for GH, PRL, and TSH
Transcriptionally regulated by Prop1
Three types of anterior pituitary hormones
Glycoproteins
Proopiomelanocortin
GH/PRL
Glycoproteins
Largest hormones known to date
TSH, FSH, LH, hCG(but placental, not pituitary)
Heterodimeric glycoproteins: all have same α subunit, but each has own β subunit
POMC
preoopiomelanocortin
Pre-prohormone that is cleaved into several hormones, including ACTH
GH and PRL receptors
Both bind to Class 1 cytokine receptors: tyrosine kinase associated receptors.
Are very similar. GH can bind prolactin receptor, but not as strongly
Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
Loss of hormone: Many or just one
Isolated Growth Hormone Deficiency
Mutation in GH gene or the receptor
Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
mutations that can affect multiple hormones, many times in Prop-1 NOT sydromic
Syndromic Combined Pituitary Hormone Deficiency
Involves head development. Not prop-1 related
Pituitary Adenoma
Overproduction of hormone, usually just one hormone because the tumor arises from one cell