As of 2008, the average American generates about ________ pounds of solid waste per day.
4.4 9 40 1.5 13.7
What is the term that refers to the reduction of the amount of waste entering the waste stream?
recycling inventory liquidation source reduction
What are the goals of waste management?
disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery promoting mid-level managers to high-level managers to more effectively manage waste developing technology for more efficient incineration developing management training for supervisors of disposal companies
disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery
Of the following, the ________ demonstrated the greatest rate of increase in total municipal solid waste generated.
1970s 1990s 1960s 2000s 1980s
Which of the following represents the largest waste disposal practice in the United States?
recycling composting landfills incineration
he conversion of organic waste to mulch or humus usable for enriching soil by encouraging natural biological processes of decomposition in a controlled manner is called __________.
combustion compromising composting composition
Which of the following is an example of a product found in a "throwaway society," such as the United States?
reusable razor blades fine silverware paper napkins reusable cloth diapers
Why does the average U.S. citizen create more waste today than 50 years ago?
lack of landfill space higher rates of consumption lack of composting facilities high rates of recycling
higher rates of consumption
What prevents the contamination of groundwater in landfills?
locating them in layers of impermeable rock locating them below the water table locating them in deserts locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
What is one problem associated with the incineration of solid waste?
the volume of waste increases the waste is radioactive leachate the may contaminate groundwater hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
How is compost used?
It is used as animal feed. It is used to generate energy. It is used as building material. It is used to enrich soil.
It is used to enrich soil.
What incentive for recycling guarantees a refund to consumers?
"pay-as-you-throw" "glassphalt" MRFs bottle bills
Which type of analysis is performed by industrial ecologists when they examine a product from its beginning as a raw material until its disposal?
How can an engineered cover on landfills reduce decomposition of the trash?
The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash. The cover keeps the landfill moist on the inside, preventing decomposition. The cap prevents hawks and blue jays from decomposing the trash. The cover causes paper to bond to plastic in the landfill.
The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash.
What is the goal of an industrial ecologist?
reduce the waste in industrial systems to save endangered species to increase expenditures in industry in order to generate more landfill space to make industry more profitable regardless of environmental impact
reduce the waste in industrial systems
Deep inside landfills, bacteria decompose organic wastes in a low oxygen environment. This anaerobic decomposition results in a mix of gases called landfill gas, which consists of about 50% ________.
carbon monoxide argon hydrogen methane chlorine gas
The first bottle bills were ________.
designed to cut down on litter a consequence of landfill regulations initiated in the 1990s designed to provide incentives to industry designed to provide glass for road construction
designed to cut down on litter
The Fresh Kills Landfill ________.
will remain open until late 2020 was abandoned in the late 1970s site will be converted into a public park is the United States' first landfill conversion project is New York's first and only modern sanitary landfill
site will be converted into a public park
The earthworms, fungi, and bacteria in your compost pile will NOT be happy if you give them ________.
autumn leaves plastic grass clippings food scraps paper
The Trash Track project ________.
tells managers which items should be recycled measures the volume of various categories of municipal waste in various cities monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes allows cities to charge polluters who dump large volumes of trash monitors the amount of hazardous items in municipal waste
monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes
Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.
50 25 70 80 95
Industrial ecologists ________.
primarily analyze industrial inputs urge an emphasis on internal manufacturing costs rather than external costs favor an economy that moves linearly rather than circularly advocate for taxes on green industries redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
All of the following are considered to define types of hazardous waste except ________.
toxic reactive corrosive ignitable inert
Heavy metals ________.
bioaccumulate in animal tissues become less hazardous over time as they degrade chemically become less hazardous after incineration are unregulated by the U.S. government are not harmful unless they are directly ingested
bioaccumulate in animal tissues
Of the following, ________ are classified as hazardous heavy metals.
In the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics, the metals in the winners' medals were ________.
made partly from precious metals recovered from recycled e-waste recovered from local MRFs recovered from surface impoundments recovered from local landfills produced from mining wastes in Vancouver
made partly from precious metals recovered from recycled e-waste
Deep-well injection ________.
has been banned as unsafe by the Dept. of the Interior is a method of disposing of hazardous wastes in deep aquifers is a pool of strong acids on the land surface used for breaking down e-waste is the EPA-approved method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
Funding for superfund toxic waste sites ________.
is a portion of the EPA's budget is currently paid by polluting industries has been eased because the costs of cleanup have diminished is no longer necessary because by 2010 all sites had been cleaned and restored has become the responsibility of taxpayers since 2004
has become the responsibility of taxpayers since 2004
Which of the following types of hazardous waste are unstable and pose dangers when in contact with other compounds?
ignitable corrosive reactive toxic
Which of the following sectors produces the most hazardous waste?
industry residential grocery stores small businesses
Substances that degrade the metals that make up storage tanks or equipment are called __________.
Electronic devices die easily, so few of the devices thrown out in the United States could be reused. E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment. E-waste is biodegradable. There is no financial incentive to recycle e-waste.
E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.
What is a potential, and likely, drawback to the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes?
Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel. The wells tend to catch fire. Large buildings must be constructed to house these wells. It is hard to drill very deep into the ground.
Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel.
For the low-income nation category, calculate pounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day.
about 1.3 million pounds MSW per day about 3.1 million pounds MSW per day about 3.6 billion pounds MSW per day 1.316 x 1012 pounds MSW per day
about 3.6 billion pounds MSW per day
For the low-income category, calculate pounds of municipal solid waste per capita per day.
1,166,444 pounds MSW per capita per day 1.11 x 1013 pounds MSW per capita per day 1.11 x 1019 pounds MSW per capita per day 1.17 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.17 pounds MSW per capita per day
For the high-income nation category, calculate pounds MSW per capita per day.
2.64 pounds MSW per capita per day 1.76 x 1012 pounds MSW per capita per day 0.0013 pounds MSW per capita per day 2,639,000 pounds MSW per capita per day