Chapter 17

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Terms in this set (...)

As of 2008, the average American generates about ________ pounds of solid waste per day.

4.4
9
40
1.5
13.7
4.4
What is the term that refers to the reduction of the amount of waste entering the waste stream?

recycling
inventory
liquidation
source reduction
source reduction
What are the goals of waste management?

disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery
promoting mid-level managers to high-level managers to more effectively manage waste
developing technology for more efficient incineration
developing management training for supervisors of disposal companies
disposing of waste safely as well as effectively, minimizing the amount of waste generated, and increasing recovery
Of the following, the ________ demonstrated the greatest rate of increase in total municipal solid waste generated.

1970s
1990s
1960s
2000s
1980s
1980s
Which of the following represents the largest waste disposal practice in the United States?

recycling
composting
landfills
incineration
landfills
he conversion of organic waste to mulch or humus usable for enriching soil by encouraging natural biological processes of decomposition in a controlled manner is called __________.

combustion
compromising
composting
composition
composting
Which of the following is an example of a product found in a "throwaway society," such as the United States?

reusable razor blades
fine silverware
paper napkins
reusable cloth diapers
paper napkins
Why does the average U.S. citizen create more waste today than 50 years ago?

lack of landfill space
higher rates of consumption
lack of composting facilities
high rates of recycling
higher rates of consumption
What prevents the contamination of groundwater in landfills?

locating them in layers of impermeable rock
locating them below the water table
locating them in deserts
locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
locating them at least 6 meters above the water table
What is one problem associated with the incineration of solid waste?

the volume of waste increases
the waste is radioactive
leachate the may contaminate groundwater
hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
hazardous chemicals are often created and released into the atmosphere
How is compost used?

It is used as animal feed.
It is used to generate energy.
It is used as building material.
It is used to enrich soil.
It is used to enrich soil.
What incentive for recycling guarantees a refund to consumers?

"pay-as-you-throw"
"glassphalt"
MRFs
bottle bills
bottle bills
Which type of analysis is performed by industrial ecologists when they examine a product from its beginning as a raw material until its disposal?

life-cycle analysis
full-term analysis
reverse-engineering analysis
disposal-tracking analysis
life-cycle analysis
How can an engineered cover on landfills reduce decomposition of the trash?

The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash.
The cover keeps the landfill moist on the inside, preventing decomposition.
The cap prevents hawks and blue jays from decomposing the trash.
The cover causes paper to bond to plastic in the landfill.
The cover keeps the landfill dry, which decreases the ability of bacteria to decompose trash.
What is the goal of an industrial ecologist?

reduce the waste in industrial systems
to save endangered species
to increase expenditures in industry in order to generate more landfill space
to make industry more profitable regardless of environmental impact
reduce the waste in industrial systems
Deep inside landfills, bacteria decompose organic wastes in a low oxygen environment. This anaerobic decomposition results in a mix of gases called landfill gas, which consists of about 50% ________.

carbon monoxide
argon
hydrogen
methane
chlorine gas
methane
The first bottle bills were ________.

designed to cut down on litter
a consequence of landfill regulations
initiated in the 1990s
designed to provide incentives to industry
designed to provide glass for road construction
designed to cut down on litter
The Fresh Kills Landfill ________.

will remain open until late 2020
was abandoned in the late 1970s
site will be converted into a public park
is the United States' first landfill conversion project
is New York's first and only modern sanitary landfill
site will be converted into a public park
The earthworms, fungi, and bacteria in your compost pile will NOT be happy if you give them ________.

autumn leaves
plastic
grass clippings
food scraps
paper
plastic
The Trash Track project ________.

tells managers which items should be recycled
measures the volume of various categories of municipal waste in various cities
monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes
allows cities to charge polluters who dump large volumes of trash
monitors the amount of hazardous items in municipal waste
monitors the movement of trash items to improve efficiency of management processes
Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.

50
25
70
80
95
95
Industrial ecologists ________.

primarily analyze industrial inputs
urge an emphasis on internal manufacturing costs rather than external costs
favor an economy that moves linearly rather than circularly
advocate for taxes on green industries
redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
redesign industrial systems to minimize physical inefficiency and maximize economic efficiency
All of the following are considered to define types of hazardous waste except ________.

toxic
reactive
corrosive
ignitable
inert
inert
Heavy metals ________.

bioaccumulate in animal tissues
become less hazardous over time as they degrade chemically
become less hazardous after incineration
are unregulated by the U.S. government
are not harmful unless they are directly ingested
bioaccumulate in animal tissues
Of the following, ________ are classified as hazardous heavy metals.

nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
aluminum, iron, silicon
any non-biodegradable materials
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
lead, mercury, cadmium
lead, mercury, cadmium
In the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics, the metals in the winners' medals were ________.

made partly from precious metals recovered from recycled e-waste
recovered from local MRFs
recovered from surface impoundments
recovered from local landfills
produced from mining wastes in Vancouver
made partly from precious metals recovered from recycled e-waste
Deep-well injection ________.

has been banned as unsafe by the Dept. of the Interior
is a method of disposing of hazardous wastes in deep aquifers
is a pool of strong acids on the land surface used for breaking down e-waste
is the EPA-approved method of disposing of low-level radioactive wastes
injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
injects mostly liquid hazardous wastes into porous rock isolated by impervious clay deep beneath human water supplies
Funding for superfund toxic waste sites ________.

is a portion of the EPA's budget
is currently paid by polluting industries
has been eased because the costs of cleanup have diminished
is no longer necessary because by 2010 all sites had been cleaned and restored
has become the responsibility of taxpayers since 2004
has become the responsibility of taxpayers since 2004
Which of the following types of hazardous waste are unstable and pose dangers when in contact with other compounds?

ignitable
corrosive
reactive
toxic
reactive
Which of the following sectors produces the most hazardous waste?

industry
residential
grocery stores
small businesses
industry
Substances that degrade the metals that make up storage tanks or equipment are called __________.

toxics
corrosives
ignitables
alkaline caustic agents
corrosives
Which statement about e-waste is accurate?

Electronic devices die easily, so few of the devices thrown out in the United States could be reused.
E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.
E-waste is biodegradable.
There is no financial incentive to recycle e-waste.
E-waste contains toxic heavy metals that can leach into the environment.
What is a potential, and likely, drawback to the deep-well injection of hazardous wastes?

Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel.
The wells tend to catch fire.
Large buildings must be constructed to house these wells.
It is hard to drill very deep into the ground.
Well casings can corrode leaking hazardous waste into soil, rock, and gravel.
For the low-income nation category, calculate pounds of municipal solid waste (MSW) per day.

about 1.3 million pounds MSW per day
about 3.1 million pounds MSW per day
about 3.6 billion pounds MSW per day
1.316 x 1012 pounds MSW per day
about 3.6 billion pounds MSW per day
For the low-income category, calculate pounds of municipal solid waste per capita per day.

1,166,444 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.11 x 1013 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.11 x 1019 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.17 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.17 pounds MSW per capita per day
For the high-income nation category, calculate pounds MSW per capita per day.

2.64 pounds MSW per capita per day
1.76 x 1012 pounds MSW per capita per day
0.0013 pounds MSW per capita per day
2,639,000 pounds MSW per capita per day
2.64 pounds MSW per capita per day
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