39 terms

PreCollege Vocabulary: Archeology & Anthropology

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unearth
(An extremely valuable mural from the Ming dynasty was recently unearthed.)
(v) uncover
揭露
tradition
(Fifty children dressed in Han Dynasty (206 BC-AD 220) clothes attend a Rupan ceremony, a tradition honoring the beginning of school.)
(n) practice that has been handed down
传统
traditional
(Mehndi is a form of traditional body painting that Indian brides undergo for their wedding day.)
(adj) following a time-honored way of doing things
传统的
archeologist
(Archeologists have reported finding a new statue of the powerful Egyptian queen, Nefertiti.)
(n) expert who studies early people and the objects they left behind
考古学
trace
(On the teeth of Neanderthals, researchers have found traces of smoke from ancient fires, cooked grains, and even medicinal plants.)
(n) remains, evidence
踪迹
civilization
(The development of farming was important to the rise of modern civilization.)
(n) highly organized social order
文明
artifact
(A fondness for honey bees going back to ancient time is revealed in artifacts like Egyptian images of a bee goddess.)
(n) object produced by humans
人工制品
excavate
(In 2010, archaeologists excavated a site high in the Peruvian Andes and found traces of Ice Age settlements.)
v. dig, remove earth
挖掘
excavation
(The excavation had turned up many Native American artifacts.)
(n) digging to unearth artifacts or resources
挖掘
prehistoric
(The prehistoric paintings discovered in Southern France were hidden deep within caves.)
(adj) before written history
史前的
ancient
(Egypts Great Sphinx s is one of the most grand and well preserved of ancient monuments.)
(adj) very old; synonym: archaic
古老的
origin
(Scientists have finally traced the origin of Basque, a mysterious and musical language, to an isolated mountain village.)
(n) place where something begins
起源
originate in
(Ancient stories of unicorns and the magical properties of their horns originated in Europe.)
(v) first appear in
起源;最早出现
primitive
(For thousands of years, cooks have been baking flatbreads in the embers or on primitive wood-fired stoves.)
(adj) describing an early civilization
古老的
relic
(During the Iraqi war, thousands of valuable relics of ancient Mesopotamia were stolen from Baghad's National Museum.)
(n) a surviving trace of a culture or period that no longer exists; synonym: antiquity
遗址
ritual
(The Indian ritual of suttee, in which widows were burned alive along with their dead husband's bodies, was not outlawed until the 20th century.)
(n) religious ceremony
仪式
weaponry
(Stone Age, weaponry included a variety of axes made of wood and rock.)
(n) tools used for hunting or fighting
武器
anthropologist
(The anthropologist Margaret Mead argued that despite man's aggressive nature, war is a learned behavior and can be unlearned.)
(n) study of history & science of humankind or anthropology
人类学家
agriculture
(The development of agriculture made it possible to feed larger populations than was possible with hunting.)
(n) farming, growing crops; synonym: cultivation
农业
mound
( Native peoples used shells to create massive mounds to mark sites where rituals were carried out.)
(n) large rounded pile, i.e. of earth
高地;堆
utilitarian
(Although crafted for utilitarian purposes, this pottery displays the artistic talent of its creators, all of whom were slaves)
(adj) useful and practical rather than decorative
实用主义的
herd
(Farmers stayed out with their herds of sheep overnight to protect them from the storm.)
(n) group of animals,
(v) to control a group of animals
兽群
pastoral
(For centuries, Ethiopia's Afar people have lived pastoral lives, raising sheep, goats and camels in the stark desert.)
adj. describes societies based on herding; rural
田园生活的;乡村的
domesticate
(Cows, valued for meat, milk and hides, were among the first animals to be domesticated.)
(v) to tame, bring under human control
驯养
subsist
(Archaeologists have determined that early Syrian tribes subsisted off gazelles who migrated from the south every Spring.)
(v) to survive
生存;供养
subsistence
(Subsistence farmers in Chile's highlands must cope with the variable and unpredictable weather conditions.)
(n) means of surviving
(adj) describes farming that supports a single family
生存
settlement
(The building of new Israeli settlements in the West Bank has angered Palestinians.)
(n) small community of people
定居
settler
(Australia has 20 million wild cats, an invasive species, brought by European settlers.)
(n) someone who comes to live in a new region; synonym: colonist
定居者
inhabitant
(Inhabitants of the Mekong's thousands of islands depend on the river for their subsistence.)
(n) one lively permanently in a place
居民
ancestor
(Mei had never met her grandmother, but from her pictures, knew her ancestor must have been beautiful.)
(n) a relative who lived in the past
祖先
descendent
(It is estimated that there are 2.5 million descendents of the philosopher Confucius alive in the world today.)
(n) one related to an ancestor
后代
elite
(Traditional hunters are an elite group in Sierra Leone rural society.)
(n) viewed as the best or most select people
(adj) considered superior
精英
artisan
(Plans call for a riverside boardwalk, hotels, and areas for Navajo artisans to sell their goods.)
(n) skilled craftsperson
工匠
textile
(The tradition of handwoven textiles is being brought back in Laos.)
(v) cloth, fabric
纺织品
forage
(For 95 percent of the history of humankind, people have lived by foraging.)
(n) gather wild foods
搜索粮草
ethnic
(Although they make up only a small proportion of the population, 55 minority ethnic groups are distributed throughout China.)
(n) a group of people who share a common identity
种族
implement
(Farmers use many different kinds of implements.)
(n) tool, useful device
工具
nomad
(Mongolian nomads herd their horses across the vast steppes.)
(n) someone who moves with the seasons rather than living in one place
游牧
status
(In Ancient Rome, wearing a toga was restricted to people of high status.)
(n) social position that a person holds
状态;地位