CMN 1 Shubb
UCDAVIS Shubb CMN1. Winter 2012
Terms in this set (106)
Public Speaking Situation
1) Communicative purpose: inform, persuade, entertain. 2) uninterrupted floor time. 3) 2 or more listeners.
Model of effective communication
Sender encodes message, receiver decodes message and provides feedback.
audience-centered approach to communication
Speakers focus on listeners needs, knowledge, and interests. Adapting to audiences and building credibility as speaker. (AKA Rhetoric)
Personal Report of Public Speaking Anxiety. Scale: 34-170
Presence of a live person makes a message more real and more important to us.
public speaking purposes
1) Inform 2) Persuade 3) Entertain
For audience to feel moved. Make people "feel" something.
Adds: 1) Clarity: clarify key point. 2) Retention: Help audience remember ideas. 3) Interest: draw attention to your topic and dramatize a point.
1) Sensing. 2) Attention. 3) Understanding. 4) Responding.
Knowing that someone is speaking to you
Focusing attention on message
Focus attention on key parts
Knowing the senders "code" (symbols and signs)
Always constructed in mind of receiver
What is essentially important is what the sender thinks is important. Can be internal or external. May be obvious or kept hidden.
1) Contact. 2) Clarity. 3) Control distractions. 4) Confidence.
Typically eye-contact. Look at audience same way as if in a one on one conversation.
Loud, clear and articulate is necessary. Rate of speech and use of pauses assist in audience comprehension. Natural speaking voice and vocal variety encourages positive listening responses.
Verbal or non-verbal behaviors that attract audience attention to the behavior rather than message forms distraction. Repetative "Um's and uh's". Don't bring anything you will "play" with.
Build before you speak. Wait before beginning to speak. Never tell audience that you are a poor speaker or complain about being nervous. Never apologize for mistakes.
1) Formal. 2) Impromptu. 3) Extemporaneous.
Presentation from manuscript, read from prompter. Gives control over what you will say. Boring, loses interaction.
Right off the top of your head, spontaneous. Allows most interaction with audience and gives most flexibility. Ill prepared.
Formal mixed with impromptu. Uses both control and planned of formal with interaction of impromptu. Most versatile.
The power of the speaker. The speaker's credibility. 3 Factors Include: Good Sense/Competency, Good Moral Character/Trustworthiness, Good Will/Relative Dimension of the message.
Logic, thought + expression. The power from speech itself. 3 Factors Include: Content/Ideas, Structure/Arrangement/Order, Style/Language/Nonverbal
Power within the audience. Appeals to the audiences interests, emotions, and values. Unlikely to make you act on its own.
Appeal to cultural beliefs/values. Can be considered part of pathos
Speech anxiety (communicative apphrehension)
1) Confrontation reaction. 2) Anticipation reaction. 3) Habituation. 4) Illusion of transparency. 5) Spotlight effect.
Physical aspect of speech anxiety; physiological reaction to adrenaline from everyone looking at us. Takes 90 seconds to dissipate.
Mental aspect of speech anxiety. Nervousness for speech. Reduced by viewing public speaking as a communication, not performance.
Fearing a situation less as it becomes more familiar, helps you manage your speech anxiety over time.
Illusion of transparency
When the speaker believes their internal states, such as anxiety, are easily observable by the audience (not actually the case).
Speaker thinks people observe him/her much more carefully than they actually do, minor speaking errors are more noticeable to the speaker than the audience
citing sources (using)
1). Increases credibility. 2) give credit to author. 3) give the audience opportunity to look up information for themselves.
Difference between spoken and written language
-Speeches memorized word for word are difficult to understand, so extemporaneous speaking is easier to understand
-When you are listening, you cannot "go back" and reread information. One chance.
-Can be adapted for specific audience/situation.
Argument + Motivation. Convincing your audience to adopt a belief and convince them to take a prescribed course of action. No preview of main points. Increase your audience commitment to your central idea. Complete change of mind.
Purpose: to impart knowledge and understanding
Principles: meaningful, accurate, and clear
Linking parts of speech together. Uses ordering and internal preview/review.
Example: Fist, second, next ,then , finally etc.
Longer transition to provide main points that will be talked about next. ex: now we will talk about
Longer transitions that review main points before going on to the next point in a speech. ex: we just talked about
Informative speech introduction
Attention, reveal topic, credibility, preview main points
Speech conclusion (informative or persuasive)
Signal end, review main points, reinforce purpose, provide closure (dramatic statement)
Persuasive speech introduction
Attention, credibility, no thesis (creates polarization)
Recent, clear, accurate, sufficient, relevant, and consistent. Facts/statistics, definitions, testimony, examples, narratives.
An observation based on experience/numerical data.
A statement that describes the precise meaning of a word or phrase.
Opinions or experiences
An illustration that represents larger groups.
A description of events in dramatic fashion.
A position or assertion that a speaker wants an audience to accept. Fact, Value, Policy
Objectively definable. Ex: This class has a better than average attendence.
Subjective. Ex: Good, bad, better, worse, These are the best students ever.
Requires an action. Ex: All class SHOULD act like this one
Use a claim and back it up with proof and reasoning: Statement/claim, date/proof, warrant/reasoning.
A definite or clear expression of something. An assertion of the truth of something.
deductive, inductive, casual, analogical (reasoning: process/method that connects evidence to claim)
Effect of reward appeal and punishment appeal.
Plays to good feeling. Ex: Feeling you get when acing exam.
Tied to self esteem, negative. Ex: feeling bad about yourself for failing test.
Monroe motivated sequence
Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, Action
Motivate audience to listen
There is a problem; establish an urgent, clear, unfulfilled requirement.
Understand proposed solution by seeing how it alleviates needs; what can the audience do to satisfy the need/ come to a solution
Convince benefits; help the audience draw a mental picture
Act that brings about solution
Intention, Arrangement, Style, Memory, Delivery
Knowing what you are talking about and your purpose. What you intend to do.
How you organize or structure your speech. Standard format = 1)Intro. 2)Body. 3)Conclusion
Sentence structure and wording should possess four virtues of language: Clarity (strive to be clear) Accuracy (Say what you mean/mean what you say) Vividness (Select words to create pictures in minds) Appropriateness (Word choice appropriate to situation, audience, topic)
Be familiar with speech (especially beginning and end)
Informative organizational patterns
Chronological, Spatial, Casual, Topical, Narrative, Problem-Solution
How something has developed over time
Describe the relationship between objects and location
Principle of closure
Divide your topic into subtopics that address the components
Retell events as a story
How an action produces an outcome (cause and effect)
Demographic and psychographic
subgroups of people: determines possible needs and interests
Psychological data about an audience such as standpoints, values, beliefs, and attitudes: Determines whether you have a hostile, neutral, or favorable audience
Audience Level of interest
Casual, Passive, Selected, Concerted, Organized
Random audience. Must get attention
Captive/Stuck audience. Must get interest
Audience is interested in listening. Must make an impression.
Already interested, wants to be there. Must foster conviction (address possible objections)
What action can they do with the conviction. Need to direct behaviors.
Persuasive audience types
Hostile, Neutral, Favorable
Disagrees with policy.
Purpose: small shift of opinions
Evidence: statistics and expert testimony
Language: neutral tone, third person "one"
Themes: common ground approach
Undecided, Uniformed, or Uninterested.
Purpose: present new evidence, explain, or induce caring
Evidence: examples and visual aids
Language: tone of enthusiasm, "you"
Themes: backyard approach
Purpose: remove obstacle/motivate or do more/spread the word
Evidence: lay testimony, hypothetical examples
Language: tone of drama/unity "we"
Themes: bandwagon approach
The particular group or subgroup the speaker most wants to inform, persuade, or entertain.
Bandwagon, Common ground, Backyard
Something should be done because it is popular.
Audience relating to you to relate to them.
Bring an issue into a place close to the listener.
A camera captures a realistic and natural view of what they would see, even if we know it has been staged.
purpose: to praise, entertain, or inspire your listeners
strategies: express sentiment and call for camaraderie
Imperfection marked by urgency, a situation where there is an issue in which by speaking up or making a speech can alleviate the problem.
Agent, Act, Scene, Audience.
Speaker, consider who you are in the situation.
The message, means through which we communicate message.
The environment, where will communication take place? Significance of environment.
Who is the receiver, who are we talking to and what do we know about them.