traditional name for Chinese civilization, so-called because the Chinese believed China was the center of the Earth
system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service and other support to a greater lord
type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great's conquests that blended eastern and western influences
Laws of the Twelve Tables
laws of ancient Rome written on 12 tablets and displayed in the marketplace
independent stat that must acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
pictures or designs formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials, often showed biblical scenes
Another Muslim group believed that only the descendants of the prophet Muhammad should be his successors.
Muslim dynasty from 661-750 that spread Islam to the Atlantic in the West and to the Indus Valley in the East
Frankish king who built an empire that stretched across modern-day France, Germany and part of Italy
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
economic system structured around a lord's manor
Each manor often included 1 or more villages
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
(pointed arches and flying buttresses)
Council of Clermont
a meeting that took place in 1095 where pope Urban II urged bishops and nobles to support a war against the Muslims to take back the Holy Land (Palestine)
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees
received land in exchange for a promise to support the shogun with their armies when needed
a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons, often on the subject of nature or one of the seasons.
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Akbar the Great
Greatest Mughal ruler
Akbar won the support of Hindus because of his tolerant policies
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Chinese admiral who set out with a fleet of ships
Goal was to promote Chinese trade and to collect tribute from less powerful lands
a coastal city that dominated Africa gold trade between about 1100 and 1300; the present-day capital of Somalia.
Major Egyptian port
Transferred good to Italian ships then carried to Europe across the Mediterranean Sea
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
period of great creativity and change in Europe from the 1300's through the 1600's
word means "rebirth"
intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than religious ones
did not believe in sale of indulgences
Believe Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
didn't believe that priest had special powers
Ideas spread to N. German and Scandinavia
Followers called themselves Protestants
the period when Europeans broke away from the Catholic Church and formed new Christian churches
Believed Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
Thought people were born sinners
Ideas spread to German, France, Holland, England and Scotland
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
Effects of the Reformation
Religious and Political divisions
uniform system of justice, developed in England, based on court decisions that became accepted legal principles
Control trade in gold and salt across W. Africa
Women work in business and government
King has Muslim advisers
Mansa Musa - great empire
Controls gold trade routes
Timbuktu become a great trading city and center of learning
grows into largest W. African state
Controls important trade routes
emperor sets up Muslim dynasty
Farming and Trade; Religion very important and priests high place in social hierarchy
Gian temples, raised farm fields, hieroglyphic writing, zero, 365 day calendar
a admiral who established trade links with many distant commerce centers
brought exotic animals back to China
China influences Korea
Chinese system of writing
Chinese art styles
Every gal in Constantinople
Lives in Istanbul, not Constantinople
So if you've a date in Constantinople
She'll be waiting in Istanbul
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.
a religious community of non-Muslims
each millet was allowed to maintain its own religious traditions and educate its people as long as they obey Ottoman law
domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region
completed the first circumnavigation of the world
claimed the Philippines for Spain
system created by Spanish government in the Americas allowing colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas and technology leading to profound changes for people in Asia, the Americas, Africa, and Europe
economic policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its national wealth
Reason for Spanish success
*used armor, horses, and powerful weapons
*found allies among Native American groups who hated being ruled by the Aztecs or Incas
*disease brought by Europeans killed millions of native people
political system in which autocratic rulers have complete authority over the government and the lives of people in their nations
Akbar the Great
ruler of the Mughal empire in India
strengthened the central govt, made the empire larger, modernized the army, encouraged trade
ruled Spain from 1556-1598
expaned his own power as well as the influence of the Catholic Church and the Spanish empire
The Sun King of France
expanded the bureaucracy, palace of Versailles
organized highly disciplined army
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
group of England in the 1600s who sought to purify the church of England by elimination Catholic practices
written by Thomas Hobbes
wrote that people were by nature selfish and greedy and would fall into chaos unless ruled by a strong govt that could suppress rebellion
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
in Britain; nonviolent overthrow of the govt of James II that resulted in the reign of William and Mary
English Bill of Rights
set of acts passed by parliament to ensure its superiority over the monarchy and guarantee certain rights to citizens
period in the 1500s and 1600s in which scientific thinkers challenged traditional ideas and relied on observation and experimentation
challenged the belief that the Earth was the center of the universe; he said plants revolved around the sun
method of discovering truth based on experimentation and observation rather than on past authorities
This French mathematical genius said that one should apply logic and try to answer problems with mathematical equations
period in the 1700s in which people rejected traditional ideas and supported a belief in human reason
English thinker that believe that all people possess natural rights
Life, liberty and property
Baron de Montesquieu
Government broken into 3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicial
separation of power
"The Social Contract"
people are naturally good but are corrupted by the evils of society
People are greedy and selfish. Only a powerful govt can create a peaceful, orderly society
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
a religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
The first emperor of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
balance of power
a policy that comes about after the fall of Napoleon
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God.
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
civil service exam
In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, which led to Portuguese control of the spice trade
Originally, a title meaning 'universal priest' that the Mongol khans invented and bestowed on a Tibetan lama (priest) in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet. Subsequently, the title of the religious and political leader of Tibet.
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Jose de San Martin
revolutionary leader, born in Argentina, who freed chile and joined bolivar to free Peru
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completely separate; known as father of modern rationalism
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happened he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and Maximilian in the west. He did the last persecution of the Christians
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
Ferdinand & Isabella
king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Five Relationships (Confucius)
ruler/subject; father/son; husband/wife; older brother/younger brother; friend/friend
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is non-virtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome non-virtue. 4) The way to overcome non-virtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
the ancient Canaanitic language of the Hebrews that has been revived as the official language of Israel
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Chinese philosopher credited with originating Taoism/Daoism. His teachings were collected and published as the Tao-te Ching.
the parts of North and South America south of the United States where Romance languages are spoken
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
Smells like Teen Spirit
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. Built the pyramids: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
Important trading people who lived on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, started the Greek alphabet
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites
a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means." written by Machiavelli
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
Separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
Society of Jesus
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
popular Chinese philosophical system based in teachings of Lao-tzu but characterized by a pantheism of many gods and the practices of alchemy and divination and magic
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
economic system that relies on habit, custom, or ritual to decide questions of production and consumption of goods and services
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
William & Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.