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379 terms

BCHS - Global 9 - Vocab

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Nomad
person who moves from place to place in search of food
Cultural diffusion
Exchange of ideas, customs, and goods among cultures
Neolithic
New Stone Age
Pharaoh
Egyptian ruler
Fertile Crescent
crescent-shaped region of good farmland created by the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
Middle Kingdom
traditional name for Chinese civilization, so-called because the Chinese believed China was the center of the Earth
dynasty
ruling family
Mandate of Heaven
divine approval to rule
feudalism
system of government in which local lords control their own lands but owe military service and other support to a greater lord
Maurya dynasty
ruled the first united Indian empire
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments that are run by appointed officials
polis
city-state in ancient Greece
aristocracy
government ruled by the landholding elite
Hellenistic
type of culture, resulting from Alexander the Great's conquests that blended eastern and western influences
Republic
system of government in which officials are chosen by the people
Senate
most powerful governing body of ancient Rome
Patricians
member of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome
Plebeians
member of the lower class in ancient Rome
i.e. farmers, merchants, artisans, traders
Pax Romana
Roman Peace
Laws of the Twelve Tables
laws of ancient Rome written on 12 tablets and displayed in the marketplace
aqueducts
bridge like stone structures that carried water from the hills to the cities
Silk Road
ancient trade route that linked china with lands to the west
Wudi
most famous of the Han emperors
monopoly
complete control of a product or business by one person or group
animism
belief that ever living and nonliving think in nature has a spirit
brahman
single unifying spirit of the Hindu belief
reincarnation
rebirth of the soul in a new body
Karma
in Hinduism, all the deed of a person's life that affect existence in the next life
Dharma
in Hinduism, the moral and religious duties that are expected of an individual
Upanishad
philosophical dialogues about Hindu beliefs
Buddha
Enlightened One
monotheistic
belief in one god
Torah
sacred scripture of the Hebrews
Messiah
savior sent by God
Jesus
Bible
sacred text of Christianity
hijra
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in 622
Quran
sacred scriptures of Islam
Sharia
system of Islamic laws
missionaries
people dedicated to spreading a religion
disapora
scattering of people
untouchable
outcasts who lived harsh lives
joint families
parents, children, grandparents, uncles and their children shared a common home
patriarchal
father or oldest male heading the household
decimal system
system we use based on the number 10
Arabic numerals
written numbers we use today
stupas
large dome-shaped shrines that contained the remains of holy people
Tang dynasty
powerful dynasty that ruled China from 618 to 907
tributary states
independent stat that must acknowledge the supremacy of another state and pay tribute to its ruler
gentry
wealthy landowners who preferred scholarship over physical labor
porcelain
hard shiny pottery
autocrat
single ruler with complete authority
Justinian's Code
code of laws organized by the Byzantine emperor Justinian in the 500s
Icons
holy images of Jesus, the Virgin Mary or saints of the Orthodox Christian church
Mosaics
pictures or designs formed by inlaid pieces of stone or other materials, often showed biblical scenes
Patriarch
highest church official in the Orthodox Christian Church
Schism
permanent split (i.e. between the Orthodox Church and the Roman Catholic Church)
Kiev
a city in present-day Ukraine where the first Russian state was established in the 800's
Caliph
Successor to Muhammad as political and religious leader of the Muslims
Sunnis
Muslims who believed that the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders
Shiites
Another Muslim group believed that only the descendants of the prophet Muhammad should be his successors.
Umayyad dynasty
Muslim dynasty from 661-750 that spread Islam to the Atlantic in the West and to the Indus Valley in the East
Abbassid dynasty
During this dynasty the Muslim world experienced a golden age
Let by Abu al-Abbas
Medieval
relating to or belonging to the Middle Ages
Charlemagne
Frankish king who built an empire that stretched across modern-day France, Germany and part of Italy
Chivalry
a code that knights adopted in the late Middle Ages; requiring them to be brave, loyal and true to their word; they had to fight fairly in battle
manorialism
economic system structured around a lord's manor
Each manor often included 1 or more villages
Serfs
a person who lived on and farmed a lords land in feudal times
Secular
Worldly
Excommunicated
Excluded from the Catholic Church
Pope Innocent III
Excommunicated King John of England
Monasteries
Communities where Christian men or women focused on spiritual goals
anti-Semitism
prejudice against Jewish people
Gothic
a style of architecture developed in northern France that spread throughout Europe between the 12th and 16th centuries
(pointed arches and flying buttresses)
Crusades
Series of religious wars
Urban II
pope who called for the First Crusade (1042-1099)
Council of Clermont
a meeting that took place in 1095 where pope Urban II urged bishops and nobles to support a war against the Muslims to take back the Holy Land (Palestine)
Saladin
(1137-1193) Powerful Muslim ruler during Third Crusade, defeated Christians at Hattin took Jerusalem
Richard the Lion-Hearted
English king, leader of the Third Crusade, agreed to a truce with Saladin
Shinto
traditional Japanese religion
"the way of the gods"
Kami
gods or nature spirits of Japanese religion, which lived in all things, such as waterfalls, sand, and great trees
Zen Buddhism
Chinese sect
Value peace, simple living, nature and beauty
Shoguns
top military commanders
Daimyo
Vassal lords
received land in exchange for a promise to support the shogun with their armies when needed
samurai
lesser warriors
promised loyalty to the daimyo
Bushido
strict code of conduct that samurai lived by
Haiku
a major form of Japanese verse, written in 17 syllables divided into 3 lines of 5, 7, and 5 syllables, and employing highly evocative allusions and comparisons, often on the subject of nature or one of the seasons.
Genghis Khan
A Mongolian general and emperor of the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries, known for his military leadership and great cruelty. He conquered vast portions of northern China and southwestern Asia.
Golden Horde
a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century
Kublai Khan
Mongol ruler, he completed the conquest of China and founded the Yuan dynasty
Mughal dynasty
established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Akbar the Great
Greatest Mughal ruler
Akbar won the support of Hindus because of his tolerant policies
Pax Mongolia
A time of peace and prosperity when trade increased between Europe and Asia.
Marco Polo
Venetian traveler who explored Asia in the 13th century and served Kublai Khan (1254-1324)
Ibn Battuta
Scholar from Morocco
Traveled through Asia and documented his journey
Zheng He
Chinese admiral who set out with a fleet of ships
Goal was to promote Chinese trade and to collect tribute from less powerful lands
Canton
City in china that became an important center for global trade
Mogadishu
a coastal city that dominated Africa gold trade between about 1100 and 1300; the present-day capital of Somalia.
Cairo
Major Egyptian port
Transferred good to Italian ships then carried to Europe across the Mediterranean Sea
Venice
With partnership Egypt came to dominate trade with the East
Trade Fairs
site of regular trading activity in medieval Europe
Hanseatic League
An economic and defensive alliance of the free towns in northern Germany, founded about 1241 and most powerful in the fourteenth century.
Bubonic Plague
Black Death
Highly contagious disease spread by the fleas that lived on rats
Epidemic
outbreak the spreads quickly and affects a large number of people
Guild
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people.
apprentice
works for an expert to learn a trade
Capitalism
economic system in which the means of production are privately owned and operated for profit
Renaissance
period of great creativity and change in Europe from the 1300's through the 1600's
word means "rebirth"
Humanism
intellectual movement at the heart of the Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than religious ones
Michelangelo
Sculptor, engineer, poet, painter, architect
Statue of David
Ceiling at Sistine Chapel
Leonardo da Vinci
Mona Lisa
painter, sculptor, inventor, architect
Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Machiavelli
Wrote The Prince
advises rulers on how to gain and maintain power
Impact of the Printing Press
Books became more available
Literacy increased
Ideas spread rapidly
Causes of the Reformation
The Renaissance
Strong Monarchs
Problems in the church
Martin Luther
did not believe in sale of indulgences
Believe Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
didn't believe that priest had special powers
Ideas spread to N. German and Scandinavia
Followers called themselves Protestants
95 Theses
95 arguments against indulgences posted on a church in Wittenberg
Protestant Reformation
the period when Europeans broke away from the Catholic Church and formed new Christian churches
John Calvin
Believed Christians reached heaven only through faith in God
Thought people were born sinners
Preached predestination
Ideas spread to German, France, Holland, England and Scotland
Ignatius Loyola
This was the man who started the Jesuit movement to help people to find God around the world
Effects of the Reformation
Religious and Political divisions
Religious conflicts
Anti-Semitism
Witch Hunts
Common Law
uniform system of justice, developed in England, based on court decisions that became accepted legal principles
Magna Carta
Charter that placed limits on the king's power
Parliament
representative assembly of England
savanna
grassy plains
desert
dry, barren land
Ghana
Control trade in gold and salt across W. Africa
Women work in business and government
King has Muslim advisers
Mali
Conquered Ghana
Mansa Musa - great empire
Controls gold trade routes
Timbuktu become a great trading city and center of learning
Songhai
grows into largest W. African state
Controls important trade routes
emperor sets up Muslim dynasty
Swahili
language that mixed Arabic words with Bantu, and African language
Olmecs
invented calendar and a system of writing made up of carved inscriptions
Maya
Farming and Trade; Religion very important and priests high place in social hierarchy
Gian temples, raised farm fields, hieroglyphic writing, zero, 365 day calendar
Aztecs
Social classes
Schools, medical advances, Tenchtitlan, able to produce abundance of food
Inca
Centralized Governments, polytheistic, road system, record keeping, medicine
Quipus
knotted strings used by Incan officials for keeping records
Terraces
flat area of land on a steep hillside
Zhu Yuanzhang
led a rebellion that successfully overthrew Mongol rule
Ming Dynasty
civil service exams
tried to eliminate corruptions in the bureaucracy
Zheng He
a admiral who established trade links with many distant commerce centers
brought exotic animals back to China
China influences Korea
Buddhism
Confucian ideas
Chinese system of writing
Chinese art styles
porcelain making
printing
Constantinople
Every gal in Constantinople
Lives in Istanbul, not Constantinople
So if you've a date in Constantinople
She'll be waiting in Istanbul
Byzantine's capital
Suleiman
Ottoman sultan who brought the Ottoman Empire to its height; he succeeded in defeating the Habsburgs and capturing Vienna.
sultan
military and political leader with absolute authority over a Muslim country
millet
a religious community of non-Muslims
each millet was allowed to maintain its own religious traditions and educate its people as long as they obey Ottoman law
janissaries
members of an elite force in the Ottoman army
mosques
Muslim house of worship
Reconquista
campaign begun by Christians in the 700s to recapture Spain from the Muslims
cartographer
mapmaker
astrolabe
instrument used to determine latitude by measuring the position of the stars
Vasco da Gama
explorer; route around Africa and traveled across the Indian ocean to an Indian port
Christopher Columbus
1492 sailed the ocean blue
"discovered" America
imperialism
domination by one country of the political, economic or cultural life of another country or region
Ferdinand Magellan
completed the first circumnavigation of the world
claimed the Philippines for Spain
sepoy
Indian troops
conquistador
Spanish conquerors
plantation
large estates
Middle passage
voyage from Africa to the Americas on slave ships
encomienda
system created by Spanish government in the Americas allowing colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
Columbian exchange
global exchange of people, plants, animals, ideas and technology leading to profound changes for people in Asia, the Americas, Africa, and Europe
mercantilism
economic policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its national wealth
The Printing Press
Gutenberg
make books much faster
Reason for Spanish success
*used armor, horses, and powerful weapons
*found allies among Native American groups who hated being ruled by the Aztecs or Incas
*disease brought by Europeans killed millions of native people
Peninsulares
People born in Spain
Creoles
People of European descent born in the colonies
Mestizos
People of mixed native American and European descent
Mulattoes
People of mixed African and European descent
absolutism
political system in which autocratic rulers have complete authority over the government and the lives of people in their nations
Akbar the Great
ruler of the Mughal empire in India
strengthened the central govt, made the empire larger, modernized the army, encouraged trade
Philip II
ruled Spain from 1556-1598
expaned his own power as well as the influence of the Catholic Church and the Spanish empire
divine right
belief that a ruler's authority comes directly from God
Louis XIV
The Sun King of France
expanded the bureaucracy, palace of Versailles
organized highly disciplined army
Jacques Bossuet
Catholic priest who was a strong advocator for Divine right of kings
Ivan the Terrible
(1533-1584) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.
Peter the Great
ruled Russia from 1682 to 1725, wanted closer ties to western europe, modernize and strengthen Russia
Puritans
group of England in the 1600s who sought to purify the church of England by elimination Catholic practices
The Leviathan
written by Thomas Hobbes
wrote that people were by nature selfish and greedy and would fall into chaos unless ruled by a strong govt that could suppress rebellion
Oliver Cromwell
English military, political, and religious figure who led the Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War (1642-1649) and called for the execution of Charles I. As lord protector of England (1653-1658) he ruled as a virtual dictator.
Glorious Revolution
in Britain; nonviolent overthrow of the govt of James II that resulted in the reign of William and Mary
English Bill of Rights
set of acts passed by parliament to ensure its superiority over the monarchy and guarantee certain rights to citizens
limited Monarchy
govt in which a legislative body limits the monarch's power
Scientific Revolution
period in the 1500s and 1600s in which scientific thinkers challenged traditional ideas and relied on observation and experimentation
Nicolaus Copernicus
challenged the belief that the Earth was the center of the universe; he said plants revolved around the sun
heliocentric
sun-centered
Galileo Galilei
constructed telescope and provided more evidences that the sun was the center
Issac Newton
discovered gravity
theorized that nature follows uniform laws
scientific method
method of discovering truth based on experimentation and observation rather than on past authorities
Rene Descartes
This French mathematical genius said that one should apply logic and try to answer problems with mathematical equations
natural laws
laws that govern human behavior
Enlightenment
period in the 1700s in which people rejected traditional ideas and supported a belief in human reason
John Locke
English thinker that believe that all people possess natural rights
Life, liberty and property
Baron de Montesquieu
Government broken into 3 branches: legislative, executive, and judicial
separation of power
Voltaire
believe in free speech
Jean-Jacques Rousseau
"The Social Contract"
people are naturally good but are corrupted by the evils of society
Thomas Hobbes
People are greedy and selfish. Only a powerful govt can create a peaceful, orderly society
enlightened despot
absolute ruler who used royal power to reform society
absolute monarchy
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Alexander the Great
son of Philip II; received military training in Macedonian army and was a student of Aristotle; great leader; conquered much land in Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Mesopotamia; goal was to conquer the known world
The Analects
A book of Confucius' teachings compiled by his students
ancestor worship
a religious practice based on the belief that deceased family members have a continued existence, take an interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living
arch
a curved shape in the vertical plane that spans an opening
Archimedes
Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
archipelago
a group of many islands in a large body of water
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
artisan
a skilled worker who practices some trade or handicraft
assassination
murder of a public figure by surprise attack
astronomer
a physicist who studies astronomy
Augustus Caesar
The first emperor of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
balance of power
a policy that comes about after the fall of Napoleon
distribution of military and economic power that prevents any one nation from becoming too strong
Montesquieu
French political philosopher who advocated the separation of executive and legislative and judicial powers (1689-1755)
barter
exchange goods without involving money
Bhagavad Gita
Hindu sacred text
epic poem that states the ethical ideas of Hinduism
Simon Bolivar
Venezuelan statesman who led the revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule
Napoleon
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Bourgeoisie
educated, middle class of France; provided force behind the Revolution
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Byzantine Empire
eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from 'Byzantion,' an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453.
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
John Calvin
religious reformer who believed in predestination and a strict sense of morality for society
Caste system
a social structure in which classes are determined by heredity
caravel
A small, highly maneuverable three-masted ship used by the Portuguese and Spanish in the exploration of the Atlantic.
Cardinal Richelieu
This was the man who influenced the power of King Louis XIII the most and tried to make France an absolute monarchy
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
Jesus Christ
A teacher and prophet whose life and teachings form the basis of Christianity. Christians believe Jesus to be Son of God.
Christianity
a monotheistic system of beliefs and practices based on the Old Testament and the teachings of Jesus as embodied in the New Testament and emphasizing the role of Jesus as savior
circumnavigate
sail around the world
city-state
a city and its surrounding lands functioning as an independent political unit
civil service exam
In China, it was an exam based on Confucian teachings that was used to select people for various government service jobs in the bureaucracy.
civil war
a war between people of the same country
civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
climate
the weather in some location averaged over some long period of time
colonization
physical process whereby the colonizer takes over another place, putting its own government in charge and either moving its own people into the place or bringing in indentured outsiders to gain control of the people and the land
commerce
trading goods and services for money
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Confucius
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances
Constantine
Emperor of Rome who adopted the Christian faith and stopped the persecution of Christians (280-337)
constitution
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
constitutional monarchy
A King or Queen is the official head of state but power is limited by a constitution.
Copernicus
Polish astronomer who produced a workable model of the solar system with the sun in the center (1473-1543)
Cortez
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Counter-Reformation
the reaction of the Roman Catholic Church to the Reformation reaffirming the veneration of saints and the authority of the Pope (to which Protestants objected)
Cromwell
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War (1599-1658)
cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Czar
Russian word for Caesar
cyrillic
an alphabet derived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages
da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, which led to Portuguese control of the spice trade
Dalai Lama
Originally, a title meaning 'universal priest' that the Mongol khans invented and bestowed on a Tibetan lama (priest) in the late 1500s to legitimate their power in Tibet. Subsequently, the title of the religious and political leader of Tibet.
Dante
an Italian poet famous for writing the Divine Comedy that describes a journey through hell and purgatory and paradise guided by Virgil and his idealized Beatrice (1265-1321)
Jose de San Martin
revolutionary leader, born in Argentina, who freed chile and joined bolivar to free Peru
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution.
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Rene Descartes
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle "i think therefore i am"; believed mind and matter were completely separate; known as father of modern rationalism
Bartholomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 was the first European to get round the Cape of Good Hope (thus establishing a sea route from the Atlantic to Asia) (1450-1500)
dictatorship
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happened he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and Maximilian in the west. He did the last persecution of the Christians
divine
being or having the nature of a god
divorce
the legal dissolution of a marriage
Eightfold Path
In Buddhism, the basic rules of behavior and belief leading to an end of suffering
Elizabeth I
This queen of England chose a religion between the Puritans and Catholics and required her subjects to attend church or face a fine. She also required uniformity and conformity to the Church of England
emperor
The ruler of an empire
empire
a group of countries under a single authority
Estates
another term for "classes" of people [the clergy (first estate), nobles (second estate), townspeople & peasants (third estate)]
Estates General
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
ethnocentrism
belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group
Ferdinand & Isabella
king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
fief
land granted by a lord to a vassal in exchange for loyalty and service
filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one's parents and ancestors
Five Pillars of Islam
Declaration of faith, prayer, alms, fasting, and pilgrimage
Five Relationships (Confucius)
ruler/subject; father/son; husband/wife; older brother/younger brother; friend/friend
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is non-virtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome non-virtue. 4) The way to overcome non-virtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
fraternity
brotherhood
French Revolution
the revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.
Ganges River
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddhism; born a prince; left his father's wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Golden Age
any period (sometimes imaginary) of great peace and prosperity and happiness
Greco-Roman
The cultural mixing of both ancient Greek and Roman traditions.
Gupta Dynasty
Family who ruled India during it's golden age, advances in arts/ science.
Gutenberg
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
hajj
a pilgrimage to Mecca, performed as a duty by Muslims
Hammurabi's Code
A legal code developed by King Hammurabi of Mesopotamia. The code was influential in the establishment of Hebrew and Islamic law and in the U.S. judiciary system. It specified crimes and punishments to help judges impose penalties.
Hebrew
the ancient Canaanitic language of the Hebrews that has been revived as the official language of Israel
hegira
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622 which marked the beginning of the Muslim era
Henry VIII
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
hieroglyphics
an ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds
Hinduism
a body of religious and philosophical beliefs and cultural practices native to India and characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being of many forms and natures, by the view that opposing theories are aspects of one eternal truth, and by a
Hippocrates
father of modern medicine
Thomas Hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)
ideology
system of ideas characteristic of a group or culture
immigration
migration into a place (especially migration to a country of which you are not a native in order to settle there)
indulgence
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
irrigation
a way of supplying water to an area of land
jihad
a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal
Judaism
A religion with a belief in one god. It originated with Abraham and the Hebrew people. Yahweh was responsible for the world and everything within it. They preserved their early history in the Old Testament.
Lao Tze
Chinese philosopher credited with originating Taoism/Daoism. His teachings were collected and published as the Tao-te Ching.
Latin America
the parts of North and South America south of the United States where Romance languages are spoken
Liberty
personal freedom from servitude or confinement or oppression
John Locke
English philosopher who advocated the idea of a "social contract" in which government powers are derived from the consent of the governed and in which the government serves the people; also said people have natural rights to life, liberty and property.
Louis XVI
- King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti. In a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.
Mansa Musa
this Mali king brought Mali to its peak of power and wealth from 1312 the 1337; he was the most powerful king in west Africa
massacre
kill a large number of people indiscriminately
mecca
the holiest city of Islam; Muhammad's birthplace
merchant
a businessperson engaged in retail trade
Middle Ages
the period between the fall of the Roman Empire in the west (470) and the beginning of the European Renaissance in the 1400s. This period is also known as "Medieval."
Minority
a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part
Mohammed
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Moses
(Old Testament) the Hebrew prophet who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
muezzih
mosque official
nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it
natural resources
materials found in nature that are used by living things
Nirvana
Smells like Teen Spirit
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the beatitude that transcends the cycle of reincarnation
nomad
a member of a people who have no permanent home but move about according to the seasons
Old Kingdom
2700 BC - 2200 BC. Upper and Lower Egypt kept separate kingdoms, but later built unified government. Developed basic features of its civilization. Built the pyramids: an eternal resting place for their god-kings.
New Kingdom
The period during which Egypt reached the height of its power and glory.
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Orthodoxy
state of following established teachings especially in religion
Ottoman Empire
Centered in Constantinople, the Turkish imperial state that conquered large amounts of land in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Balkans, and fell after World War I.
Paleolithic Age
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
Pantheon
a temple to all the gods in Greece
papyrus
paper made from the papyrus plant by cutting it in strips and pressing it flat
parliament
the lawmaking body of British government
Parthenon
temple in Athens built to honor the goddess Athena
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen's political and cultural supremacy in Greece
philosopher
thinker who seeks wisdom and ponders questions about life
philosophy
any personal belief about how to live or how to deal with a situation
Phoenicians
Important trading people who lived on the coast of the eastern Mediterranean, started the Greek alphabet
pictographs
pictures that stand for words or ideas; picture writing
pilgrimage
A journey to a place considered sacred for religious purposes.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish explorer who conquered the Incas in what is now Peru and founded the city of Lima (1475-1541)
polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
Pope Urban II
pope who called for the first crusade to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims
predestination
the belief that what happens in human life has already been determined by some higher power
priest
a clergyman in Christian churches who has the authority to perform or administer various religious rites
The Prince
a work on ethics and government, describing how rulers maintain power by methods that ignore right or wrong; accepted the philosophy that "the end justifies the means." written by Machiavelli
Ptolemy
ancient scientist who said earth was the center of the universe
pyramid
Huge, triangular shaped burial tombs of Egyptian pharaohs built during the Old Kingdom
Pythagoras
everything is made up of numbers, health and harmony , form= limit
Pythagorean Theorem
Rabbi
spiritual leader of a Jewish congregation
Ramadan
ninth month of the Muslim calendar marked by fasting
raw materials
Something used by an industry to be processed into a more finished state.
recant
formally reject or disavow a formerly held belief, usually under pressure
religion
institution to express belief in a divine power
resources
materials found in the Earth that people need and value
revolution
the overthrow of a government by those who are governed
Roman Catholic
the Christian Church based in the Vatican and presided over by a pope and an episcopal hierarchy
Roman Empire
Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.
Jean Jacques Rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
sacraments
important religious ceremonies
sacred
made or declared or believed to be holy
Sahara Desert
the world's largest desert (3,500,000 square miles) in northern Africa
Sanskrit
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
scholar
a person having much knowledge; a learner
Separation of powers
the division of power among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of government
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
Sistine Chapel
A chapel adjoining Saint Peter's Basilica, noted for the frescoes of biblical subjects painted by Michelangelo on its walls and ceilings. The Creation is one of the notable subjects of the ceiling paintings, and the judgment day is depicted on the rear wall of the chapel.
social class
a group of people with similar backgrounds, incomes, and ways of living
social contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
Society of Jesus
a Roman Catholic order founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in 1534 to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work among the heathen
Songhai
a West African empire that conquered Mali and controlled trade from the 1400s to 1591
subcontinent
a large landmass that forms a distinct part of a continent
Talmud
A collection of authoritative Jewish writings that comment and interpret biblical laws.
Taoism
popular Chinese philosophical system based in teachings of Lao-tzu but characterized by a pantheism of many gods and the practices of alchemy and divination and magic
technology
the practical application of science to commerce or industry
Ten Commandments
A set of laws for responsible behavior, which, according to the Bible, were given to Moses by God.
totalitarianism
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
trade
the skilled practice of a practical occupation
traditional economy
economic system that relies on habit, custom, or ritual to decide questions of production and consumption of goods and services
Treaty of Tordesillas
a 1494 agreement between Portugal and Spain, declaring that newly discovered lands to the west of an imaginary line in the Atlantic Ocean would belong to Spain and newly discovered lands to the east of the line would belong to Portugal.
Triangle Trade
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
vassal
in the middle ages, a noble who usually was given a fief by his lord in exchange for loyalty
Vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
William & Mary
King and Queen of England in 1688. With them, King James' Catholic reign ended. As they were Protestant, the Puritans were pleased because only protestants could be office-holders.
Glorious Revolution
In this bloodless revolution, the English Parliament and William and Mary agreed to overthrow James II for the sake of Protestantism. This led to a constitutional monarchy and the drafting of the English Bill of Rights.
Yin & Yang
two forces in the universe, according to Chinese Theory: Yin is the passive, negative force, and Yang the active, positive force