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ch 53 - population ecology
Terms in this set (32)
study of the factors that influence a specie's distribution, density(size), age structure, and dynamics
interactions with other individuals
factors associated with soil, water, air, climate, fire
how does competition affect distribution?
Sage use chemicals to inhibit growth of other vegetation with which it competes for resources(water, minerals, sun)
how does herbivory limit seaweed distribution?
almost none grew where urchins and limpets were present
-removing both increased seaweed a lot
-removing only limpets didn't change much
-removing only urchins increased seaweed so it had the greatest effect
what type of distribution do animals with a high tolerance for abiotic factors have?
what type of distribution do animals with a low tolerance for abiotic factors have?
list the abiotic factors that can affect distribution
precipitation, temp, sunlight, wind, fire, air gas mixture
list the abiotic factors of the soil/water that can affect distribution
salinity, pH, mineral composition, substrate structure
movement away from area of origin
what parts of history can help us understand current distribution?
continental drift, mass extinctions, hunting, habitat loss and fragmentation
how does continental drift help us to understand why ratite(flightless) birds only occur in the southern hemisphere?
they evoled in Gondwana(lower half of eurasia) and never dispersed to northern half before continental breakups
according to Darwin, what is the reason that rabbits to not occur in Australia?
it is NOT abiotic/biotic factors, it is b/c they didn't disperse or evolve there
pattern of spacing among individuals within a population(local spacial distribution)
what are the 3 types of dispersion?
clumped, uniform, random
clumped dispersion is influenced by
resource availability and behaviors
uniform dispersion is influenced by
random dispersion is influenced by
nothing, it is independent of others or resources
what are different ways of measuring population density?
counting all individuals in a population
counting only a small proportion of a population and using this count to estimate population size/density
sampling: plot sample
sample individuals in a portion of total area and extrapolate to entire area
plot sampling works better with what and is not good for what?
vegetation like seeds in a field; not good or animals such as rodents b/c they run away
-sample 1: capture, mark, release small pop. sample
-sample 2: capture at a later time
-estimate pop size/density by comparing # captured to # captured and marked
proportion of individuals in each age class at a point in time
age structure determines what?
the rate of change of current and future population size
study of the vital statistics of a population and how they change over time
what are the vital statistics used in demography?
increase: births, immigration
decrease: deaths, emmigration
age-specific summary of survival and reproductive patterns made by following a cohort from birth to death
group of individuals of the same age
chances of dying/surviving from one age to the next
# of individuals from a cohort that survives from birth to age 'x'
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