Psychology Ch. 15
Terms in this set (51)
A mental disorder is defined as ________.
A behavior that causes an individual great suffering, is self-destructive, seriously impairs the person's ability to work or get along with others, or makes a person unable to control the impulse to endanger others.
________ is a condition in which the schizophrenic withdraws into a private world, sitting for hours without moving.
One of the reasons schizophrenia is classified as a brain disease is because, schizophrenics show ________.
enlargement of ventricles in the brain
The primary aim of DSM-5 is to _______.
provide clear diagnostic categories for clinicians to study and treat mental disorders
________ is the urge to escape from slavery.
Antisocial personality disorder is characterized by ________.
a lifelong pattern of irresponsible behavior such as lawbreaking, violence, and other impulsive, reckless acts
One personality emerges to handle everyday experiences, and another personality to cope with the bad ones in a phenomenon termed ________.
________ is a repetitive, ritualized behavior that a person feels must be carried out to avoid disaster.
The ________ model holds that addiction, whether to alcohol or any other drug, is due primarily to a person's neurology and genetic predisposition.
Long-lasting feelings of apprehension and doom are the characteristics of ________.
generalized anxiety disorder
Cecil thinks he can carry on his winning streak in the tournament if he continues to eat fried chicken. He knows his behavior is senseless but whenever he tries to stop this, he feels anxious. He feels relieved only when he gives in to his habit of eating chicken. In this scenario, Cecil is suffering from ________.
Noah is a defiant teenager. The reason for his attitude is mistreatment by his parents. After (but not before) he was diagnosed as having "oppositional defiant disorder," people thought there was something inherently wrong with Noah, and did not look at the mistreatment by his parents as a possible factor in his defiant behavior. Which of the following limitations of DSM-5 is evident in this scenario?
power of diagnostic labels
George, a fisherman in Greenland, experiences sudden attacks of dizziness and fear while fishing in a small, one-man kayak. The symptoms, in this scenario, indicate that George is suffering from a culture-bound syndrome termed ________.
Natasha, a fashion model, is highly fixated about her weight. She often skips meals and starves herself to maintain her body weight. Eventually, she starts feeling "too fat" even at the point of starving to death. Natasha is suffering from a body image disorder termed ________.
Gloria has a record of military service and is a PTSD sufferer. It is most likely that ________.
her hippocampus is smaller than average
A person who has occasional panic attacks sees them as a result of a passing crisis. Another person with the same condition lives his life in restrictive ways, trying to avoid future attacks. Which of the following statements best explains this difference between the two people?
Their interpretation of bodily reactions is different.
The psychodynamic assumption behind projective tests is that the person's unconscious feelings will be "projected" onto the test and revealed in the person's responses. Which of the following sentences explains the reason behind this assumption?
Projective tests are used to infer a person's motives, conflicts and unconscious dynamics on the basis of the person's interpretations of ambiguous stimuli.
Schizophrenics insist that their thoughts have been inserted into their heads by someone controlling them or are being broadcast on television. Which of the following explains this symptom of schizophrenia?
Schizophrenics have bizarre delusions.
Which of the following statements is true of agoraphobia?
Its disastrous consequences, as imagined by the patient, are being trapped in a public place, where escape might be difficult or where help might be unavailable.
Which of the following symptoms can be observed in a person with ataque de nervios?
episodes of uncontrollable screaming, crying, and agitation
Which of the following is associated with "taijin kyofusho," the disorder that was discovered in Japan?
people feeling intensely frightened and irrationally embarrassed that their body parts or functions are disgusting to others
Which of the following is an example of a panic attack?
Elsie has short-lived but intense feelings of anxiety.
Which of the following is true of psychopaths?
They are incapable of remorse, shame, or guilt.
Which of the following is an example of hoarding?
a person filling his home with empty cartons, used tissues, and bags of old clothing
Which of the following would be included in the DSM-5?
emotional problems associated with menstruation.
Some psychiatrists claim that DID is a means of coping with trauma. Which of the following supports this statement?
Trauma produces a mental "splitting" that results in the emergence of an "alter" which has ability to cope with bad experiences.
Agoraphobia typically begins with a panic attack that seems to have no cause. The attack is so unexpected and scary that the agoraphobic-to-be begins to avoid situations that he or she thinks may provoke another one. Which of the following supports this statement?
The fundamental fear in agoraphobia is panic and its imagined disastrous consequences.
Inventories are ________
standardized objective questionnaires requiring written responses
Which of the following is NOT included in the information that the DSM-5 provides?
number of people affected
What are the diverse diagnostic categories in a DSM-5?
prevalence of the disorder
typical age of onset
sex ratio of those affected
Psychosis is a(n) ________
extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behavior and may have psychological or organic causes
________ is the fastest-growing diagnosis given to young children.
During the war, Victor had been involved in numerous life-threatening missions during his time with the army. Post-war, he experiences psychic numbing, is highly irritable, and has an impaired concentration. From his symptoms, it is evident that Victor is suffering from ________.
posttraumatic stress disorder
Phyllis does not go to movie theaters. She fears that she might experience a distressing panic attack if she is not careful.. So she usually watches movies in the safest place according to her, her home. Phyllis is suffering from ________.
Leila is too conscious about her body weight. In her attempts to maintain her weight, she eats too much or too little during various occasions. This leads to Leila experiencing cycles of binge eating and vomiting. In this scenario, Leila is suffering from ________.
Which of the following statements describes major depression?
a mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one's usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite)
Which of the following statements is true of projective tests?
They consist of ambiguous pictures, sentences, or stories that the test taker interprets or completes.
Which of the following is true of DSM-5?
Its primary aim is being descriptive.
Hallucinations experienced by schizophrenics are attributed to ________
deficiencies in the auditory cortex.
________ is an exaggerated fear of specific situation, activity, or thing.
Athena is shown an abstract picture and asked to report what she sees. Which of the following tests is Athena being given
the Rorschach inkblot test
Which of the following is an example of compulsion?
a person hoarding his home with newspapers, magazines, and books.
Which of the following is an emphasis of the vulnerability-stress model?
the interaction between genetic predispositions and stressful events
Which of the following is an example of obsessive-compulsive disorder?
Lara checks her phone every 5 minutes and often gives up sleep because she does not want to miss any calls or messages.
One definition of a mental disorder, which takes into account social and evolutionary factors, includes behavior that is harmful to oneself or others, and is dysfunctional from an evolutionary perspective. According to this definition:
a mental disorder is a harmful dysfunction.
Dr. Roberts diagnoses a majority of the young boys that come to his clinic with ADHD (attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). He mistakes the usual boyish behavior of being rambunctious, being playful, and not listening to teachers in school for hyperactivity. In this scenario, which two limitations of DSM-5 are evident?
overdiagnosis and confusion of serious mental disorders with normal problems.
Which of the following is a proposition of the learning model of addiction?
A person can grow beyond the need for alcohol or other drugs.
Borderline personality disorder is characterized by ________.
extreme negative emotionality and an inability to regulate emotions
Culture-bound syndromes are ________.
symptoms or mental disorders that are specific to particular cultural contexts and practices.
Mental exhaustion due to excessive studying is a symptom of ________
_______ is a mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.
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