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Humanities Egyptian Architecture
What is so important about Egyptian Architecture?
What was the 'highway' of the era?
The Nile River
Nile o-meter- Why Important?
Allowed scribes to make predictions
Mortuary- Funerary Complexes- What Purpose?
Rejoin gods in after life.
How were workers paid?
Food, beer, or clothing
How did design aspects EVOLVE?
Grew through trial and error
Where did materials come from?
Limestone, stone, and rock
Mortuary Temples of Old Kingdom- Mastabas- Describe.
People offered gifts in the chapel
Engineering interior chambers- Post & Lintel- Define.
Post was the supporting part of the Lintel
What is the capital of Egypt?
Saved city, 49 feet around city hall, in between the was were loose stone, rock and rubble.
Old Kingdom- 2667- 2648 BC.
Djoser's tomb at Saqqara= Step Pyramid- Why is it important?
Was the most elaborate, 62.5 meters high, Is buried inside it as well as queens and children.
First Architect= Imhotep. What were his titles?
High Priest, Prime minister, and treasurer for Djoser.
The evolution of pyramid building?
Built pyramids to fool people who tried to rob them.
Great Pyramid Builders- Old Kingdom- Dyansty IV (2613- 2589 BC). Consolidated power
Red Pyramid was the first true pyramid- Why?
Also called the North Pyramid, allowed pharoahs to place weight on top and corral would spread it out. Interior was made up of arches and rooms.
Ruler: Cheops (Khofu)
Contracting the Great Pyramid- Details:
2,300,000 limestone bricks, Rudimentary copper and stone cutting blocks, Barges to float blocks, used pearly white limestone to polish the outside. Labor=4,000 workers, Took 23 years to build.
Design of the Exterior and Interior
Multiple rooms in the southern part (usually had the body, also the heart was the only thing kept) Other body parts were in the Northern part in jars.
Located in the lower chamber
Ka Statue- Location?
The statue was located in the higher chamber.
What was around the pyramids?
Huge Scale, Chapels, Burial Chambers
Great Pyramid (built by Chephren), built from one rock and then more was added.
What does the Lion on the sphinx symbolize?
What does the head on the sphinx symbolize?
What ended the Old Kingdom?
Lack or loss of power/ natural causes
Ruler: Sesostris III
1870-1831 BC, Middle Kingdom
Bohan Fort- Details?
A fort built in mid-evil style, had multiple walls, and was along the nile
What covered all of the forts on the southern end of Egypt?
Where was the capital now?
New Kingdom Summary
Thebes= capital, time of temples and monuments, built new cities, A female pharoah
1473-1458- New Kingdom
How did Hatsheput come to power?
WIdow of Teknos II
Architect (26 statues of Hatsheput)
Deir El Bahari
Hatsheput and Senmut built, built directly into a cliff, had lots of columns, open trade
Giant columns, painted and different designs. (Post and Lindel)
Ruler: Amenhotep II
1400 or so to 1353- New Kingdom
Sun and winged asp.
Collection of columns in a row
Parts of a Columns
Capital (Top), Shaft ( Middle), Base (Bottom) also Lotus Bud (Open), Lotus Flower (closed), and fluted
Ruler: Amenhotep IV
1352-1336- New Kingdom, changed name to Akhetaton
To Aton= light of the world
City planning at Akhetaten. Details.
Mostly destroyed, impatient with building, used bricks, people didn't like that he worshiped on god this was different from other pharoahs.
The new city was Precursor to ___________ Architecture
Ruler: Seit (y) I
Hypostyle Hall at Karnak
Military man built, responsible for getting a lot of money
Ruler: Ramses II or Ramessess II (The Great)
Abu Simbel- Ramesseum-Detail Attributes.
2 temples, engineers cut blocks 200 feet into a mountain, Stands 60 feet tall, Were cut from scratch