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Communications Final exam: Chapter 9
Terms in this set (28)
How to identify main points (92)
As you gather research, you begin to see how this body of information can be separated into broad categories.
Main points should stand alone as a key concepts and support of your objective, main points should be tied to your specific purpose.
How to use organizational patterns ( 94)
You select the arrangement (organizational pattern) that best allows you to achieve your objective. Select the best organizational pattern that is best suited to achieving your objectives.Informative speeches (are not always) but often associated with chronological, spatial,and topical patterns of organizing. Persuasive speeches are often (but not always) associated with cause-effect and problem-solution patterns of organization.
How to develop a speaking outline
Note cards: same format as outline/ Use phrases or words to jog memory/ legible/ include delivery cues or visual aid cues
Parallel structure/ language (93)
Parallel structure unifies ideas in the main point around the purpose of the speech. Allows to underscore key ideas.For each sub-point of a main point .Creates smooth movement from one idea to the next. Unifies function and impactful imagery.
Organizational patterns (94)
Five kinds of organizational patterns: chronological, spatial, topical, cause-effect, and problem-solution.
Organizes your speech in terms of time. Used most often with informative speeches involving processes or events since its sequential steps or stages spotlight movement through time.
Main Points (92)
Categorize the information in the body of your speech
Main points are the key informational items that allow you to achieve the specific purpose.
2-5 main points. Max 5. If more than too much. Each main point should focus on a single idea. If you have a main point that talks about two main ideas then separate them. In contrast, if you have two main points that have a similar idea then combine them.
Devote the same amount of time for each main points.
How you order the information you plan to present.
This pattern is often used for informative speeches that involve portions of a whole, tangible object ( regions of a country, sections of a large building, sections of a plane etc.) It will divide the object into sections for discussions on the basis of space. That is, the main points can be discussed from top to bottom, east to west, left to right etc.
Often used because of its adaptability to many types of topics and purposes. Many informative, as well as persuasive speeches on questions of fact or value, call for topical order.
Cause and effect (95)
Cause and effect relationship exists between the two main points. Cause, why something happened. Effect, what happened. Two ways of organizing cause and effect:
The first way organizes the information so that each point stated as a cause is followed immediately by the effect(s). This option is used when the effects are different for each cause. The second option organizes the information so that the first main point addresses all of the major cause(s) and is followed by the second main point that lays out all the major effect(s)
A main point that identifies the problem(s) and a main point that identifies the solution. Used in persuasive speeches. By establishing a problem exists, a speaker compels the audience to consider a change in attitudes and behaviors. The most effective use of this pattern is to provide the audience with on solutions rather than multiple. The only reason to discuss other solutions is to make clear that your solution is superior to others.
Words or phrases that tie one thought to another and indicate the relationship between them. They promote a unified, coherent speech.
CONNECTIVES CHART ON PAGE 98!! Connective involving time, similarity or adding a point, differences or opposition to a point, explanation, and lists.
A full sentence used between main points in the body of a speech. Tell the audience where you ave been and where you are going. This reminds the audience of your last main point and previews the next one. Most important of all the connectives. Includes both an internal preview and internal summary. Consists of three elements: the main point that was just discussed, the main point you will discuss next, and the purpose of your speech.
Internal preview (99)
Used to explain what will be covered in the speech next. The main internal preview is between your introduction and body. The central idea at the end of your introduction is not considered an internal preview. An internal preview should come after your central idea (main points) to identify the first main point to be covered. Includes a list-related signpost. Identified by the entire phrase or sentence.
Internal summary (99)
Used to recap to your audience. The main internal summary will be at the beginning of your conclusions before you recap the main points. This signals to the audience that you have come to your conclusion.
Signposts are words or phrases that tell the audience where you are currently. These should be used throughout out the speech at the beginning of sub-points. The information DOES NOT have to chronological.
Introductions Components (100)
Attention grabbing device
Attention grabbing device (100-101)
Attention gaining device: when you first start your speech you must gain the attention and interest of the audience. DO NOT BEGIN YOUR SPEECH WITH YOUR NAME AND/ OR YOUR TOPIC. Rather choose from the following methods of gaining attention. Choose only one and keep it brief. This task can be accomplished in one sentence.
Create a hypothetical example, most effective and relevant. if you can create a situation that connect with them on a personal level it will gain their attention.
State a startling statistic, conveys importance. Effective when you have a novel of information or unfamiliar information
Ask a question to the audience. Be cautious with what you ask but do not ask a question that is obvious to the audience.
Begin with a quote. When quoting someone make sure its conversational. Begin with a high level of contact in order to gain attention.
Tell a story. Make sure to prep for it in advance. Keep it brief. You can tell part of you story to gain attention in your introduction so your audience will continue to listen to find out what happens in the end.
After you grab your audiences attention, you must tell them the purpose of your speech. This is when and where your topic is revealed. Even if the audience already knows the topic, the speaker needs to restate it in the introduction. You should be conversational and talk to them not about them.
Define major terms. You should also use this step to define any major terms that you will be using throughout your entire speech and are crucial to your audience's understanding of your purpose. If you will only be using unfamiliar terms in one part of your speech wait until then and define them. However, if your are relying on the rem in your purpose or throughout the speech, including the meaning here.
Relevance statement. seek to relate to your specific audience in the introduction of the speech. This is where you will link the topic with the audience. Tell them why this information is relevant. This stamens should also appear on your informative topic sheet before submission. If relevance was not clearly established by an attention grabbing device then you will need to include a separate relevance statement.
After gaining your audiences attention and revealing your purpose, you must establish your credibility. Tell the audience what connect you to the topic. Credibility, in this case, is telling the audience why you chose this topic.
This is matter of being perceived as qualified to speak. Be honest about why you chose this topic. this can be accomplished in one sentence.
Central Idea (102)
The central idea previews the body of speech by sharing with audience with your main points. This statement tells the audience what to listen for in the rest of the speech.
Introduction Guidelines (102-103)
Do develop the introduction after the body of the speech is complete. The introduction should not drive the decision about what to include in the body of the speech.
Do include the four major introduction objectives ( Attention grabbing device, purpose, Credibility, central idea.)
Do be brief. Your introduction should be close to 1 minute.
Do be creative with the introduction. Come up with material that creates the largest impact on your audience.
Conclusions Components (103)
Conclusions should include the following components
Internal summary. An internal summary at the beginning of the conclusion will signal to the audience that you are in the process of concluding the speech. Letting your audience know that you have arrived at the conclusion fulfills an important function. If you do not begin your conclusion with a statement such as in summary some other internal summary, your audience may not know where you are in your speech. After signaling you are closing, restate the main points and seek to reinforce the audiences understanding of and commitment to the central idea of the speech.
Final statement Just as the attention-gaining device was the first element of your speech, your final statement is the last element of your speech and what your audience is most likely to remember. Ask yourself what you want the audience to take away from the speech. You may choose to end with a quotation or a powerful statement of your own. To create unity in your speech, you may choose to refer back to the introduction of the speech using parallel speech.
Not all conclusions are equally effective.
Do develop the conclusion after the body of the speech has been developed. The body and introduction of your speech should be complete before you add the conclusion.
Do be brief. For a speech that is four to seven minutes, the conclusions should be no more than 25-35 seconds long.
Do conclude with a bang. Your conclusion should bring the ideas in your speech to a peak. This is the final thought the audience will be left with, and you want the audience to remember an effective, strong ending.
Preparation Outline (104)
It identifies the main arguments for your speech objective as well as the subtopics that will be covered for each main point. Outlines range rom an informal use of indenting and graphics to a formal use of roman numerals and letters. Regardless of the formality, and outline is to help you consider the most effective way to say what you want to say. You will categorize the information in the body of your speech into levels that include the main points and sub points. The preparation outline is a full representation of the entire speech.
Speaking Outline (104-105)
Use notecard to help you remember the most important parts of your speech.
Do use the same format as the preparation outline. This format will provide enough structure in a visual framework that you can easily follow when delivering the speech.
Do use phrases. Speaking outline is more concise than the preparation outline. Do not write sentences in your speaking outline. Use words or phrases that will trigger your memory.
Do make the speaking outline legible.
Do include delivery cues. After completing the speaking outline, go back and include reminder for yourself at specific times during your speech.
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