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Chapter 27: Empire and Expansion 1890-1909
Terms in this set (28)
Protestant clergyman and other of "Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis". He touted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and helped summon Americans to spread their religion abroad
Alfred Thayer Mahan
American naval officer and author whose 1890 book, "The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660-1783, impressed a generation of imperialists around the world with its argument that control of the sea was the key to world dominance
James G. Blaine
American statesman who served in the House of Representatives for 13 years, followed by about 4 years in the Senate. He was Speaker of the House from 1869-1875. As secretary of state under Garfield and Arthur, he advocated a "Big Sister Policy" of United States domination in Latin America
Big Sister Policy
a foreign policy of Secretary of State Blaine, aimed at rallying Latin American nations behind american leadership and opening Latin American markers to Yankee traders. The policy bore fruit in 1889, when Blaine presided over the First International Conference of American States.
The "pugnacious" (combative) successor to Blaine as the Secretary of State, rom 1895-1897. He stirred up conflicted with Great Britain during the Venezuelan Crisis of 1895-`96. He also insisted on the protection of American lives and property and on reparations for losses incurred during violent disturbances in Cuba, China, and Turkey
After decades of occasionally "twisting the lion's tail", American diplomats began to cultivate close, cordial relations with Great Britain at the end of the 19th century... a relationship that would intensify further during WWI.
The last reigning queen of Hawaii, whose defense of native Hawaiian self-rule led to a revolt by white settlers and to her dethronement
Shepherded through Congress by President William McKinley, this tariff raided duties on Hawaiian sugar and set off renewed efforts to secure the annexation of Hawaii to the United States
cuban insurgents who sought freedom from colonial Spanish rule. Their destructive tactics threatened American economic interests in Cuban plantations and railroads
(Valeriano) Bucher Weyler
Spanish general who arrived in Cuba in 1896 to put down the insurrection. He became notorious for herding many civilians into barbed-wire concentration camps
American battleship spaced to keep a "friendly" watch over Cuba in early 1898. It mysteriously blew up in the Havana harbor on Feb 15th, 1898, with a loss of 260 sailors. Later evidence confirmed that the explosion was accidental, resulting from combustion in one of the ship's internal coal buyers. But many Americans, eager for war, insisted that it was the fault of a Spanish submarine mine
Dupuy de Lome
The Spanish minister to the United States who found himself at the center of a scandal where his private latter maligning President McKinley was made public in 1898
A proviso to William McKinley's war plans that proclaimed to the world that when the United States had overthrown Spanish misrule, it would give Cuba its freedom. This amendment testified to the ostensibly "anti-imperialist" defines of the initial war plans
Commander of the American Asiatic Squadron who boldly captured Manilla Bay and the Philippines at the launch of the Spanish American War. His actions ultimately led to fierce debates about the propriety of American imperialism
Well educated Filipino leader who first tough against Spain and later led the Philippine insurgency against United States colonial rule
Organized by Teddy Roosevelt, this was a colorful, motley refine of Cuban war volunteers consisting of western cowboys, ex-convicts, and effete Ivy Leaguers. Roosevelt emphasized his experience with the regiment in subsequent campaigns for governor of NY and Vice President under William McKinley
Anti Imperialist League
A diverse group formed in oder to protest United States colonial oversight into the Philippines. It included universtiy presidents, industrialists, clergymen, and labor leaders. It was strongest in the North-East and was the largest lobbying organization on U.S. foreign policy until the end of the 19th century. It declined in strength after the U.S. signed the Treaty of Paris which approved the annexation of the Philippines, and especially after hostilities broke out between Filipino nationalists and American forces
Sponsored by Senator Joseph B. Foraker, a republican from OH, this accord Puerto Ricans a limited degree of popular government. It was the first comprehensive congressional effort to provide for governance of territories acquired after the Spanish American War, and served as a model for a similar act adopted for the Philippines in 1902
Beginning in 1901, a badly divided Supreme Court decreed in these cases that the Constitution did not follow the flag. In other words, Puerto Ricans and Filipinos would not necessarily enjoy all American rights.
William H. Taft
The corpulent civil governor of the Philippines under William McKinley. He went on to become 27th president of the United States in 1909
Following its military occupation, the United States successfully pressured the Cuban government to write this amendment into its constitution. It limited Cuba's treaty-making abilities, controlled its debt, and stipulated that the United States could intervene militarily to restore order when it saw fit
Named U.S. ambassador to England in 1897, when McKinley became president. He later served as McKinley's secretary of state. He was the author of the Open Door Notes, which called for free economic competition in China
Open Door Note
A set of diplomatic letters in which Secretary of State Hay urged the great powers to respect Chinese rights and forced and open competition within their spheres of influence. The notes established the "Open Door Policy" which sought to ensure access to the Chinese market for the United States despite the fact that the United States did not have a formal sphere of influence in China
An uprising in China directed against foreign influence. It was suppressed by an international force of 18k soldiers including several thousand Americans. It paved the way for the revolution of 1911, which led to the establishment of the Republic of China in 1912
A treaty signed between the United States and Great Britain, giving Americans a free hand to build a canal in Central America. The treaty nullified the Clayton-Bulwer treaty of 1850.
Teddy (Theodore) Roosevelt
"Rough Rider _______" was a cowboy hero of the Cuban campaign who rode his popularity into the governorship of NY and then into the Vice Presidency. He became president when McKinley was assassinated in 1901. He won reelection as a Republican in 1904 and then lost to Democrat Woodrow Wilson in 1912, when he tried for another term as the Progressive Party candidate
A brazen policy of "preventative intervention" advocated by Teddy Roosevelt in his Annual Message to Congress in 1904. Adding ballast to the Monroe Doctrine, it stipulated that the United States would retain a right to intervene in the domestic affairs of Latin American nations in order to restore military and financial order.
Signed on Nov. 30, 1908, the United States and Japan agreed to respect each other's territorial possessions in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door in China. This was credited with leading tensions between the two nations, but it also resulted in a weakened United States influence over Japanese hegemony in China
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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