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26 terms

Acids and Bases (Chapter 19)

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monoprotic acids
any acid that contains one ionizable proton (hydrogen ion); nitric acid (HNO3) is a monoprotic acid
diprotic acids
any acid that contains two ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is a diprotic acid
tripotic acids
any acid that contains three ionizable protons (hydrogen ions); phosphoric acid (H3PO4) is a triprotic acid
conjugate acid
the particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion; NH4+ is the conjugate acid of the base NH3
conjugate base
the particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion; OH- is the conjugate base of the acid water
conjugate acid-base pair
two substances that are related by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion; ammonia (NH3) and the ammonium ion (NH4+) are a conjugate acid-base pair
hydronium ion
the positive ion formed when a water molecule gains a hydrogen ion
amphoteric
a substance that can act as both an acid and a base
Lewis acid
any substance that can accept a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
Lewis base
any substance that can donate a pair of electrons to form a covalent bond
self ionization
a term describing the reaction in which two water molecules react to produce ions
neutral solution
an aqueous solution in which the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide ions are equal; it has a pH of 7.0
ion product constant for water
the product of the concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in water; it is 1 X 10-14 at 25°C
acidic solution
any solution in which the hydrogen-ion concentration is greater than the hydroxide-ion concentration
basic solution
any solution in which the hydroxide-ion concentration is greater than the hydrogen-ion concentration
alkaline solutions
a basic solution
pH
a number used to denote the hydrogen-ion concentration, or acidity, of a solution; it is the negative logarithm of the hydrogen-ion concentration of a solution
strong acids
an acid that is completely (or almost completely) ionized in aqueous solution
weak acids
an acid that is only slightly ionized in aqueous solution
strong bases
a base that completely dissociates into metal ions and hydroxide ions in aqueous solution
weak bases
a base that reacts with water to form the hydroxide ion and the conjugate acid of the base
neutralization reactions
a reaction in which an acid and a base react in an aqueous solution to produce a salt and water
equivalence point
the point in a titration where the number of moles of hydrogen ions equals the number of moles of hydroxide ions
standard solution
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titration
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end point
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