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Ice Age

Extended period when glaciers covered most of the North American continent


Staple crop that formed the economic foundation of Indian civilization


Important Mississippian culture site, near present day East St. Louis, Illinois


First European nation to send explorers around the west coast of Africa


Flourishing West African kingdom that had its capital & university at Timbuktu


Mistaken term that the first European explorers gave to American lands because of the false belief that they were off the coast of Asia


Animal introduced by Europeans that transformed the Indian way of life on the Great Plains


Name one of the major European diseases that devastated Native American populations after 1492


Disease originating in the Americas that was transmitted back to Europeans after 1492

Treaty Of Tordesillas

Treaty that proclaimed a Spanish title to lands in the Americas by dividing them with Portugal


Wealthy capital of the Aztec empire


Person of mixed European and Indian Ancestry

Pope's Rebellion

Indian uprising in New Mexico caused by Spanish efforts to suppress Indian religion

Pueblo Peoples

Indian people of the Rio Grande Valley who were cruelly oppressed by the Spanish conquerors

Father Serra's Brown Robed Franciscan Friars

Roman Catholic Religious Order of Friars that organized a chain of missions in California

Ferdinand & Isabella

Financiers and beneficiaries of Columbus's voyages to the New World

Cortes & Pizarro

Spanish conquerors of great Indian civilizations

Lake Bonneville

Inland sea left by melting glaciers whose remnant is the Great Salt Lake

Dias ans da Gama

Portuguese navigators who sailed around the African coast


Italian born explorer who thought that he had arrived off the coast of Asia rather than on unknown continents


Female Indian slave who served as interpreter for Cortes


Powerful Aztec monarch who fell to Spanish conquerors


Legendary founder of the powerful Iroquois Confederacy


Wealthy Capital of the Aztec Empire

St. Augustine

Founded in 1565, the oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the United States territory

John Cabot

Italian born navigator sent by English to Explore North American coast in 1498

Junipero Serra

Franciscan missionary who settled California

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