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COUN 5364 -Graduate Theories Of Counseling - Final Exam

Terms in this set (103)

(1) Human Nature - Many of the traditional theories grew out of a historical period in which social arrangements were assumed to be rooted in one's biologically based gender. Men were assumed to be the norm and were the only group studied or understood within the normative construct. It was also assumed that because of biological gender differences women and men would pursue different directions if life.
(a) Worell and Remer are critical of traditional theories for being
(i) androcentric (using male-oriented constructs to draw conclusions about human, including female, nature),
(ii) gendercentric (proposing two separate paths of development for women and men,
(iii) heterosexist (viewing a heterosexual orientation as normative and desirable and devaluing lesbian, gay male, and bisexual orientations),
(iv) deterministic (assuming that personality patterns and behavior are fixed at an early stage of development), and
(v) Having an intrapsychic orientation (attributing behavior to internal causes, which often results in blaming the victim and ignoring sociocultural ad political factors).
(b) Worell and Remer describe the constructs of feminist theory as being gender fair, flexible-multicultural, interactionist, and life-span-oriented.
(i) Gender-fair approaches explain differences in the behavior of women and men in terms of socialization processes rather than on the basis of our "innate" natures, thus avoiding stereotypes in social roles and interpersonal behavior.
(ii) A flexible-multicultural perspective uses concepts and strategies that apply equally to individuals and groups regardless of age, race, culture, gender, ability, class, or sexual orientation.
(iii) The interactionist view contains concepts specific to the thinking, feeling, and behaving dimensions of human experience and accounts for contextual and environmental factors.
(iv) A life-span perspective assumes that human development is a lifelong process and that personality and behavioral changes can occur at any time rather than being fixed during early childhood.
(2) Personality Development -
(a) Feminist therapist emphasize that societal gender-role expectations profoundly influence a person's identity from the moment of birth and become deeply ingrained in adult personality.
(i) Gilligan recognized that theories of moral development were based almost exclusively on research with males. Women's sense of self and morality is based on issues of responsibility and care for other people and is embedded in a cultural context. Concepts of connectedness and interdependence—virtually ignored in male-dominated development theories—are central to women's development
(ii) In feminist therapy women's relational qualities are seen as strengths and as pathways for healthy growth and development instead of being identified as weaknesses or defects.
(1) Solution-focused brief therapy is a future-focused, goal-oriented therapeutic approach to brief therapy developed initially by Steve de Shazar and Insoso Kim. SFBT emphasizes strengths and resiliencies of people by focusing on exception their problems and their conceptualized solutions.
(2) SBFT differs from traditional therapies by eschewing the past in favor of both the present and the future.
(3) Therapists focus on what is possible, and they have little or no interest in gaining an understanding of how the problem emerged.
(4) Behavior change is viewed as the most effective approach to assisting people in enhancing their lives.
(5) In SFBT, clients choose the goals they wish to accomplish; little attention is given to diagnosis, history taking, or exploring the emergence of the problem.
(a) Positive orientation - SFBT is grounded on the optimistic assumption that people are healthy ad competent and have the ability to construct solutions that can enhance their lives.
(b) Looking for what is working - SFBT has parallels with positive psychology, which concentrates on what is right and what is working for people rather than dwelling on deficits, weaknesses, and problems.
(c) The emphasis of SFBT is to focus on what is working in clients' lives, which stands in stark contrast to the traditional models of therapy that tend to be problem-focused.
(d) Basic Assumptions guiding practice - Walter and Peller think of solution-focused brief therapy as a model that explains how people change and how they can reach their goals.
(1) Individuals construct the meaning of life in interpretive stories, which are ten treated as "truth."
(2) Therapy is, in part, a reestablishment of personal agency from the oppression of external problems and the dominant stories of larger systems.
(3) Focus of Narrative Therapy -
(a) The narrative therapy approach involves adopting a shift in focus from most traditional theories.
(b) Therapists are encouraged to establish a collaborative approach with a special interest in listening respectfully to clients stores; to search for times in clients' lives when they were resourceful; to use questions as a way to engage clients and facilitate their exploration; to avoid diagnosing and labeling clients or accepting a totalizing description based on a problem; to assist clients in mapping the influence a problem has had on their lives; and to assist clients in separating themselves from the dominant stories they have internalized so that space can be opened for the creation of alternative life stories.
(4) The role of stories -
(a) We live our lives by stories we tell about ourselves and that others tell about us.
(b) These stories actually shape reality in that they construct and constitute what we see, feel, and do.
(c) The stories we live by grow out of conversations in a social and cultural context.
(d) Therapy clients do not assume the role of pathologized victims who are leading hopeless and pathetic lives; rather, they emerge as courageous victors who have vivid stories to recount.
(e) The stories not only change the person telling the story, but also change the therapist.
(5) Listening with an open-mind -
(a) All social constructionist theories emphasize listening to clients without judgment or blame, affirming and valuing them. Narrative practice goes further in deconstructing the system of normalizing judgment that are found in medical, psychological, and educational discourse.
(b) Normalizing judgment is any kind of judgment that locates a person on a normal curve and is used to assess intelligence, mental health, or normal behavior.
(c) Narrative practitioners might be said to invite people to pass judgment on the judgments that have been working them over.
(d) Narrative therapists make efforts to enable clients to modify painful beliefs, values, and interpretations without imposing their value systems and interpretations.
(e) They want to create meaning and new possibilities from the stories clients share rather than out of a preconceived and ultimately imposed theory of importance and value.
(f) During the narrative conversation, attention is given to avoiding totalizing language, which reduces the complexity of the individual by assigning an all-embracing single description to the essence of the person.
(g) The narrative perspective focuses on the capacity of humans for creative and imaginative thought, which is often found in their resistance to dominate discourse.
(1) In the narrative approach, externalizing questions are followed by questions searching for unique outcomes.
(2) The therapist talks to the client about moments of choice or success regarding the problem.
(3) This is done by selecting for attention any experience that stands apart from the problem story, regardless of how insignificant it might seem to the client.
(4) The therapist talks to the client about moments of choice or success regarding the problem.
(5) It is within the account of unique outcomes that a gateway is provided for alternative versions of a person's life.
(a) Questions that lead to the elaboration of preferred identity stories:
(i) What do you think this tells me about what you have wanted for your life and about what you have been trying for in your life?
(ii) How do you think knowing this has affected my view of you as a person?
(iii) Of all those people who have known you, who would be least surprised that you have been able to take this step in addressing your problem's influence in your life?
(iv) What actions might you commit yourself to if you were to more fully embrace this knowledge of who you are?
(b) Circular Questions (the development of unique outcome stories into solution stories)
(i) Now that you have reached this point in life, who else should know about it?
(ii) I guess there are a number of people who have an outdated view of who you are as a person. What ideas do you have about updating these views?
(iii) If other people seek therapy for the same reasons you did, can I share with them any of the important discoveries you have made?
(1) The family as a whole is greater than the sum of its parts taken separately.
(a) The family maintains a collective identity that is different from the individual identities of each of its members.
(2) Why behavior occurs within the family is not the focus of a counselor working within a systems framework; the focus is on what, how, and when the behavior occurs.
(a) All behavior is communication, and communication is continuously occurring.
(b) It is important to attend to the two functions of interpersonal messages: content (factual information) and relationship (how the message is understood).
(c) The what of a message is conveyed by how it is delivered.
(d) Counselors practicing within a system context view the transactional patterns occurring within the family as the primary focus of counseling.
(3) The family is viewed as a system in which any change within one member affects the system as a whole and, reciprocally, affects each individual member.
(a) This idea, referred to as circular causality, indicates that events with a relationship context occur in a circular manner rather than in a linear one.
(4) A family commonly contains a number of coexisting subsystems.
(a) Subsystems are those parts of the overall system assigned to carry out particular functions or processes within the system as a whole
(b) The marital or partner dyad constitutes a subsystem, as does the mother-child, father-child, and child-child dyads.
(5) The ability of the family to modify its functioning to meet the changing demands of internal and external factors is known as morphogenesis.
(a) Morphogenesis usually requires a second-order change (the ability to make an entirely new response) rather than a first-order change (continuing to do more of the same things that have—or have not—worked previously)
(6) The family attempts to maintain stability and resist change through the process of homeostasis.
(a) When the balance of the system is disturbed, family members will seek to return to the previous level of balance or homeostasis by using internal and ongoing interactional mechanisms that maintain a balance of relationships.
(b) According to Goldenberg and Goldenberg, homeostasis is the family self-regulation efforts that result in a steady state, but the process of homeostasis is hardly a static one.
(c) Families may have to create a new balance by renegotiating relationships and altering existing family structures in order to accommodate family members' growth and change over time.
(2) Most therapist start with a map of the family that comes to therapy.
(3) The parents are listed with their name, age, and date of birth in either a rectangle (for men) or a circle (for women).
(4) If there are multiple relationships involved in the parental subsystem, they are generally indicated in chronological order with men listed on the left and women on the right.
(5) The genogram should show at least three generations (i.e., self and siblings, parents and their siblings, and grandparents). If you have children and grandchildren, you may include them on the chart as well.
(6) Parents, siblings
(7) Children, miscarriages
(8) Marriages, divorces
(9) Use squares to represent males: and circles for females:
(10) Use double lines around the square or circle to indicate yourself, the index person.
(11) Names, dates for birth and/or death should be written above or below the symbol.
(12) Place an X inside the figures of those who are deceased:
(13) Marital relationships are shown by connecting lines that go down and across between the partners. The husband is on the left and the wife on the right. Divorce is indicated with two slashes (//) in the horizontal marriage line. The dates for marriage and divorce, if applicable, should be written above the marriage line
(14) Vertical lines are drawn below marriage lines for the children of the marriage, with the oldest child on the left and the youngest child on the right.
(15) Special Circumstances:
(16) Diverging lines connect twins to parents. Identical twins are connected by a bar between the children.
(17) Miscarriages are noted with a small filled-in circle.
(18) Dotted lines connect adopted children.
(19) Pregnancies are illustrated by a triangle.
(20) Conflicts in a relationship
(21) Problems with alcohol.
(22) Death occurred