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Sociology Test 3
Terms in this set (85)
A social phenomenon that consists of beliefs about the sacred; the experiences, practices and rituals that reinforce those beliefs; and the community that shares similar beliefs and practices.
Ideas that explain the world and identify what should be sacred or held in awe, that is, a religion's ultimate concerns
To Durkheim, that which has been defined as being of ultimate concern
To Durkheim, that which has not been defined as sacred, or that which is ordinary and mundane
A set of regularly repeated, prescribed, and traditional behaviors that serve to symbolize some value of belief.
Rites of Passage
Rituals that surround major transitions in life, such as birth, puberty, marriage and death
A period, or a special time, set apart from ordinary reality
The beliefs, practices, and symbols that a nation holds sacred
The declining significance of religion
A small group of people who have joined the group consciously and voluntarily to have a personal religious experience
A large group of religiously oriented people that one is usually born into rather than joins consciously and voluntarily
A new, innovative, small, voluntary, and exclusive religious tradition that was never associated with any religious organization
New religion movement
Movements that attract zealous religious converts, follow charismatic leaders, appeal to an atypical portion of the population, have a tendency to differentiate between "us" and "them" are characterized by distrust of others, and are prone to rapid fundamental changes
A religious group not linked to the state that exhibits a general spirit of tolerance and acceptance of other religious bodies
A strongly held belief in the fundamental of foundational percepts of any religion, or a rejection of the modern secular world.
A dominant ideology involving the widely shared belief that all people have an equal chance of succeeding economically based on their hard work and skills.
The process by which the most advantaged individuals are awarded the best opportunities, which increases inequality over time
An internalized set of preferences and dispositions that are learned through experiences and social interactions in specific social contexts
A field concerned with the social causes and consequences of health and illness
Expectations about the way sick people are supposed to act
An occupation distinguished from other occupation by its power and considerable autonomy
the process whereby a profession's power and autonomy, as well as high status and great wealth, have declined, at least relative to the exalted position it once held.
The tendency to label as an illness a phenomenon or syndrome that was not previously considered an illness, as well as to exaggerate the ability of medicine to deal with that phenomenon or syndrome
A form of malnutrition involving an inadequate intake of nutrients, including calories, vitamins and minerals
Lack of sufficient access to safe and nutritious food
The scientific study of population, especially its growth and decline, as well as the movement of people.
Those who study population dynamics
The number of births per 1000 people per year
People's reproductive behavior, especially the number of births
Deaths and death rates within a population
The movements of people and their impact on the sending and receiving locales
Migrants who are forced to leave their homeland, or who leave involuntarily, because they fear for their safety
People who flee their home country, usually in an effort to escape political oppression or religious persecution
Those who migrate because they are driven by either "push" factors (a lack of work, low pay) in their homeland or "pull" factors (jobs and higher pay available elsewhere.
Those residing in a receiving country without valid authorization
Large, permanent, and spatially concentrated human settlements
City Dwelling; in the United States, to be considered urban, an area must have more than 50,000 inhabitants
The process by which an increasing percentage of a society's population comes to be located in relatively densely populated urban areas
The distinctive way of life (lifestyles, attitudes, social relationships) that emerge in, and is closely associated with, urban areas.
A large, powerful and culturally influential urban area that contains a central city and surrounding communities that are economically and socially linked to the center
Communities that are adjacent to, but outside the political boundaries or, large central cities
A cluster of highly populated cities that can stretch over a great distance
The process whereby large numbers of people move out of the city and into nearby, less densely populated, environs
Communities in which gates, surveillance cameras, and guards provide the owners of homes or condos greater security from the problems (Crime, panhandling) that they think they left behind in the city.
Outlying upper-middle-class areas between the suburbs and rural areas
Developments at the outermost rings surrounding large cities
The reinvestment of real estate capital in blighted inner-city areas to rebuild residences and create a new infrastructure for the well-to-do.
Being open to a variety of external and global influences
Inward rather than outward looking
KEy locations for leading industries, centers of production, and centers of innovative financial services from which businesses and organizations exercise global command and control
Cities with a population greater than 10 million people
A city in which great emphasis is placed on creating a spectacle, especially in areas of consumption, leisure, tourism, and impressive buildings and other real estate developments. EX Las Vegas and Orlando
The study of people and their relationship to one another as well as to the larger context (including the natural environment) in which they live.
A decline in the water supply as a result of the degradation and deterioration of soil and vegetation
Economic and environmental changes that meet the needs of the present, especially of the world's poor, without jeopardizing the needs of the future.
Sustained and intentional collective efforts, usually operating outside of established institutional channels, either to bring about or to retard social change
The belief that women are equal to men, especially socially, politically and economically
Resource mobilization theory
An approach to understanding social movements that focuses on what groups of people need to do to bring about social change.
Action generated, or engaged in, by a group of people
Emergent Norm Theory
A theory arguing that, in light of some precipitating event, new norms emerge that guide the often-nontraditional actions that characterize collective behavior
A temporary gathering of a relatively large number of people in common in a common geographic location and at a given time
Temporary unruly collective behavior that causes damage to persons or property
Events that suddenly, unexpectedly, and severely disrupt and harm the environment, the social structure, people and their property
Variations over time in every aspect of the social world ranging from changes affecting individuals to transformations having an impact on the globe as a whole
A symbol that serves to identify and differentiate one product or service from the others
What is the study of Religion?
Researchers begin the study of research with the assumption that if people believe something is real, the consequences of their beliefs are real.
What are the 3 major components of Religion?
Beliefs, Rituals and Experience
What are examples of a Church
seeks to include as many people as possible. ex roman catholic, greek orthodox
What are examples of a Cult
What are examples of a Sect
puritans, amish, jehovah's witnesses
What is the idea of education?
it is closely related to the process of socialization.
Schools are social enviroments
Informal education vs formal education
What are the agents of socialization of education?
Social environment, socialization acts as an informal process of learning and education is the formal process.
there is no distinct line between education and socialization.
socialization occurs in educational settings
What are beliefs?
Ideas that explain the world and identify what should be held sacred.
what are rituals?
Sets of regularly repeated, prescribed and traditional behaviors that symbolize a value or belief.
What are experiences?
Combinations of beliefs, rituals and other religious practices such as prayer and services.
expectations of the sick role
A person is not expected to take responsibility for being sick
THey are expected to want to get well
they are expected to seek help from doctors
expected to do normal things (aka if u have a cold you don't lay in bed for 2 weeks)
Consists of a city with 50,000 ppl or more
resources of mobilization
Material resources (money and property)
Social organizational resources (social networking)
examples of collective action
group after hurricane Katrina
Something short lived
• closely related to the process of socialization
• There is no distinct line between the two
• Both involve a learning process
• Socialization= informal
• Education= formal
• Socialization occurs in educational settings
• First large scale study of American Schools
• In the 1960s by James Colman
• Found that schools were much more similar than originally believed (meaning the quality of all schools)
• Found that the most important characteristic was the teacher quality, Family background and race
• School resources did not predict student achievement
• Most important predictor was family background
• This study proves that inequalities happen before kids even go to school, therefore schools cannot be blamed.
The Bell Curve
• By Herrnstein and Murray
• Believed that the differences in school and learning was due to intelligence difference
• They believed that white people were intellectually superior to minorities
• They also believed that intelligence was largely inherited.
History of Sexuality
• Emphasized the importance of sexuality and the role of the human body in obtaining sexual power.
• Believed that people should reject the social constraints on the body.
The Beauty myth
• Created by Naomi Wolf
• Claims that media confronts the vast majority of people with an unattainable standard of beauty
• Believed that the standard of beauty was the "male gaze"
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