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33 terms

Foundations of College Chemistry - Test 1 (chapters 1-3)

STUDY
PLAY
science
observation and study of physical creation
chemistry
study of matter
scientific method
procedure for disproving false (physical) ideas
significant figure
digit in a number that conveys real information about the measurement being made
scientific notation
expressing numbers as power of 10
standard form
scientific notation in which the decimal portion has one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point
conversion factor
quantity that changes the units of a measurement without changing the value of the measurement
unit equivalence
defined or calculated relationship between two units (e.g. 60 minutes = 1 hour)
density
mass per unit volume, or d = m/v
pure substance
matter with the same kind of atoms or molecules throughout
pure element
matter with only one kind of atom throughout
pure compound
matter with only one kind of molecule throughout
mixture
matter with different atoms or molecules throughout
homogenous mixture
mixture with two or more kinds of atoms or molecules, evenly mixed; a solution
heterogenous mixture
mixture with two or more kinds of atoms and/or molecules unevenly mixed
matter
anything that has mass and occupies space; also called a substance
state of matter
solid, liquid or gas; also called a "phase"; also know as phases of matter
element
substance that cannot be decomposed by any physical or chemical process
metals
solids that conduct electricity (mercury is the only exception - liquid)
non-metals
solids or gases that do not conduct electricity (bromine is the only exception - liquid)
metalloids
solids that sometimes conduct current, sometimes do not; also called semiconductors or semimetals
atoms
smallest particles with properties of an element
compound
substance made of two or more atoms chemically combined
molecule
smallest particle with the properties of a compound
diatomic molecules
molecules made of two of the same kind of atom; also called diatomic elements
chemical forumla
show the kind(s) and proportions of atoms in a molecule
allotrope
different molecular forms of an element
ionic formulas
formula which a has a positive atom/group and a negative atom/group
ion
charged atom or group (positive or negative)
polyatomic group
charged group of atoms (not a molecule)
cation
positive ion
anion
negative ion
neutral
no charge; the condition of an unreacted atom, or an atom existing as a diatomic element