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observation and study of physical creation


study of matter

scientific method

procedure for disproving false (physical) ideas

significant figure

digit in a number that conveys real information about the measurement being made

scientific notation

expressing numbers as power of 10

standard form

scientific notation in which the decimal portion has one non-zero digit to the left of the decimal point

conversion factor

quantity that changes the units of a measurement without changing the value of the measurement

unit equivalence

defined or calculated relationship between two units (e.g. 60 minutes = 1 hour)


mass per unit volume, or d = m/v

pure substance

matter with the same kind of atoms or molecules throughout

pure element

matter with only one kind of atom throughout

pure compound

matter with only one kind of molecule throughout


matter with different atoms or molecules throughout

homogenous mixture

mixture with two or more kinds of atoms or molecules, evenly mixed; a solution

heterogenous mixture

mixture with two or more kinds of atoms and/or molecules unevenly mixed


anything that has mass and occupies space; also called a substance

state of matter

solid, liquid or gas; also called a "phase"; also know as phases of matter


substance that cannot be decomposed by any physical or chemical process


solids that conduct electricity (mercury is the only exception - liquid)


solids or gases that do not conduct electricity (bromine is the only exception - liquid)


solids that sometimes conduct current, sometimes do not; also called semiconductors or semimetals


smallest particles with properties of an element


substance made of two or more atoms chemically combined


smallest particle with the properties of a compound

diatomic molecules

molecules made of two of the same kind of atom; also called diatomic elements

chemical forumla

show the kind(s) and proportions of atoms in a molecule


different molecular forms of an element

ionic formulas

formula which a has a positive atom/group and a negative atom/group


charged atom or group (positive or negative)

polyatomic group

charged group of atoms (not a molecule)


positive ion


negative ion


no charge; the condition of an unreacted atom, or an atom existing as a diatomic element

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