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Theories and Theorists
A Study guide to help study the basics of the theories so that I can reference them as I write my TWS next semester. This is also a quick study guide before I take the PPR exam for teacher certification.
Terms in this set (108)
What are Piaget's stages of development?
Formal operational, Concrete operational, Preoperational, and Sensorimotor
What is the Formal operational Stage of Cognitive development?
The adolescent can reason abstractly and think in hypothetical terms.
What is the Concrete operational Stage of Cognitive development?
The child can think logically about concrete objects and can thus add and subtract. The child also understands conservation.
What is the Preoperational Stage of Cognitive development?
The child uses symbols (words and images) to represent objects but does not reason logically. The child also has the ability to pretend. During this stage, the child is egocentric.
What is the Sensorimotor Stage of Cognitive development?
The infant explores the world through direct sensory and motor contact? Object permanence and separation anxiety develop during this stage.
Between what ages are children egocentric and have trouble understanding different viewpoints or empathizing with others, according to Piaget?
between 2 and 7
From what ages are children capable of logical thought about objects or events?
between 7 to 11
What does Piaget recommend teachers to do?
Take an active, mentoring role toward students. Instead of pushing information at students while they sit and listen passively, share the learning experience and encourage students to be active and engaged. Take your students seriously and repect their ideas, suggestions, and opinions.
Piaget: Teachers should encourage students to learn from their peers. True or False
Piaget: Teachers should allow students to learn from their mistakes. True or False
Piaget: Students should not be independent and work in independent learning environments. True or False
Piaget: Children do not reach developmental stages at different times, but actually develop at the same rate.
True or False
Who is responsible for the Psychosocial Theory of Development?
Year range of Trust vs. Mistrust?
Birth to 18 months
Year range of Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt?
2 to 3 years
Year range of Initiative vs. Guilt?
3 to 5 years
Year range of Industry vs. Inferiority?
6 to 11 years
Year range of Identity vs. Role Confusion?
12 to 18 years
Year range of Intimacy vs. Isolation?
19 to 40 years
Year range of Generativity vs. Stagnation?
40 to 65 years
Year range of Ego Integrity vs. Despair?
65 to death
Trust vs. Mistrust
Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliability, care, and affection. A lack of this will lead to mistrust.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence. Success leads to feelings of autonomy, failure results in feelings of shame and doubt.
Initiative vs. Guilt
Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval, resulting in a sense of guilt.
Industry vs. Inferiority
Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. Success leads to a sense of competence, while failure results in feelings of inferiority.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self.
Intimacy vs. Isolation
Young adults need to form intimate, loving relationships with other people. Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation.
Generativity vs. Stagnation
Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world.
Ego Integrity vs. Despair
Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment. Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.
Which theorist is responsible for the Stages of Moral Development?
What are the 6 stages of Moral Development?
1) Obedience or Punishment Orientation 2) Self-Interest Orientation 3) Social Conformity Orientation 4) Law and Order Orientation 5) Social Contract Orientation 6) Universal Ethics Orientation
What two stages or moral development are pre-conventional morality?
Obedience or Punishment Orientation AND Self-Interest Orientation
What two stages of moral development are conventional morality?
Social Conformity Orientation and Law and Order Orientation
What two stages of moral development are pose-conventional morality?
Social Contract Orientation and Universal Ethics Orientation
Obedience or Punishment Orientation
This is the stage that all young children start at (and a few adults remain in). Rules are seen as being fixed and absolute. Obeying the rules is important because it means avoiding punishment.
As children grow older, they begin to see that other people have their own goals and preferences and that often there is room for negotiation. Decisions are made based on the principle of "What's in it for me?" For example, an older child might reason: "If I do what mom or dad wants me to do they will reward me. Therefore I will do it."
Social Conformity Orientation
By adolescence, most individuals have developed to this stage. Thee is a sense of what "good boys" and "nice girls" do and the emphasis is on living up to social expectations and norms because of how they impact day-to-day relationships.
Law and Order Orientation
By the time individuals reach adulthood, they usually consider society as a whole when making judgments. The focus is on maintaining law and order by following the rules, doing one's duty and respecting authority.
Social Contract Orientation
At this stage, people understand that there are differing opinions out there on what is right and wrong and that laws are really just a social contract based on majority decision and inevitable compromise. People at this stage sometimes disobey rules if they find them to be inconsistent with their personal values and will also argue for certain laws to be changed if they are no longer "working". Our modern democracies are based on the reasoning of Stage 5.
Universal Ethics Orientation
Few people operate at this stage all the time. It is based on abstract reasoning and the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes. At this stage, people have a principled conscience and will follow universal ethical principles regardless of what the official laws and rules are.
Which theorist is responsible for the multiple intelligence theory?
capacity to use language to express what's on your mind and to understand people
What do linguistic students enjoy?
word games, reading, writing, and telling stories, discussion groups, jokes, riddles and puns
What lessons would be great for linguistic students?
Tell a story to explain, conduct a debate, write a poem, story legend, short play, or news article, conduct an interview, create a radio show, write a report, use the internet to research
Logical Mathematical Intelligence
understanding the underlying principles of some causal system
What do logical mathematical students enjoy?
mathematics, analytical thinking, patterns and symmetry, solving arithmetic problems in their heads, analogies, computers, jigsaw and math puzzles, sciences experiements
What lessons would be great for logical mathematical students?
Translate into a mathematical formula, design and conduct a science experiement, make up syllogisms or analogies to demonstrate, describe the patterns found in, design an internet website, write a computer program to play a game
the ability to represent the spatial world internally in your mind
What do visual/spatial students enjoy?
art, drawing, doodling, pictures, video presentations, sculpting, manipulating objects, visualization, color
What lessons would be great for visual/spatial students?
Chart, map, cluster, or graph, create a slide show, videotape, or photo album, use art to demonstrate, invent a board game, draw, paint, scult, illustrate, use visualization to explain, create or use a model, use computer animation
Bodily Kinesthetic Intelligence
the capacity to use the whole body or body parts to solve a problem or make something
What do bodily kinesthetic students enjoy?
movement, sports, dancing, learning by doing, building and constructing, performing, participating in demonstrations, games that involve movement
What lessons would be great for bodily kinesthetic students?
make a task or puzzle cards, build or construct, do a demonstration
the capacity to think in music, hear patterns, recognize remember and manipulate them
What do musical students enjoy?
remembering music, rhythmical patterns, repeating the words to songs, environmental sounds, melodies, background music or sounds
What lessons would be great for musical students?
Sing or create-song to explain, find a musical accompaniment, make an instrument to explain, find the rhythmical patterns in, describe the sounds heard, set text to a melody or music, investigate the musical influences of a period in time add music to computer text
understanding and dealing well with other people
What do interpersonal students enjoy?
helping others, joining clubs, taking a leadership position, group activities, peer interactions, cooperative reaming, listening to others, and selling their ideas
What lessons would be great for interpersonal students?
Conduct a meeting, apply social skills to learn something new, participate in a service project, practice giving and receiving opinions, teach someone a new skill, lead a team effort to create or present, connect with other students to reseasrch over the web
having an udnerstaning of yourself, knowing who you are and what you can do, how you react to things, which things to avoid, and which things gravitate to you
What do intrapersonal students enjoy?
being aware of their own emotions, values, and feelings, keeping journals, evoking personal memories, having choices, self-monitoring, setting and achieving personal goals, time to work on personal inteests, and hobbies
What lessons would be great for intrapersonal students?
describe the qualities that win, help you be successful, set and pursue a goal to write a gournal entry, write a journal entry from someone else's perspective, assess your own work, conduct research using the internet
sensitivity to the features of the natural world or environment, valuing out evolutionary past as hunters, gathers, and farmers
What do naturalist students enjoy?
exploring the environment, plants and animals, looking for patterns in the environment, observing and describing the natural world, discriminating among living and nonliving things, recognizing environmental patterns
What lessons would be great for naturalist students?
creat observation notebooks or videos, describe changes in local environment, care for pets, wildlife, gardens, or parks, use binoculars, telescopes and microscopes, darw or photograph natural objects, show environmental changes using a web page
What does psyche mean?
What does social mean?
Which theorist believed that children are trying to make sense of their world and they do not work on this alone?
A basic assumption of Vygotsky's theory is that thinking is influenced and shaped by one's __________.
When Vygotsky says that one's thinking is influenced and shaped by one's culture, what two things does that include?
Social forces and historical forces
Define "Psychosocial tools"
aid and change one's thought processes
What are some examples of psychosocial tools?
maps, symbols, gestures, speech, writing, scientific formulas, musical notations, rules, memory techniques
Define "Social interaction"
primary cause of cognitive development
Vygotsky is a stage theorist. True or False
Vygotsky is a constructivist theorist.
What is the constructivist view? (Two things.)
children do need to work things out internally for themselves and people need to construct knowledge
What makes up the Zone of Proximal Development?
inner zone, outer zone, and ZPD
what's too boring for the learner? EX: the parts of a bicycle, learning to ride a tricycle
what's beyond their current abilities? EX: riding without training wheels doing tricks while riding a bicycle
What is the Zone of Proximal Development?
What's the current goal of the child? What do you notice that the child is capable of doing, not dangerous, not boring, will be exciting for that child? EX: riding with one training wheel off, you hold the back of the bicycle for a day or so until they can do this on their own
Supporting learning during its early phases, as students become more capable of working independently, supports are withdrawn
What are some forms of scaffolding support?
prompts, suggestions, words of encouragement, modeling, cognitive structuring
Social learning is learning that is done alone. True or False
People learn more from communicating and interacting with others. True or False
The teacher should strive to serve as a facilitator. True or False
What should a teacher do to encourage social learning?
serve as a facilitator, guiding the learners, answering questions, discovering with students
What is the Old Bloom? From lowest form of thinking to highest?
knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, evaluation
What is the New Bloom? From lowest form of thinking to highest?
remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, creating
Bloom's Taxonomy: Remembering
recall, define, or list
Bloom's Taxonomy: Understanding
Bloom's Taxonomy: Applying
using information, solving problems
Bloom's Taxonomy: Analyzing
organizing and classifying
Bloom's Taxonomy: Evaluating
generalize, predict or draw conclusions
Bloom's Taxonomy: Creating
compare, judge, explain
Who developed the Hierarchy Chart of Needs?
How many stages are there in the Hierarchy of Needs?
What are the stages of the Hierarchy of Needs?
biological and physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization
personal growth and fulfillment
achievement, status, responsibility, reputation
Belongingness and Love Needs
family, affection, relationships, work groups
protection, security, order, law, limits, stability
Biological and Physiological Needs
basic life needs-air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep
Who believed that we do have such a thing as a mind, but that it is simply more productive to study observable behavior rather than internal mental events?
Who believed that believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning?
Which theorist is associated with operant conditioning?
What is operant conditioning?
a type of learning in which an individual's behavior is modified by its antecedents and consequences
Define positive reinforcement
works by presenting a motivating/reinforcing stimulus to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior more likely to happen in the future.
Define negative reinforcement
occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive stimulus) is removed after a particular behavior is exhibited. The likelihood of the particular behavior occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative consequence
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