Terms in this set (34)
the biological process whereby genetic factors are transmitted from one generation to the next
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
(biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
one of two alternate forms of a gene that can have the same locus on homologous chromosomes and are responsible for alternative traits
the specific site of a particular gene on its chromosome
reproduction without the fusion of gametes
a group of genetically identical cells or organisms derived from a single cell or individual by some kind of asexual reproduction
reproduction involving the union or fusion of a male and a female gamete
all the cells of your body except your sex cells
chromosome pairs that are similar in size, shape, genes, and band patterns.
A picture of all the chromosomes in a cell arranged in pairs
Chromosomes that determine the sex of an individual, X and Y
Chromosomes that do not determine the sex of an individual
reproductive cells, have only half the number of chromosomes as body cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
the cell resulting from the union of an ovum and a spermatozoon (including the organism that develops from that cell)
making fertile as by applying fertilizer or manure
the union of gametes in fertilization
an organism or cell having two sets of chromosomes or twice the haploid number
cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
alternation of generations
A life cycle in which there is both a multicellular diploid form, the sporophyte, and a multicellular haploid form, the gametophyte; characteristic of plants.
the spore-producing individual or phase in the life cycle of a plant having alternation of generations
single-celled reproductive bodies highly resistant to cold and heat damage; capable of new organisms
Haploid, or gamete-producing, phase of an organism
The first division of a two-stage process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the chromosome number of the original cell.
the second phase of meiosis consisting of chromatids separating, along with the two diploid cells splitting in two
process by which a tetrad is formed from homologous chromosomes
structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
a point of overlap of paired chromatids at which fusion and exchange of genetic material occurs during prophase I of meiosis
the exchange of genetic material between two paired chromosomes during meiosis metaphase
A transposable genetic element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.
A chromosome created when crossing over combines the DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.
the scientist responsible for discover transposable elements, or "jumping genes"
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