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German term meaning "lightning war" used to describe Germany's novel military tactics in World War II, which involved the rapid movement of infantry, tanks, adn airpower over large areas

European Economic Community

also known as the common market, an alliance formed by Italy, France, West Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg in 1957 and dedicated to developing common trade policies and reduced tariffs, developed into European union

European Union

the final step in a series of arrangements to increase cooperation between European states in the wake of World War II, formally established in 1994


political ideology marked by it's intense nationalism and authoritarianism


young middle-class women who emerged as a new form of social expression after World War I, flouting conventions and advocating open sexuality

fourteen points

plan of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson to establish lasting peace at the end of World War I; although Wilson's views were popular in Europe, his vision largely failed

Franco-Prussian War

German war with France (1870-1871) that ended with the defeat of France and the unification of Germany into one state under Prussian rule

Franz Ferdinand

Heir to the Austrian throne whose assassination by a serbian nationalist on June 28th 1914 was the spark that ignited World War I

Great War

Name originall given to the first World War (1914-1918)

Adolf Hitler

Leader of the German Nazi party (1889-1945) and Germany's head of state from 1933 until his death


Name commonly used for the Nazi genocide of Jews and other 'undesirables'


Literally 'crystal night', name given to the night of November 9 1938, when Nazi-led gangs smashed and looted Jewish shops throughout Germany

League of Nations

International peacekeeping organization created after World War I, first proposed by U.S. president woodrow wilson as part of his fourteen points


Japanese puppet state established in Manchuria in 1931

Marshall Plan

huge U.S. government initiative to aid in the post- world war II restoration of Europe that was masterminded by U.S. secretar of State George Marshall and put into effect in 1947

Benitio Mussolini

charismatic leader of the Italian fascist party (1883-1945) who came to power in 1922

Rape of Nanjing

The japanese army's systematic killing, mutilation, and rape of the Chinese civillian population of Nanjing in 1938


the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military and political alliance founded in 1949 that committed the united states to the defense of Europe in the event of soviet agression

Nazi Germany

Germany ruled by Hitler and the Nazi party from 1933-1945, a fascist state dedicated to extreme nationalism, territorial expansion, and purification of the German state

Nazi Party

properly known as the National Socialist democratic workers party, the nazi party was founded in Germany shortly after World War I and advocated a strongly authoritarian and nationalist regime based on notions of racial superiority

New Deal

a series of reforms enacted by the Franklin Roosevelt administration between 1933 and 1942 with the goal of ending the great depression

Nuremberg Laws

series of Laws passed by the NAzi dominated German parliament in 1935 that forbade sexual relations between Jews and other Germans and mandated that Jews identify themselves in public by wearing the star of David

Revolutionary Right (Japan)

also known as Radical Nationalism, this was a movement in Japanese political life that was marked by extreme nationalism a commitment to elite leadership focused around the emporer, and dedication to foreign expansion

total war

war that requires each country involved to mobilize its entire population in the effort to defeat the enemy

treaty of versailles

1919 treat that officially ended World War I; the immense penalties it placed on Germany are regarded as one of the causes of World War II

triple alliance

an alliance consisting of Germany, Austria, and Italy that was one of the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I

triple entente

an alliance consisting of Russia, France, and Britain that was one the two rival European alliances on the eve of World War I

united nations

international peacekeeping organization and forum for the international opinion, made in 1945

Weimar Republic

the weak government that replaced the German imperial state at the end of World War I; its failure to take action against war reparations and the great depression made it easier for the Nazi party to take control

Woodrow Wilson

president of the U.S, from 1913-1921 who was especially noted for his idealistic approach to the end of World War I, he wrote the fourteen points

World War I

The 'Great War' 1914-1918 in essence a European civil war with global implications, massive casualties, expansion of offensive military technology beyond tactics and means of defense and a great deal of disillusionment of the idea of progress

World War II in Asia

a struggle essentially to halt japanese imperial expansion in Asia, fought by the Japanese against primarily chinese and american foes

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