Primary liver: ALT, ALP, GGT, Alb, T, Globulin, Alb to Glob ratio.
Secondary liver: TBili, Chol, BUN, Gluc, Trig.
Primary kidney: BUN, Creatinine.
Secondary kidney: Ca, P, Na, K, Cl, TCO2 (bicarbonate).
Primary pancreas: Amy, Lip, BUN, Creat.
Secondary pancreas: Gluc, Ca, Alb, ALT, ALP, GGT, TBili, Chol, Trig.
ALT, AST, GD, SD, ALP, GGT, T Bil, Bile Acids, Ammonia, TP, Alb, Globulin, A:G Ratio, Fibrinogen, and Chol. Total Protein. The sum of all proteins that circulate in the plasma; total serum protein is usually measured. Total plasma protein is slightly higher than total serum mostly because of the fibrinogen in the plasma that's gone in the serum due to clotting. Most of these proteins are produced in the liver.
-Transport of nutrients, hormones, metabolic waste products, maintain osmosis and buffer acids, immunoglobulins and acute phase proteins are important in immunity, some are essential for hemostasis, platelet aggregation, and coagulation.
-Increases with dehydration or increased antibody production. Decreases with overhydration, decreased albumin production (like in liver disease), decreased production of immunoglobulins, protein loss from hemorrhage, vasculitis or vessel injury, protein loss from kidney disease/ the intestine.
-Checking for liver or kidney disease, or with edema, ascites, diarrhea, weight loss, or coagulation problems.
*If animal's dehydrated, both TP and the hematocrit should be elevated.
The other part of total serum protein (albumin + globulin = TP). Include 3 groups: alpha, beta, gamma (can separate by electrophoresis). Alpha and beta are produced in the liver, gamma are produced by plasma cells.
-Alpha and beta include carrier proteins, acute phase proteins, clotting factors, complement. Gamma are the immunoglobulins (antibodies).
-Decreased caused by overhydration, loss of globulins from the body (hemorrhage, massive exudation, protein- losing enteropathy), failure of passive colostral transfer of immunoglobulins, defect in immunoglobulin synthesis. Increased caused by dehydration, increased globulin synthesis (acute phase proteins in inflammation, immunoglobulins), neoplastic B-lymphocytes.
-Goes along with A:G ratio.
*Total plasma protein would include albumin, globulin, and fibrinogen.
*Acute phase proteins are involved in the inflammatory process.
*Increased antigenic stimulation increases antibody production (seen as increased globulin value).
*Globulins aren't measured directly- instead total serum protein - albumin = globulin.
The negatively and positively charged elements found in the body fluids (intra and extracellular).
-They help to maintain water balance, osmotic pressure, muscular and nervous functions. They also maintain and activate enzyme systems and acid- base balance.
-Measurements are used primarily for assessment of severity of bodily fluid disorders rather than determination of a specific diagnosis. Electrolyte patterns aren't really characteristic of a specific disease. Will see changes in electrolytes with disorders like:
Diarrhea, renal disease, dietary salt deficiency, ruptured urinary bladder, edema, ascites, cardiac failure, hemorrhage, vomiting, panting/ sweating, restricted water intake, grain overload- lactic acidosis, consumption of sea water, force feeding improperly formulated diet by tubing with inadequate water intake.
Calcium ions: + cation. An important mineral in the body. 99% is in the bones, 1% in extracellular fluid (plasma too).
-Component of bones. Required for transmission of nerve impulses, muscle contraction, and blood coagulation. Active in cellular biochemical process.
-Hypercalcemia (increase) seen with hyperparathyroidism that leads to kidney failure, renal disease (horses, dogs, and cows), hypercalcemia of malignancy (commonly associated with lymphomas and carcinomas), or osteolytic bone lesions (septic osteomyelitis/ myeloma). Hypocalcemia (decrease) seen with acute pancreatitis (about half of all dogs become hypocalcemic), milk fever in cows (sudden demand for Ca in lactation), eclampsia in pregnancy in the bitch, mare, or ewe (associated with increased protein in the urine- signs are edema, convulsions, or coma in pregnancy), or using EDTA plasma for Ca test (EDTA ties up Ca and produces false negative).
-Test used to look for issues listed above.
*Often there's a reciprocol relationship between Ca and P levels in the plasma: Ca increases, P decreases and vice versa.