CH 12 Mader/ CH 17 Campbell Gene to Protein
Terms in this set (46)
Beadle and Tatum
Showed that each gene encodes a particular substance ("one gene, one enzyme" concept).
one gene one polypeptide hypothesis
the hypothesis that every gene directs the synthesis of a particular polypeptide chain; originally called the one geneone enzyme hypothesis.
the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
..., Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes.
An initial RNA transcript; also called pre-mRNA.
the normal version of the genetic code in which a sequence of three nucleotides codes for the synthesis of a specific amino acid
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
determined the first match: UUU coded for the amino acid phenylalanine.
the way a cell's mRNA-translating machinery groups the mRNA nucleotides into codons
enzyme similar to DNA polymerase that binds to DNA and separates the DNA strands during transcription
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
region of DNA that indicates to an enzyme where to bind to make RNA
A promoter DNA sequence crucial in forming the transcription initiation complex.
proteins that switch on genes by binding to DNA and helping the RNA polymerase to bind
transcription initiation complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter.
The modified end of the 3' end of an mRNA molecule consisting of the addition of some 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides.
when pre-mRNA is modified the 5 primed end is synthesized first; it is a modified form of a guanine nucleotide
a non-coding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene AKA junk DNA
expressed sequence of DNA; codes for a protein
process by which the introns are removed from RNA transcripts and the remaining exons are joined together
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
a RNA molecule that acts as an enzyme
alternative RNA splicing
..., A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
a taxonomic category above the kingdom level; the three domains of life are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya
short-chain RNA molecules present in the cell (in at least 20 varieties, each variety capable of combining with a specific amino acid) that attach the correct amino acid to the protein chain that is being synthesized at the ribosome of the cell (according
group of three bases on a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon
A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
one of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. It holds the tRNA carrying the growing polypeptide chain.
holds the tRNA carrying the next amino acid to be added to the chain
DNA replication is initiated when helicase enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the base pairs together and the DNA uncoils. The initiation codon is methionine or AUG
addition of amino acids to the polypeptide chain; continues until it reaches a stop codon
end of mRNA synthesis (i.e., transcription) at the terminator site
An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
A stretch of amino acids on a polypeptide that targets the protein to a specific destination in a eukaryotic cell.
signal recognition particle
A protein-RNA complex that recognizes a signal peptide as it emerges from the ribosome.
base pair substitution
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
A mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the three stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein.
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene, i.e ATG -> ATTG
one or more bases are removed from gene
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
Factors in the environment that cause mutations.
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THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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