Control of Eukaryotic Genomes
Terms in this set (29)
protein molecules around which DNA is tightly coiled in chromatin
Nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it is visible with a light microscope during interphase.
a region of DNA that is uncoiled and undergoing active transcription into RNA
Nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome. The repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome.
short sequences of DNA that are repeated many times and are often clumped at the centromeres and telomeres
short stretch of DNA originally characterized by the action of the restriction endonuclease
collections of identical or very similar genes
genes that have become inactivated by mutations
An increase in the number of copies of a particular segment of DNA
(jumping genes) short strands of DNA capable of moving from one location to another within a cell's genetic material
Transposable elements that move within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA.
classified into IgG IgA IgM IgE IgD, characterized by antigenic, structural, and functional differences, antibodies that are secreted by plasma cells in the humoral immunity
gene that is pieced together form hundreds of different variable regions that are widely separated,the combinations produce genomes that will produse specific antibodies
The process by which a cell becomes specialized in order to perform a specific function, as in the case of a liver cell, a blood cell, or a neuron.
a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent
The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins.
Segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription of a gene by binding proteins called transcription factors.
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes.
Transcription factors that bind to DNA and increase the rate of transcription
DNA binding domain
A part of the three-dimensional structure of a transcription factor that binds to DNA.
alternative RNA splicing
A type of eukaryotic gene regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript, depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns
a giant protein complex that recognizes and destroys proteins tagged for elimination by the small protein ubiquitin
genes that cause cancer by blocking the normal controls on cell reproduction
normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes, they promote growth. alterations in the expression of these cells result in oncogenes
tumor suppressor genes
A gene whose protein products inhibit cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer)
a G protein that is coded for by the ras gene. it relays growth factor information.
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
The "guardian angel of the genome," p53 is expressed when a cell's DNA is damaged. Its product, p53 protein, functions as a transcription factor for several genes.
The addition of methyl groups (—CH3) to bases of DNA after DNA synthesis; may serve as a long-term control of gene expression.
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