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Chapter 12 Abnormal Psych Exam
Terms in this set (88)
unusual emotional states or affect
refers to lack of emotion even in situations that call for great joy or sadness
refers to a mood that does not match the context of a given situation
People with psychotic disorders also have extremely rigid or bizarre thoughts
sensory experiences without a real environmental stimulus
positions by remaining in a near immovable state for hours
Those with psychotic disorders often have trouble going to work or engaging in daily self-care such as washing or getting dressed. This is known as
People with ?, especially those in the active phase of the disorders, cannot work, communicate with others, think rationally, or care for themselves
The most well known of the psychoses, and the one we devote the most attention to in this chapter, is ?
Positive symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations and negative symptoms such as lack of speech or emotion and failure to care for ones
Features of schizophrenia for 1 to 6 months but not necessarily with great impairment in daily functioning
Characteristic features of schizophrenia and a depressive or manic episode
No psychotic symptoms except for one or more delusions
Brief psychotic disorder
Several key features of schizophrenia for 1 day to 1 month
positive and negative
Schizophrenia generally consists of two main groups of symptoms: ? and ?
of schizophrenia represent excessive or overt (act of selectively attending to an item or location over others by moving the eyes to point in that direction) symptoms
of schizophrenia represent deficit or covert (paying attention without moving the eyes) symptoms
of schizophrenia include delusions and hallucinations as well as disorganized speech and behavior
of schizophrenia include lack of speech or emotion and failure to care for oneself
key positive symptom of schizophrenia is a
? is an irrational belief involving a misperception of life experiences. Are usually very fixed beliefs, meaning they are highly resistant to others' attempts to persuade the person otherwise, and are often incomprehensible and simply untrue.
are the type of delusion most commonly seen in people with schizophrenia; these delusions represent irrational beliefs that one is being harmed or harassed in some way
Persecutory delusions may intersect with ?, in which a person may believe others are deliberately:
-placing thoughts in her mind without permission (thought insertion)
-transmitting his thoughts so everyone can know them (thought broadcasting)
-stealing her thoughts and creating memory loss (thought withdrawal)
represent irrational beliefs that one is an especially powerful or important person, when actually this is not so
are irrational beliefs that events in everyday life have something special to do with oneself
are sensory experiences a person believes to be true, when actually they are not
The most common hallucination in schizophrenia is ?, in which a person may hear voices that repeat her thoughts, comment on her appearance or behavior, argue, or command her to do something
visual or tactile
Hallucinations can also be ? or ?, as when a person sees images or visions not seen by others or feels bizarre sensations on his skin
Hallucinations can even be olfactory. What does this describe?
Many people with schizophrenia also show ?. Speech patterns such as a person cannot maintain a regular conversation
Other people with schizophrenia speak quite clearly, stop without warning, and then talk about a completely different topic. This phenomenon, known as ?, requires the listener to constantly steer the speaker back to the original topic of conversation
Many people with schizophrenia are ? not only in their speech but also in their behavior. A person may be unable to care for herself and not engage in appropriate hygiene, dress, or even eating. The person may be highly agitated as well or show inappropriate affect or emotions in a given situation
unusual motor symptoms
A person with schizophrenia may not react to environmental events such as someone saying hello or may seem completely unaware of his surroundings known as ?
waxy flexibility or catalepsy
A person's body part, such as an arm, can be moved to a different posture and that posture is maintained for long periods. This is known as?
stereotypy or agitation
show wild or uncontrolled motor activity
repeat others' words ? or actions ?
Delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and behavior are ? symptoms of schizophrenia
? symptoms of schizophrenia refer to pathological deficits in behavior, or showing too little of a certain behavior
- flat affect
Common negative symptoms in schizophrenia include:
speaking very little to other people and appearing withdrawn. Even when a person with schizophrenia does speak, his language is often very basic and brief
inability or unwillingness to engage in goal-directed activities such as caring for oneself, working, or speaking to others. A person with these negative symptoms may appear depressed
lack of pleasure or interest in life activities
People with schizophrenia often, but not always, progress through stages of symptoms. Many begin with a ? that can last days, weeks, months, or even years. This phase is often marked by peculiar behaviors such as minor disturbances in speech and thought processes, odd or withdrawn social interactions, perceptual distortions, attention and memory problems, and symptoms of depression and anxiety
Following the prodromal phase, a person may enter a ? marked by the first "full-blown" positive symptom of schizophrenia such as a hallucination. Last two months
This 6-month (or longer) period must include a 1-month phase in which the symptoms are especially acute, or an ?. Usually experiences many "full-blown" positive and negative symptoms and needs hospitalization to protect himself and others
Following treatment, many people with schizophrenia advance to a ? that usually involves symptoms very similar to the prodromal phase
Many people with schizophrenia show ?, meaning their symptoms are present in different combinations and severity
People who show features of schizophrenia for 1 to 6 months, and whose daily life functioning may not yet be greatly impaired, may have ?. This disorder is sometimes thought of as a first-episode psychosis
A person who meets many of the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia may also meet diagnostic criteria for depression. She may thus qualify for a diagnosis of ?
-schizophrenia and a depressive or manic episode
Schizoaffective disorder includes characteristic features of
-?, which is considered to be primary, delusions or hallucinations must last at least 2 weeks without prominent symptoms of a mood disorder
-and a ? or ? that later is developed after the primary feature, which may happen when she experiences negative consequences such as a job loss due to odd behavior
depressive type and bipolar type
Two subtypes of schizoaffective disorder include ? and ?, the latter meaning the co-occurrence of main features of schizophrenia with manic episodes.
A person with delusional disorder may have one or more of the following delusions:
-?, such as the mistaken belief a special person, such as a celebrity, loves the person from a distance
-?, such as the mistaken belief one is an especially powerful, famous, or knowledgeable person
-?, such as the mistaken belief a spouse is having an affair
-?, such as Jody's mistaken belief another person aimed to harm her
-?, or a mistaken belief about one's body, such as having some serious medical disease
folie à deux
Some people develop a delusion because of their close relationship with another person who also has a delusion. This is sometimes called ?. The two people often share similar ideas with respect to the irrational belief
brief psychotic disorder
often occur after an environmental stressor or traumatic event, which involves several key features of schizophrenia occurring for 1 day to 1 month
Psychotic symptoms may occur in women after giving birth ?
-0.33 to 0.72
-males than females
Schizophrenia occurs in ? to ? percent of the general population. Median age of onset is ?, and schizophrenia is somewhat more frequent among ?, which means they have more sever symptoms. ? with schizophrenia tend to have symptoms at a younger age than ? with schizophrenia.
-biological factors in women such as protective hormone or less brain changes
-women function better in work and social settings
reason's why men have more severe schizophrenia symptoms than women
-substance use disorders
The most common mental disorders otherwise associated with schizophrenia are
could develop before schizophrenia and help trigger psychotic symptoms or vice versa
much more common among people with schizophrenia (4.9 percent) than the general population (0.01-0.03 percent)
As many as ? of people with schizophreniform disorder may eventually receive a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder
-problem is limited in duration and scope
-many people recover quickly.
Brief psychotic disorder is thus considered to be an acute transient psychosis because ?
Acute transient psychoses
? differ from schizophrenia in that they involve more females, a later age of onset, greater anxiety and fluctuation of symptoms, and less social withdrawal
people with schizophrenia who had more social contacts experienced ?
symptoms and treatments
Stigma associated with schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders is important because it affects ? and ?
schizophrenia is present in less than 1 percent of the general population. Children of people with schizophrenia, however, are about ? more likely than the general population to develop schizophrenia. Grandchildren of people with schizophrenia are about ? more likely than the general population to develop schizophrenia.
polygenic or multilocus model
Many people with schizophrenia may also have multiple genes that work together to help produce the disorder. This is known as ?
-general failure in normal brain development or disruption of pathways from one area of the brain to the next.
-Another possibility is that added space means critical brain areas are less well developed than they should be.
How might enlarged ventricles lead to schizophrenia?
? may involve neural connections between areas of the brain that influence cognition and language.
temporal lobe areas
People with schizophrenia often have key problems in auditory processing and language, so these problems may be due to differences in ?
-Thalamus and parietal/occipital lobes
-Basal ganglia and cerebellum
specific brain differences implicated in schizophrenia, which also often involve smaller size, include the following:
-?, differences in which may affect the integration of sensory information and visual attention
-?, differences in which may affect motor behavior and output to higher-order brain areas
-?, differences in which may affect language and communication between the brain hemispheres
Enlarged ventricles and reduced brain size in certain areas such as the frontal lobe may help explain ? of schizophrenia
Differences in other areas such as the temporal lobe may help explain ? of schizophrenia
Broca's area and planum temporale.
Some people with schizophrenia may have differences in the heteromodal association cortex, which includes two key brain areas for language processing: ? and ?
Lack of asymmetry in the planum temporale is a possible risk factor for ?
Lack of asymmetry in other brain areas including the anterior cingulate cortex is partially responsible for types of ?
-drugs that lower dopamine levels
-excessive levels of dopamine
The excess dopamine hypothesis has been popular largely because:
-Many people with positive symptoms of schizophrenia are successfully treated with ?
-? may actually produce very low levels of dopamine and create side effects similar to Parkinson's disease, which is caused by deficient levels of dopamine
-?, from methamphetamine intoxication for example, can lead to motor problems and psychotic symptoms
-?, a drug that boosts levels of dopamine in people with Parkinson's disease, can produce psychotic symptoms if taken in excess and can aggravate symptoms of schizophrenia
-?, especially D2 receptors, may be denser in the brains of some people with schizophrenia
avolition and poor speech
The excess dopamine theory was criticized as an overall explanation for schizophrenia, because it did not explain many negative symptoms such as ? and ?
-memory, attention, learning, language, and executive functions
-problem-solving and decision-making abilities
Brain changes and other biological factors may help explain why many people with schizophrenia have several key cognitive deficits that include what 5 functions? What do these 5 functions effect?
hallucinations and delusions
Difficulty processing information may lead to sensory overload, and this may help explain positive symptoms such as ?
Less cognitive impairment may relate to ? dysfunction; more severe impairment may relate to ? dysfunction
One prenatal complication that seems closely involved in psychotic disorders is ?, or low blood flow and oxygen to the brain that can lead to enlarged ventricles
Sociocultural models of schizophrenia also focus on the issue of ? or assigning someone with a diagnosis of severe mental disorder. The process may predispose the person to display symptoms that could be construed as consistent with the disorder. A person just diagnosed with schizophrenia may withdraw from others to avoid discrimination, experience lowered self-esteem and quality of life, become enraged or depressed, and act oddly
Proponents of this model essentially state that a subtle disease process affects brain areas early in life, perhaps as early as the second trimester of the prenatal period, and progresses gradually to the point where full-blown symptoms are produced
theory of mind
People with schizophrenia often develop poor social cognition and ?, or an understanding of the thoughts and beliefs of others
two-hit model of schizophrenia that may help guide prevention efforts.
-A child is deemed to be at particular risk for schizophrenia if his close relatives had schizophrenia (?) and if he experienced a severe environmental stressor such as prenatal complications, residence in an institution, or family conflict, among others (?)
Another target of prevention in general and relapse prevention in particular is ?, that refers to emotional over involvement and hostility on the part of family members toward one another as well as inability to cope with a person's mental disorder, in this case schizophrenia.
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