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MTEL General Curriculum
Terms in this set (350)
How was Old English developed?
developed as the result of the invasion of the British Isles by the Anglo-Saxons.
Germanic groups brought their language and it was blended with the language of the Celts already living in Britain.
How was Middle English developed?
developed forming the Norman Invasion of 1066, led by William the Conqueror.
their language, a version of French, gradually diffused with Old English.
When was the first dictionary published?
a word that has been brought into one language from another with little to no change from the original
a word formed from another word or words.
can also be created by combining other words (ex: blackmail, butterfly, jackpot)
specialized versions of a language, typically found among specific regional, social, or other cultural groups.
can employ their own vocabulary and grammatical patterns.
the understanding that sounds and printed letters are connected.
used to decode and encode words.
follow predictable patterns
Give examples of phonics patterns
long vowel sounds
short vowel sounds
long and short "oo" sounds
hard and soft c and g sounds
the understanding that language is made up of sound units.
emergent literacy skill.
having an ending sound that corresponds with another
having the same beginning sound
the ability to break a word up into its individual component sounds
combining sounds to form words
the study of morphemes (the smallest units of sound that have meaning).
can include roots, prefixes, suffixes.
the manner in which words are arranged into sentences in compliance with grammatical rules.
the branch of linguistics concerned with the meaning of words.
common beginnings and endings that add meaning to base words.
the most basic form of a word that conveys meaning.
information in the text surrounding a new word that helps convey meaning.
What are the three main components of written language?
grammar, usage, and syntax
the set of guidelines which govern the proper use of language.
the proper use of words.
general thing or idea.
does not require capitalization.
ex: girl, country, religion
refers to a specific person, place, thing, or idea.
does require capitalization.
ex: Alicia, Canada, Buddhism
refers to only one thing.
refers to more than one thing.
who or what the sentence is about.
performing the action.
not the main subject and has the verb performed on it.
ex: rock, building
non-physical things, like ideas.
ex: creativity, sadness
take the place of more specific nouns.
the noun that a pronoun stands for.
he, she, I, we, they
him, her, me, us, them
show an action performed by the subject of a sentence.
connect the subject of the sentence to the additional information about the subject.
paired with another verb and are often used to indicate tense.
gives information about the subject.
directly receives the action of the predicate.
answer the questions "whom?" or "what?"
indirectly receives the action of the predicate.
answer the questions "to whom/what?" "from whom/what?"
are the most basic grouping of words.
the words are related but may lack a subject and/or predicate.
groups of words that contain both a subject and a verb.
expresses a complete thought and could stand alone as a complete sentence.
does not express a complete thought and therefore could not stand alone as a complete sentence.
groups of words that contain both a subject and a predicate and express a complete thought.
makes a statement.
ends in a period.
gives a command.
often ends in a period.
asks a question.
ends in a question mark.
shows a strong feeling.
ends with an exclamation point.
contains one independent clause.
contains two or more independent clauses, joined by a conjunction or punctuation mark.
contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
contains at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.
American Colonial Era Literature (16th-18th centuries)
Give themes and examples
themes: survival, relationship between humans and nature, and spirituality.
literature followed politics of the time.
issues of rights, government, liberty, and the future of the nation.
ex: The Mayflower Compact, poetry of Anne Bradstreet, Declaration of Independence, Common Sense
American Early 19th Century Literature
themes: idealistic in nature, presenting the new nation and its heroes in a glorious light.
romanticism (emphasized human emotion) and transcendentalism (religious and philosophical movement that emphasized self-reliance, peaceful living, and harmony with nature).
ex: American folktales, The Scarlett Letter, Moby Dick, Edgar Allen Poe, Henry David Thoreau, Ralph Waldo Emerson
American Mid to Late 19th Century Literature
themes: Civil War, Reconstruction, westward expansion, industrialization, tales of life on the frontier.
realism presented the harsh realities of life introduced by the Civil War.
began to reject the idealistic portrayals of life found in romanticism and instead show life as it is, hardships and all.
ex: Walt Whitman, Emily Dickenson, Uncle Tom's Cabin, The Red Badge of Courage, Mark Twain
American 20th Century Literature
themes: harsh realities of industrialization, two World Wars, Great Depression.
ex: Upton Sinclair, Robert Frost, Ernest Hemingway, The Great Gatsby, Of Mice and Men, To Kill a Mockingbird
uses knowledge of the author's life to frame the criticism of the work.
focuses on the form of the writing.
focuses on the historical context in which the piece was written.
applies the tools of psychology to the author and/or the characters in the piece to try to understand their motivation.
focuses on what happens in the reader's mind as he or she interprets the text.
an interruption in the chronology of a story that takes the narrative back in time from its current point.
an advanced warning or clue as to what is to come later in a story.
exaggeration for emphasis.
a phrase that has come to have a different meaning through usage than the meanings of its individual words.
ex: something easy is a "piece of cake"
descriptive writing that appeals to the senses.
a comparison between two things that does not use "like" or "as."
words that convey sound.
combining two words with opposite meanings.
ex: jumbo shrimp
giving human characteristics to nonhuman things
a comparison between two things that uses "like" or "as."
material that is not an accurate account of real people and events but rather is imagined by the author.
ex: drama, novel, poetry, short story
material that is presented as being factual and accurate.
ex: autobiography, biography, diary, essay, journal, letter, textbook
meant to teach the reader facts about a subject.
ex: biography, autobiography, textbook, encyclopedia
meant to convince the audience of a point of view.
ex: editorial, persuasive essay
provide instructions for the reader.
ex: how-to guide, instruction manual
What are some examples of structural components informational texts have to help students comprehend the material and locate specific information they need?
table of contents
key terms in bold print
illustrations, photographs, charts, tables
How can you familiarize students with informational text features?
have students preview these features before reading.
"text scavenger hunts."
use these features as the basis for outlines or graphic organizers.
when and where the story takes place.
can be real or imagined and is set up early in the story.
underlying idea of a story.
may be a message the author is trying to convey, a lesson learned by the character in the story, or a universal truth.
made up of the events in the story.
What are the five parts to a plot?
introduction - characters, setting, background information.
rising action - story becomes more complex and the conflict is introduced.
climax - the height of the conflict and turning point of the story.
falling action - the conflict begins to resolve itself.
resolution - the conflict is resolved and the story concludes.
What are different types of conflicts?
man vs. man
man vs. self
man vs. nature
man vs. society
man vs. fate
the people who participate in a story.
protagonist (main character or hero) and the antagonist (character that works against protagonist).
What are the different points of view?
first person - one of the characters tells the story.
third person - told by an outside voice.
omniscient - third person narrator who knows everything about all of the characters, including their inner thoughts and feelings.
limited omniscient - third person narrator who only knows the inner thoughts and feelings of one specific character.
form of creative literature written in verse.
repetition of vowel sounds.
repetition of consonant sounds.
one unit of meter.
a story acted out for an audience.
story in which the characters and events represent ideas or concepts.
a short story with a moral lesson.
a short fantasy story typically derived from folklore.
stories involving make-believe that often occur in imaginative realms with creatures or powers that do not exist in real life.
a story passed down through oral traditions.
story that takes place in the past and is realistic for the time period.
a story created to explain natural or social phenomena.
a short story used to teach a moral lesson.
illustrated stories where the text and pictures are interdependent.
fiction that takes place in the contemporary "real world" with characters and situations that are believable.
story created by extending scientific ideas to imaginary, though logical, conclusions; often set in the future.
an exaggerated story, usually about a real person.
What are some themes in children's literature?
perseverance and overcoming obstacles
acceptance of differences in others
cooperation with others
the importance of family and/or friendship
treating others with compassion and kindness
How do you select developmentally appropriate literature for early readers?
find books that are formatted as board books or picture books.
under 50 pages in length and have stories written in simple language and supported by illustrations.
How do you select developmentally appropriate literature for middle grade readers?
longer books that contain more text and fewer illustrations than early readers.
can contain more complex information or plots and more sophisticated vocabulary than early readers.
basic chapter books are okay.
How do you select developmentally appropriate literature for young adults?
literature aimed at teenage audiences with longer chapter books.
What are some different ways to use literature in the classroom?
resource material for research
create cross-curricular connections
model good writing
promote social development skills
foster cross-cultural understanding
Multicultural literature resources should be....
accurate, sensitive, and avoid stereotypes
What are the five stages of the writing process?
helps break long pieces of writing into chunks that are easier for the reader to take in.
each paragraph has a common theme and a new idea prompts the beginning of a new paragraph
How can you help students organize their writing?
teaching story structure and other common structures of writing.
using graphic organizers.
questioning and providing feedback
What are components of a student's writing style?
choosing words that are specific, and thus make a clearer mental picture for the reader.
words or phrases that have meanings other than the literal meanings of the words, used for effect.
words or phrases used to move from one idea to the other.
words used to indicate time.
ex: at first, later, as soon as
words meant to appeal to the five senses, describing the look, sound, feel, taste, and smell of things.
direct quotations spoken by characters in the writing; students must also be taught the proper punctuation for dialogue.
using different types of sentence structures makes writing more interesting for the reader.
writing meant to instruct or explain.
ex: research papers, reports, biographies
writing that tells a story.
ex: novels, short stories, plays
writing that expresses the author's point of view.
ex: argumentative essay, editorial, reviews, advertisements
writing written as a personal message for a specific audience (either about themselves or another person or organization)
ex: journals/diaries, learning logs, business letters, personal letters, emails
writing meant to describe someone or something; uses language that appeals to the senses.
ex: descriptive essays, character sketches
writing drawn from the author's imagination.
ex: fiction, poetry
What are the three main traits of writing?
the feeling or attitude that a piece of writing conveys.
why the author wrote the piece; what is the goal of this piece of writing?
encourage students to maintain focus of the goal of the writing.
who the piece is intended for?
Description Structure of Writing
a writing mode for creating a mental picture of someone or something.
Definition Structure of Writing
provides a statement of the exact meaning of something.
Argument Structure of Writing
presents a case in favor of a particular point of view or opinion.
Examples Structure of Writing
provide evidence to clarify an idea, add details, or to give support to an argument.
What are some techniques to convey meaning?
Two major indigenous groups in North America
Iroquois ("Six Nations" lived in American Northeast) and Pueblo (lived in American Southwest)
When and why did European powers begin to send explorers to North and South America?
in the 1400s
-glory (desire for personal status and to bring prestige to the home country)
-God (convert native populations to Christianity)
-gold (get riches for themselves and natural resources, new trade routes, and trade partners)
Three main regions of the Thirteen Colonies
New England Colonies and Characteristics
NH, MA, RI, CT
rocky soil (poor for farming)
fishing and shipping
Middle Atlantic Colonies and Characteristics
NY, NJ, PA, DE
good conditions for farming
"breadbasket" of the colonies
Southern Colonies and Characteristics
MA, VA, NC, SC, GA
Why did the British impose taxes on the colonists?
the French and Indian War was very costly in the 1700s and they needed to pay off debt.
British soldiers killed five colonial protestors.
Boston Tea Party
colonists protested the aforementioned taxes by boarding a ship and dumping tea into the Boston Harbor.
a British response to the Boston Tea Party
punished Boston specifically
closing of Boston Harbor
How did the American Revolution begin?
Battle of Lexington and Concord in 1775 and was followed by the Battle of Bunker Hill.
What advantage did the Americans have in the American Revolution?
fighting on their own territory and eventually secured aid from the French.
Who (and at which battle) won the American Revolution?
Americans won the war with a final victory at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781.
How was the American Revolution officially concluded?
the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
How did the new nation try to create a government for itself after the American Revolution?
Articles of Confederation (failed)
in 1787, Articles were replaced with the US Constitution, which set up a three-branch government.
George Washington was selected as the first president.
President Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France
doubled the size of the nation
belief that the nation's God-given right was that the US should one day possess the lands all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
acquisition of the territories that would become CA, NV, NM, AZ, UT
completed the territories of AZ and NM
Why did the Civil War begin?
Also give details
pro- and anti-slavery division in the states, the south seceded from the union to form the confederate states of america.
fought the civil war 1861-1865, north won, nation reunited, slavery was abolished with the passage of the 13th amendment.
the period after the civil war when government worked to rebuild the south.
African Americans were free from slavery but found themselves subject to legal discrimination (including segregation and voting restrictions). many migrated the the north.
rapid advancements made in technology that allowed for production to change over from cottage industries to factory systems.
influx of immigrants
Why did the US enter WWI?
became involved in 1917
Germans' use of submarine warfare
sinking of Lusitania
When was WWI?
How did WWI end?
Treaty of Versailles
How did the US act after WWI?
sought isolation from the rest of the world and declined membership in the League of Nations.
mass consumerism, buying on credit, growth of the stock market
women gained the right to vote, automobile became popular, jazz music
stock market crash after the roaring twenties on September 29, 1929
inflation and unemployment
FDR helped the suffering country after the Depression with a more active role in the economy.
How did the Great Depression end?
WWII jumpstarted the economy by providing industrial jobs and demanding a high output of military goods.
When was WWII?
Why did the US enter WWII?
Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor in 1941
How did WWII end?
US dropped the first atomic bombs of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Treaty of Paris
international peacekeeping organization to replace the League of Nations
created after WWII
US did join the UN
Why did the Cold War begin?
after WWII Europe was devastated, leaving two superpowers - the US and the Soviet Union
competing ideologies, both had nuclear weapons
Cold War was decades of competition and threats without direct military conflict.
communist North Korea aided by USSR fight to take over South Korea, aided by US.
communist North Vietnam aided by USSR fight to take over South Vietnam aided by US.
US withdrew, North Vietnam won, uniting the two territories into the single communist nation of Vietnam.
Social changes 20th century
women's right to vote
equal rights amendment (for women)
civil rights movements
Civil Rights Movements mid 20th century
Brown v. Board of Education
Civil Rights Act
Voting Rights Act
Functions of government
providing public services
the right of the people to rule through voting.
the government can only do the duties assigned to it by the Constitution and members of the government are not above the law.
the division of power between national and state governments.
Separation of powers
the division of power between three branches of government.
no group has all the power.
Checks and balances
the ability of each branch to limit the power of the other branches.
the ability of the Constitution to adapt with the times as necessary.
power is divided between the national and state governments.
powers allocated to the national government.
powers allocated to the state governments.
powers that are shared by both the national and state governments.
the president and VP
4 year term
enforce the laws
appoints supreme court nominees
can veto laws
Congress (House of Representatives and Senate)
House: 2-term years
Senate: 6-term years
make the laws
override presidential veto
appointed by the president
serve for life
interpret the laws
can declare laws or presidential actions unconstitutional
voters choose who among a pool of candidates will become the official candidate for the party.
winning candidates from primary election face off here in November.
changes to the Constitution
first ten are the Bill of Rights
written by the pilgrims on the mayflower
set up a temporary government for the pilgrims at plymouth colony.
written by thomas paine
pamphlet written to convince people to support the American Revolution.
Declaration of Independence
written by second continental congress
asserted nation's independence from GB.
Articles of Confederation
written by second continental congress
set up the first government for the newly independent US.
written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay
papers to convince people to ratify the Constitution.
written by constitutional convention
document that set up the current system of US government.
written by george washington
departing president washington advised the young nation against political factions and entangling foreign alliances.
written by Lincoln
speech given by him in the midst of the Civil War as a memorial to those who died at the Battle of Gettysburg and the motivate the North to keep fighting to preserve the Union and to end slavery.
written by Lincoln
declared an end to slavery in the Confederate States.
a social science concerned with how goods and services are produced, bought, and sold.
the study of how economics works on a large scale (the whole nation).
the study of economics on a smaller scale, looking at the decisions and impacts of individuals, small groups, and specific markets.
resources are limited
a system in which property and the means of production are privately owned.
Supply and demand
what is produced, how much, and at what price is dictated by the market.
the government takes a completely hands-off approach to the economic sector and allows market forces to regulate themselves.
a system in which property is controlled collectively rather than individually.
the purest form of socialism in which everything is owned in common and there is no private property and no social classes.
the government has total control of the economy through centralized planning.
also called a command.
a blend of capitalist and socialist principles, with both publicly and privately owned business operating at the same time.
economy that is self-sufficient and cut off from outside influences.
economy that allows for trade without other nations.
economy in which people only produce that which is needed to survive.
people learned how to farm and domesticate animals.
non-mobile food sources enabled them to establish permanent settlements.
River Valley Civilizations
due to the presence of fertile soil and water available for drinking, fishing, transportation, and trade.
stable societies emerged that were larger and stronger than their predecessors, and they would have an enormous lasting impact on future societies.
strong governments, expanded trade, created militaries, expanded territories, culture, religion.
power is decentralized as rulers exchange vast plots land for oaths of loyalty.
noble military class known as knights.
Japanese had two leaders.
emperor was considered divine and held in the highest regard.
founded by Muhammad in what is now Saudi Arabia around 610.
religion quickly spread throughout the Middle East and rulers became political and religious leaders of various kingdoms.
went through a Golden Age, wherein the arts, literature, architecture, math, science, and medical knowledge thrived.
able to prosper due to extensive trade, including the gold-salt trade.
Renaissance and Reformation
stronger kingdoms grew.
revival in arts, culture, education.
great wealth to major European powers.
Renaissance began in Italy.
influx of wealth allowed for patronage of the arts, while an influx of ideas from other cultures contributed to the cultural shift and acquisition of new learning.
a ruler has total authority over the nation
thinkers began to speak and write about ways to improve society by focusing on rational thought, protecting human rights, and limiting government.
WWI long-term causes
nations were building up their military personnel and weapons both as a precautionary measure and as a sign of national prestige
nations began to form competing alliances.
nations were competing for economic and political control of overseas territories
national pride was high as nations competed.
What was the immediate cause of WWI?
assassination of Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist in 1914.
Allied Powers in WWI
Central Powers in WWI
Allied Powers in WWII
Axis Powers in WWII
What happened after WWII ended?
communist revolutions in China
precise location on a map given by coordinates.
the location of a place with respect to other places.
areas whose boundaries are man-made.
areas that have common characteristics.
What are the different regions of the United States?
chain of islands.
a body of water that is an inlet to a larger body of water such as an ocean or a sea.
a man-made waterway.
a narrow body of water that connects two other bodies of water.
low, wet, triangular piece of land at the mouth of a river.
area with little to no precipitation.
a large body of water partially enclosed by land that connects to an ocean or sea.
a piece of land surrounded on all sides by water.
a very narrow strip of land connecting two larger pieces of land with water on both sides.
a body of water completely surrounded by land.
a very high rocky formation.
a piece of land with water on three sides.
flat, grassy lands.
long-term weather patterns for a particular area.
hot and wet year-round.
temperate varies widely from day to night; very little precipitation.
warm and wet in the summer, cool and dry in the winter.
found on large land masses, this climate has fairly low precipitation and temperatures can vary widely.
very cold; permanently frozen ground
large areas that have distinct sets of plant and animal life that are well-adapted to the environment.
Push factors for emigration
lack of opportunity
lack of social mobility
Pull factors for immigration
economic opportunities such as jobs
opportunity for social mobility
Which type of rock is formed by the cooling of magma?
What is the overall charge of the nucleus of an atom?
type of water movement in the water cycle that does not involve a phase change.
Who was the last group to receive suffrage nationwide in the US?
citizens between the ages of 18 to 20.
Which civilization was the first to use a civil service exam?
What type of writing should not include the author's personal opinion?
What was the most powerful unifying force in medieval Europe?
the Roman Catholic Church's power
The purpose of a(n) __________ is to carry out the day-to-day functions of a government.
One result of the Neolithic Revolution was ....
the development of permanent settlements.
A country that exports more than it imports is said to have...
a favorable balance of trade. (they are making more money than spending)
How are economics driven in a laissez-faire system?
Aqueducts were an important feature in the architecture of which civilization?
Transmission of culture
cultures frequently come into contact with one another and ideas are shared.
a visual representation of a physical space
Characteristics of living things
capable of growth
have definite life spans
respond and adapt to their environment
made up of cells
create energy for the organism, to create proteins, and to reproduce.
a group of cells.
a group of tissues working together for a common purpose.
a group of organs working together.
a complete living thing, made up of systems.
control center of the cell which contains DNA.
everything outside the nucleus.
transport system for molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm.
package and transport proteins.
create energy (ATP).
store food and water.
the digestive system of the cell; holds enzymes that are used to break down molecules.
permeable boundary of the cell that allows the passage if needed.
contain chlorophyll, used in food production.
rigid outer structure of the cell materials in and waste out.
regulate body functions through hormones.
brain, glands throughout the body, pancreas
removes excess fluids from around cells; eliminates bacteria.
protects the body against the environment.
skin, hair, and nails.
1. organism comes into experience
contains the codes for proteins, which are the building blocks of life.
made up of two strands that contain genes.
dictate traits for an organism.
groups of genes.
the process by which traits that are beneficial to organisms are produced and passed on in the species.
"survival of the fittest"
the environment on Earth in which living things exist.
includes the land, the water, and in the air.
a community of organisms and their physical environment.
requires an energy source, a means to convert that energy to glucose, and a means of recycling organic materials.
plants create energy in the form of ATP through photosynthesis.
they consume other organisms.
Disruptions to ecosystems
interruptions in the food chain
depletion of any species
change in energy supply
the physical substance of which everything is composed.
the most basic unit of matter.
positively charged and make up the center of an atom.
non-charged that make up the nucleus.
type of substance that cannot be broken down into different types of matter.
two or more atoms combined into an electrically neutral structure.
chemical bonding of two or more different elements.
occur when two unlike substances are mixed together without a chemical reaction.
occur when one type of substance dissolves into another substance.
Law of Conservation of Matter
states of matter can be neither created nor destroyed, but can be rearranged.
ability to do work.
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be transferred to another form.
energy in motion.
stored energy that can be converted to kinetic energy.
the energy of a substance or system related to its temperature.
heat transfer via a conductive material such as metal.
heat transfer through the collision of liquid or gas molecules.
heat is transmitted without contact via infrared radiation.
the energy of electromagnetic waves such as light.
form of energy that is delivered or absorbed by an electrical circuit.
the energy stored in the bonds between atoms in molecules.
when nuclei split.
joining of nuclei.
the study of fossils.
from the beginning of the earth to the formation of life.
from the formation of life to the present day.
rise of early life.
rise of dinosaurs, mammals, birds, and flowering plants to the extinction of dinosaurs.
rise of primates and eventually modern humans.
formed through the cooling of magma.
formed when sediments are compressed into hard layers over time.
formerly igneous and sedimentary rocks that have morphed due to heat and pressure.
the breaking down of rock via environmental forces.
horizontal layered clouds formed when warm, moist air passes over cool air.
large, puffy white clouds formed when warm, moist air is forced upward.
wispy clouds containing ice crystals that form at high altitudes.
clouds that produce precipitation.
the moon is directly between the sun and the earth and casts a shadow on the earth's surface.
the earth is directly between the sun and the moon, blocking light from hitting the moon.
the ability of something to stand the test of time.
the idea that something has been made or done on a trial basis or as an experiment, or is not final or conclusive.
Reliance on evidence
scientists must rely on evidence to back up their claims.
they must also be willing to adjust previously help notions when new evidence comes to light.
the idea that a valid experiment must have reproducibility and that when attempted again, the experiment would yield the same conclusions; replication is important for new scientific findings to be accepted.
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