70 terms

ORGB Test 3 Review

Ch. 7, 8 & 9
What is stress?
The unconscious preparation to fight or flee that a person experiences when faces with any demand
What are the approaches to dealing with stress?
- Homeostatic
- Cognitive Appraisal
- Person-Environment Fit
- Psychoanalytic
stress occurs when an external demand upsets the balance
Cognitive Appraisal
Perception determines what is stressful
The more you do something successfully and repeatedly, the less stressful it gets
Person-Environment Fit
Unclear roles lead to stress
Discrepancy between the idealized self and the real self-image
What is the stress response?
To fight or flee
What are the work demands that give rise to the stress response?
- Task
- Role
- Interpersonal
- Physical
Task demands
What needs to be done
Role demands
How to behave
Interpersonal demands
Getting along with colleagues
Physical demands
What the body needs to get the job done
What are the Role Demands that give rise to the stress response?
- Role ambiguity
- Role Conflict
Role ambiguity
The confusion a person experiences in relation to the expectations of others
Role Conflict
- Interrole
- Intrarole
Interrole Conflict
Opposing related to two separate (multiple) roles assumed by the same individual, such as employee and parent. Conflict between 1 role and another role.
Intrarole Conflict
Opposing expectations related to a single role. Conflict within the single role.
What are psychosomatic disorders?
Stress is the discrepancy between the idealized self and the real self-image
What are the consequences of stress?
- Positive
- Negative
Postive Stress
create a healthy, thriving work environment
Negative Stress
can erode morale and performance
What is workaholism?
A form of addiction, may be the most notable of these stress inducing demands
What are the symptoms of psychological distress?
Medical illness, behavioral problems, work-related psychological disorders
What are the major costs of organizational distress?
- Participative problems
- Performance decrement
- Compensation award
Participative Problems
Absenteeism, tardiness, strikes, and turnover
Performance Decrement
Poor quality or low quality of production, grievances, and unscheduled machine downtime and repair
Compensation Award
Court awards for job distress
What is a hardy personality?
- Challenge
- Commitment
- Control
What are the preventative stress management approaches?
- Primary
- Secondary
- Tertiary
Primary Prevention
Dealing with the stressor
Secondary Prevention
Dealing with the reaction
Tertiary Prevention
Dealing with the damage that the stress caused
What is the primary difference between a group and a team?
Teams are goal oriented and groups are interest oriented
What are norms of behavior?
A standards that work group uses to evaluate the behavior of its members
What is social loafing?
The failure of a group member to contribute personal time, effort, thoughts, or other resources to the group
What are the benefits of organizations to both individuals and organizations?
Organizations have multiple people that can accomplish a goal by dividing up the work.
What is the concept of loss of individuality and what are the results of its occurrence?
Group members lose self-awareness and its accompanying sense of accountability, inhibition, and responsibility for individual behavior
What are the stages of the Tuckman model of group development?
- Forming
- Storming
- Norming
- Performing
- Adjourning
What is the concept of punctuated equilibrium?
Groups do not progress linearly from one step to the next, but alternate between periods of inertia and bursts of energy.
What is status structure?
The set of authority and task relations among a group's members; can be egalitarian or hierarchical.
What factors affect group cohesiveness?
- Time
- Size
- The prestige of the group
- External pressure
- Internal competition
The longer a group stays together, the more cohesive it will become
Smaller groups tend to be more cohesive.
The Prestige of the Group
Low or high prestigious groups will be cohesive
External Pressure
Enhance cohesion
Internal Competition
Decreases cohesion within a team
What factors influence group effectiveness?
- Work team structure
- Work team process
- Diversity
- Creativity
When are teams most appropriate in a work environment?
Team work is a necessity for complex and interdependent tasks
What are the sets of social benefits available to team and group members?
- Group norms
- Members work in isolation, but work for a common goal
What are the behaviors required for empowerment?
The development of certain skills if it is to be enacted effectively
For successful CEO's, their peak performance years are usually at around?
What are examples of the primary types of decision making?
- Programmed
- Non-Programmed
Programmed Decisions
Routine, or established decision
Non-Programmed Decisions
New, complex, or creative decision making
What are the steps of the decision making process?
- Recognize the problem and the need for a decision
- Identify the objective of the decision
- Gather and evaluate data and diagnose the situation
- List and evaluate alternatives
- Select the best course of action
- Implement the decision
- Gather feedback
- Follow up
Rational Decision Making
Logical, step-by-step approach to decision making, with a thorough analysis of alternatives and their consequences
Bounded Rationality
Brain Lateralization
Use either logic or creativity or both, depending on the situation.
What is Henry Mintzberg's view of management decision making?
Managers do not use a systematic, step-by-step approach to decision making.
What are the factors that influence an individual's decision making style?
- Synergy
- Social decision schemes
Occurs when group members stimulate new solutions to problems through the process of mutual influence and encouragement within the group.
Social decision schemes
Simple rules used to determine final group decisions
What are the stages of the creative process?
- Responsive
- Proactive
- Expected
- Contributory
Responding to a problem that is presented to you by others because it is part of your job
Discovering problems because you want to be creative
Discovering problems because the organization expects you to do so
Responding to problems presented to you because you want to be creative
Group Think
A deterioration of mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgment recruiting from in-group pressures
What is the focus of the three preventative stress management approaches?
An organizational philosophy according to which people and organizations should take joint responsibility for promoting health and preventing distress and strain