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Terms in this set (27)
Describe how water contributes to the fitness of the environment to support life.
Solvent for molecules to interact
Moderates Earth's climate
Describe the structure and geometry of a water molecule, and explain what properties emerge as a result of this structure.
Outer shell of O has four orbitals as a tetrahedron
Two need filling, two O-H bonds form at two corners of the tetrahedron
O is very electronegative, hogs electrons, is negative
H side of the molecule is positive
Explain the relationship between the polar nature of water and its ability to form hydrogen bonds.
Polar = one side positive, one negative
O-side negative attracted to H-side positive
List four characteristics of water that are emergent properties resulting from hydrogen bonding.
High heat capacity
Expands upon freezing
Describe the biological significance of the cohesiveness of water.
Evaporation out of leaves pulls water upward
Adhesion to the walls of xylem keeps water from falling down
Cohesion at the surface is stronger = surface tension
Distinguish heat and temperature.
Heat- Energy content as total kinetic energy
Temperature is the average kinetic energy of the molecules
Explain how water's high specific heat, high heat of vaporization, and expansion upon freezing affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Helps dampen drastic temperature changes
Explain the changes in density as water cools
As it approaches 4 °C less motion, denser
Below 4 °C molecules line up in a less dense array
Distinguish solute, solvent, and solution.
Solute = dissolved substance
Solvent = dissolving agent
Solution = homogeneous mixture
Explain how the polarity of the water molecule makes it a versatile solvent.
Each molecule has a positive H side and a negative O side
Opposite charges are attracted to polar and ionic solutes
Distinguish hydrophilic and hydrophobic substances.
Hydrophilic; "water-loving", polar, usually contain O/N/S
Hydrophobic; "water-fearing", non-polar
Distinguish a mole and the molecular weight of a substance.
Mole = particles of a substance
Molecular weight = mass of one mole of a substance
How are concentrations of substances expressed?
Molarity = moles/liter
Write the equation for the dissociation and re-formation of water.
H2O <--> H+ + OH-
Explain how acids and bases directly or indirectly affect the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution.
Dissociate in water to release H+
Examples: strong: HCl; weak: H2CO3
Indirectly by releasing OH- (like NaOH)
Directly by absorbing H+ (like ammonia)
Examples: strong: NaOH; weak: NH3
Explain the basis for the pH scale.
negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration. Order the following from highest to lowest pH: ammonia, coffee, water, orange juice, lye, vinegar, tomato juice
Describe the causes of acid precipitation.
Dissolved CO2 reduces rain pH to 5.6
Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from combustion make it more acidic
Explain how acid rain harms the environment.
Kills fish, plants, eggs
Depletes minerals from soil
one part of a molecule is positive and the other part is negative.
Oxygen attracts (more/less) electrons than hydrogen so the oxygen becomes (positive/negative) and the hydrogen becomes (positive/negative)
more. negative. positive.
Tendency of the molecules of a substance to hold together.
Caused by transpiration. The evaporation of water through the stomach of a leaf which provides the force for water movement.
Low pH corresponds to (high/low) hydrogen ion concentration.
High pH corresponds to (high/low) hydrogen ion concentration
High Specific Heat
resists temperature changes when it absorbs or releases heat. Hydrogen bonds must absorb heat to break, and release heat when they form.
Specific Heat of Water
Water has a high specific heat, which means that it takes a lot of energy to change the temperature of the water.
Water's High Latent Heat of Vaporization
It takes a lot of energy to transform water from a liquid to vaporous state.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
BIOL 1406 Ch. 3
AP Biology Review (Ch. 5)
Water and the Fitness of the Environment
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