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General Biology I Exam 2 Dillman

STUDY
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Chlorophyll
Green pigment captures sunlight
Carotenoids
accessory pigment
yellow and orange color
Stroma
Fluid part of the Chloroplast
Thylakoids
Membrane packages in stacks inside the Chloroplast
Phagocytosis
Movement of large molecules, cell pieces or entire cells inside a cell, by enclosing them in a membrane is called:
Pinocytosis
Taking in vacuoles filled with liquid, by wrapping them in a membrane.
Osmosis
Movement of water across a semi-permeable membrane
receptor proteins
Are found in the membrane, bind with molecules and trigger a response
inside the cell
Hypotonic
Higher concentration of
solvent outside causes
water to enter the cell.
Facilitated diffusion
Movement with the
concentration gradient
and using a carrier protein
Active transport
Movement against the concentration gradient using a carrier and expending energy
Isotonic
Equal concentrations of water inside and outside the cell, water moves evenly back and forth.
Solute
What is dissolved in a solution, ex. baking soda, salt
Solvent
What does the dissolving in a solution
ex. Water
Hypertonic
Higher concentration of
solutes outside causes
water to leave the cell
diffusion
Movement from high concentration to low concentration, ex, oxygen in lungs
Enzyme speed
Substrate concentration, pH, Temperature, Enzyme concentration all affect?
Enzymes
Proteins that lower activation energy, substrate specific
substrate
What attaches to an enzyme at the active site, it is a reactant
heat
The form energy is given off during conversion from one form to another
ATP
Adenine, Ribose and
3 Phosphates
Potential or chemical energy
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins are example of what kind of energy?
entropy
amount of disorder
ADP
What is formed when a phosphate is removed off ATP?
cofactors
Activate enzymes, are inorganic ions such as copper, zinc and iron
ATP
What is needed to convert the 10 remaining G3P back into RuBP
12
How many total G3P are formed at the end of the Calvin Cycle?
RUBP
5 Carbon Molecule that CO2 binds to in the Dark Cycle
NADP
Carries the Hydrogens in the light reaction
Kinetic energy
duck swimming, bird flying and rock rolling down hill are examples of what kind of energy?
heterotrophs
Must eat/ingest preformed food
grana
Stack of Thylakoid disks
back into Photosystem I
Where does the electron go if no Carbon Dioxide is available in the light reaction
photosystem
Made up of a pigment complex of the chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments, get excited by sunlight, found on the thylakoid membranes
G3P
What is formed when ATP uses its energy to remove a H from NADPH and add it to 3PG
3PG
Which molecule is formed when the unstable 6 carbon molecule splits in the Calvin/dark cycle
autotrophs
means produces its own food, by using sunlight or inorganic molecules as energy sources
Light Reaction
Water, splits, ATP made, Oxygen released, and NADPH made
Photosystem I
Gets excited by sunlight at wavelength of 700, splits water,
Photosystem II
Gets excited by sunlight at wavelength of 680, splits water,
Electron Transport Chain
Series of carriers that pass electrons, energy is lost and used to make ATP
Stomata
Openings in the leaf that Carbon Dioxide enter and Oxygen leave through
Endergonic
To run the reaction
energy is put in, products have more energy
energy of activation
amount of energy that is required to start a reaction, get one molecule to react with another
coenzymes
NADP, NADPH, FAD, carry electrons and atoms to help enzymes
Phosphorylation
Adding a phosphate to a molecule, stores energy. Requires an energy input
Electron Transport Chain
Series of carriers on the inner membrane of the mitochondria that transport electrons
Glycolysis
Only stage that occurs during fermentation like in yeast
Citrate
6 carbon molecule produced in the 3rd stage of Cellular Respiration
Vitamins
small organic molecules, required in trace amounts in our diet help synthesize coenzymes
Exergonic
During the reaction energy released, reactants have more energy than products
Catabolism
Breakdown of molecules like Glucose during Cellular Respiration, tend to be exergonic
Products of Aerobic Cellular Respiration
6CO2, 6H2O, 36 ATP
Reactants of Aerobic Cellular Respiration
C6H12O6, 6O2
Reduction
Gaining electrons like Oxygen to make water, during cellular respiration
Oxidation
Losing electrons, example is glucose becoming CO2 during cellular respiration
Chemiosmosis
ATP Production is tied to the
establishment of the H+ gradient
Anabolism
Synthesis reactions where molecules are made, tend to be endergonic
Yield in Fermentation or Anaerobic Respiration
2 ATP's and alcohol or lactic acid
Anaerobic
Respiration without Oxygen
Aerobic
Respiration with Oxygen
Total Yield in Cell Respiration
36 ATP's
Electron Transport Chain
Inputs: NADH, FADH2, O2
Citric acid Cycle
Outputs: CO2, NADH, FADH2, 2 ATP
Cytoplasm
Where Glycolysis occurs
Citric Acid Cycle
Inputs: Acetyl CoA, NAD, FAD, ADP
Preparatory Reaction
Outputs: NADH, Acetyle CoA, 2 Carbon Dioxide
Electron Transport Chain
Outputs: ATP, H2O
Cristae
Folds where the electron transport occurs
Matrix
Space inside the mitochondria
where citric acid cycle occurs
FAD and NAD
Coenzymes that carry Hydrogen Ions for Cell respiration
Glycolysis
Outputs: 2 pyruvate
2 NADH
2ATP total
Preparatory Reaction
Inputs: Pyruvate, 2 CoA and NAD
Glycolysis
Inputs: Glucose, 2NAD and 2 ATP
Extracellular Matrix
Nonliving meshwork of polysaccharides and proteins found outside the cell, help form communication and highways between cells
Endocytosis
Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis
Concentration gradient
The difference between levels of solutes and solvents inside
and outside the cell
tight junction
Junction when the cells zip up, intestines, kidney and the brain
receptor mediated endocytosis
when the molecule binds to the receptor and then the materials are brought inside in a membrane
Plasmodesmata
extensions of the plasma membrane through the cell wall from one plant cell to another
adhesion junctions
uses cytoplasmic plaques to help hold cells together, in heart, stomach and bladder
Exocytosis
Pushing waste from the inside of the cell to the outside, using a vacuole