AP European History Chapter 16 Toward a New Heaven and a New Earth: The Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a gradual process that went against the earth-centered conception of the universe, opening up the now infinite world to much more uncertainty, especially from new information challenging religion. The outcome was a science based more on observation than logic, and a more fundamental break from the past than the break up of christianity. The movement started in Italy, but Galileo's trouble there with the Inquisition changed leadership in the revolution to England, Fr…
Scientific Revolution
16th to 18th centuries, intellectual movement in Europe, initially associated with planetary motion and other aspects of physics, that by the seventeenth century had laid the groundwork for modern science. Not really a revolution, more like a gradual change. Challenged previous works.
This idea said that man could control nature. It inspired the scientific revolution, especially through "mathematical magic". Many early scientific revolutionaries believed in occult traditions.
idea held by ptolemy, aristotle, and their followers. It said that there were four elements, and the earth was at the center of a finite universe surrounded by perfect globes revolving around it in perfect circles. There were ten spheres to this universe and beyond the tenth was heaven. It went with Christianity and therefore was dangerous to challenge.
wrote "On the Revolution of the Earthly Spheres". Believed the ptolemic universe was too complicated, and believed in a heliocentric conception to simplify it. His conservatism, however, didn't allow him to refute Aristotle's heavenly spheres, so he retained ptolemy's epicycles and his was almost as complicated. Martin Luther and Philip Melanchthon thundered at his work.
devised the three laws of planetary motion, confimring copernicus' heliocentric theory, and eliminating scientific possibilty of chrystaline spheres moving in perfectly circular orbits. Comparing numerical relationships between planets to harmony of the human soul, he described his work as discovering the "music of the spheres"
Galileo Galilei
first european to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope. wrote "The Starry Messenger", and "Dialogue on the Two Chief Worl Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican", which was written in Italian rather than latin, allowing more people access to it, and basically insulted the ptolemaic view. Discovered inertia
"Principia"- three laws of motion. was actually into alchemy, and thus not the first in an age of reason but the last of the magicians. Universal Law of Gravitation which explained the orbits of planets. his World-Machine also was very widely accepted, concieved to operate absolutely in space, time and motion, and believed that the world was governed by certain laws (like gravity). World-view only changed with Einstein's relativity.
Greek anatomist whose theories formed the basis of European medicine until the Scientific Revolution. Believed that there were two different types of blood, that it was pumped from the liver, and teh disease and sickness were a result of imbalances humors, leading him to bleed and purge his patients.
rejected aristotle and galen.believed human was a microcosm of the macrocosm of the universe and thus disease was a result of chemical imbalances, not humor problems. "like cures like" some considered him father of modern medicine, others the father of homeopathy
Wrote On the Fabric of the Human Body. Dissected human bodies to better understand them. He disproved Galen's theory of the Liver being the center of the circulatory system.
Wrote On the Motion of the Heart and Blood. Made lots of discoveries about the circulation of blood including the heart is the center of the circulatory system, and there is only one kind of blood and it passes through the body in a complete circuit
Margaret Cavendish
One of the most prominent female scientists of the 17th century. She came from an aristocratic family. She wrote a number of books on scientific matters, including Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy. This work was especially critical of the growing belief that humans, through science, were the masters of nature. Even so, the fact that she was a women kept her from admission into the Royal Society. Charecterized English and French Female scientists
Maria Winkelmann
most famous of female astronomers in Germany; recieved training from self-taught astronomer; married Gottfried Kirch and became his assistant; applied for positionas assistant astronomer at the Berlin Academy, she was highly qualified but was denied (because she was a woman and had no university degree)
querelles de femme
"arguments about women". some believed with education, women could be like men, but others used the new science to determine that women had larger pelvic bones and smaller skulls, meaning they were meant to give birth, not think. Male dominated science used to "prove" male social dominance. women lost their midwifery here because it was now considered too important for them
This thinker developed a philosophy of two different worlds a material world and a world of the mind. This was called Cartesian dualism. He combined his ideas with Bacon to form the scientific method "Discourse on Method"
This scientist spread the word about the experimental method and formalized the empirical method and combined his thinking with Descartes to form the scientific method. "The Great Instauration" Believed that science should be totally reworked. rejected sopernicus, kepler and galileo. Also wanted science to be used practially to conquer nature
Scientific Societies
The English Royal Academy: collected tools and machines, mostly theoretical work. The French Royal Academy of Sciences: practical work to help France, espoused and payed for by Louis XIV. Importance of these lied in saying that science was cooperative.
The English Revolution
millernarian expectation made people want to rework and renew society before the saints came to rule for a thousand years. Gave rise to levellers, ranters and diggers. Radical political ideas, and radical science based on Paracelsus, and natural magic of hermeticism.
(1632-1677) Wrote "Ethics Demonstrated in the Geocentric Manner" (1677), rejected the Cartesian Dualism. Pantheism; he believed that religion is not neccessarily opposed to science. Through scientific knowledge can you truly find who God is.
"Pensees" Tried to keep religion and science united by converting rationalists by appealing to their reason and then their emotion. Believed that reason could only take you so far and then was the jump to god. failed. Secularization began in earnest. Also worked with probablity.