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What was the Industrial Revolution?
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The Industrial Revolution was an increase in production brought about by the use of machines and characterized by the use of new energy sources. The Industrial Revolution was a period from the 18th to the 19th century where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport had a great effect on the economic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom, and then spreading throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.

Although the Industrial Revolution occurred around the same time as the French, American, Latin American, and Haitian Revolutions, the Industrial Revolution was really the most revolutionary of the bunch. Its start marked a major turning point in human history; almost every aspect of daily life was eventually influenced in some way. Before the Industrial Revolution, not much changed about the way we disposed of waste or located drinking water or acquired clothing. Most people lived on or very closed to the land that provided their food. Except for a few exceptions, life expectancy never rose above 35. Education was a privilege not a right. In all these millennia, we had never developed a weapon that could kill more than a couple dozen people at once, or a way to travel faster than horseback. For 15,000 years, most humans never owned or used a single item made outside of their communities. Simon Bolivar didn't change that, and neither did the American Declaration of Independence.

Before the Industrial Revolution, about 80% of the world's population was engaged in farming to keep itself and the other 20% of people from starving. Today, in the U.S. less than 1% of people list their occupation as farming.
Because of the Industrial Revolution, you have electricity, you have blueberries in February, you live somewhere other than a farm, you drive a car, you get 12 years of free formal education... Your bed, your antibiotics, your toilet, your contraception, your tap water - all thanks to the Industrial Revolution.
Advances in agricultural techniques and practices➡️an increased supply of food and raw materials.
Changes in industrial organization and new technology➡️increased production, efficiency, and profits.

The increased supply of food & raw materials + the increase production, efficiency, & profits + increased commerce (both foreign & domestic) = promotion of the advent of the Industrial Revolution
1. Agricultural revolution: Increased food supplies led to an increase in population that​ boosted demand for manufactured goods and provided labor for factories.
2. Abundant natural resources: Britain had the natural resources needed for​ industrialization: water power, coal, iron ore, rivers, and harbors.
3. Political stability: enabled Britain to devote its energies and resources to economic​ expansion, industrialization, and overseas trade; created a climate for progress
4. Factors of production: Britain had all the resources needed to produce goods and​ services, including land, labor, and capital.
5. Technological advances in the textile industry: improved the quality and speed of​ cotton cloth production; boosted profits; spurred other industrial improvements
6. Entrepreneurs: provided organization and management skills and took financial risks​ in developing new businesses
7. Building of factories: allowed industry to move out of the home and into a central ​location
8. Railroad boom: provided an inexpensive way to transport raw materials and​ manufactured products; created new jobs
Agriculture occupied a prominent position in the English way of life of this period. Not only was its importance rooted in the subsistence of the population, but agriculture was an indispensable source of raw materials for the textile industry. Wool and cotton production for the manufacture of cloth increased in each successive year, as did the yield of food crops.

The improved yield of the agricultural sector can be attributed to the enclosure movement and to improved techniques and practices developed during this period.

Enclosure Movement:
After buying up the land of village farmers, wealthy landowners enclosed their land with fences or hedges. Increase in their landholdings ➡️ cultivation of larger fields, using new seeding and harvesting methods ➡️ experimented to discover more productive farming methods to boost crop yields.
The enclosure movement had two important results: (1) landowners experimented with new agricultural methods, and (2) large landowners forced small farmers to become tenant farmers or to give up farming and move to cities.

Crop Rotation:
A common practice in early agriculture was to allow the land to lie fallow after it had been exhausted through cultivation. Later it was discovered that the cultivation of clover and other legumes would help to restore the fertility of the soil, while increasing the amount of food available to sustain livestock through the winter ➡️ the size of herds for meat on the table increased & farmers could begin with larger herds in the spring than they had previously

The Seed Drill:
The usual way of sowing seed was by scattering it across the ground. Was very inefficient & wasteful - many of the seeds failed to take root
Jethro Tull solved this problem by inventing the seed drill, which allowed farmers to sow seeds in well-spaced rows at specific depths ➡️ larger share of the seed germinated ➡️ boosting crop yields

Selective Breeding:
Robert Bakewell increased his mutton output by allowing only his best sheep to breed, and other farmers followed his lead ➡️ between 1700 and 1786 the average weight of lambs climbed from 18 to 50 pounds.

These changes made it possible to feed all of the people that were attracted to the industrial centers as factory workers. By providing enough food to sustain an adequate work force, England was preparing the way for expansion of the economy and industry.
In an explosion of creativity, inventions now revolutionized industry, spurring technological advantages. Britain's textile industry clothed the world in wool, linen, and cotton. Cloth merchants boosted their profits by speeding up the process by which spinners and weavers made cloth.

In 1733, John Kay invented the flying shuttle, which dramatically increased the speed of weaving (doubled the work a weaver could do in a day) ➡️ a demand for yarn ➡️ inventions like the Spinning Jenny (invented by James Hargreaves, allowed one spinner to work eight threads at a time).
These machines were operated by hand until Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, instead used the water-power from rapid streams to drive spinning wheels... Now, mechanized using water power
Soon, features of the spinning jenny and the water frame combined when Samuel Crompton invented the spinning mule. Made thread that was stronger, finer, and more consistent than earlier spinning machines.
Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom. Was run by water-power and sped up weaving.
Steam engine came along, made flying shuttles really fly in these huge cotton mills. The most successful steam engine was built by Thomas Newcomen, cleared water out of mines ➡️ more coal to power more steam engines ➡️ the fancying up of the Newcomen Steam Engine by James Watt ➡️ railroads, steamboats & ever-more efficient cotton mills
Lead foundries powered by coal ➡️ lead production rising dramatically right around 1750 in Britain ➡️ lead-lined chambers ➡️ sulfuric acid created in large quantities, used to bleach the cloth - for the first time chemicals other than stale urine were being used to bleach the cloth that people wore
England's cotton came from plantations in the American South in the 1790s. Removing seeds from the raw cotton by hand was hard work. American inventor named Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, multiplied the amount of cotton that could be cleaned. American cotton production production skyrocketed from 1.5 million pounds in 1790 to 85 million pounds in 1810.

All these changes in industrial organization and new technology came together➡more cotton that could be cleaned faster than ever before, more yarn made that could be spun and bleached faster and cheaper than ever before➡️increased production, efficiency, and profits
Water Transportation
Steam used to propel boats
In England, water transportation improved with the creation of a network of channels

Road Transportation
John McAdam equipped roadbeds with a layer of large stones for drainage, & placed a smooth layer of crushed rock on the top
Private investors formed companies that built roads and then operated them for profit

A steam engine on wheels - the railroad locomotive - drove English industry after 1820
-Spurring of industrial growth by giving manufacturers a cheap way to transport materials and finished products
-Creation of hundreds of thousands of new jobs for both railroad workers and minors
-Boosting of England's agricultural and fishing industries, which could transport their products to distant cities
-Encouraging of country people to take distant city jobs & luring of city dwellers to resorts in the countryside
The growth of the Industrial Revolution depended on the ability to transport raw materials and finished goods over long distances. There were three main types of transportation that increased during the Industrial Revolution: waterways, roads, and railroads. Transportation was important because people were starting to live in the West. During this time period, transportation via water was the cheapest way to move heavy products (such as coal and iron). As a result, canals were widened and deepened to allow more boats to pass. Robert Fulton made the first steam-powered engine to power a steamboat, and in 1807 he demonstrated its use by going from New York City to Albany via the Hudson River. His steamboat was able to carry raw materials across the Atlantic Ocean by the mid 1800's. The roads also improved immensely during this time period. Previously, people traveled using animals or by foot, but there were many problems with the conditions of the roads. In 1751, turnpikes were created for easier transportation, especially for the horse-drawn wagons. John Loudon McAdam made "macadam" road surfaces which consisted of crushed rock in thin layers. Thomas Telford made new foundations in roads with large flat stones. Soon after, roads across America were improved based on these techniques. The closest to trains were horses, commonly used to pull freight cars along rails. In 1801, Richard Trevithick made the first steam locomotive. These improvements on waterways, roads, and railroads all made traveling safer, and it allowed goods to be moved more efficiently.
The water frame, the spinning mule, and the power loom were bulky and expensive machines. They took the world of spinning and weaving out of the house. Wealthy textile merchants set up the machines in large buildings called factories.

For centuries, most Europeans had lived in rural areas. After 1800, the balance shifted toward cities. The growth of the factory system - manufacturing goods in a central location - brought waves of jobseekers to figure and towns. Between 1800 and 1850, the number of European cities boasting more than 100,000 inhabitants rose from 22 to 47. Most of Europe's urban areas at least doubled in population. This period was one of urbanization - city building and the movement of people to cities. Some cities, such as Glasgow and Berlin, tripled or even quadrupled in size.
Factories developed in clusters because entrepreneurs built them near sources of energy.
Britain's capital, London, was the country's most important city. It's population exploded, provided a vast labor pool and market for new industry. Newer cities challenged London's industrial leadership.
1. Poor city dwellers: because no plans, sanitary codes, or building regulations controlled the rampant growth of English cities, the poor lacked adequate housing and many were forced to live in dark, filthy, overcrowded slums under very unhealthy and unsafe conditions.
2. Factory workers: because factory owners wanted to keep their machines running for as many hours a day as possible, workers were forced to work long hours for starvation wages, often under dangerous and unhealthy conditions; later, working conditions and the standard of living improved.
3.Wealthy merchants, factory owners, shippers: they gained wealth and status in society and joined a growing middle class of skilled workers, professionals, business people, and well-to-do farmers.
4. Children: as young as six began to work in factories with their families for long hours under brutal conditions; child labor laws later brought some reforms.
5. Lower middle class of factory overseers and skilled workers: they enjoyed a comfortable standard of living.
6. Large landowners and aristocrats : because some factory owners, merchants, and investment bankers grew wealthier, they lost some status, respect, and power but continued to look down on those who gained wealth in business.
Size of Cities:
-Growth of factories, bringing job seekers to cities
-Urban areas doubling, tripling, or quadrupling in size
-Factories developing near sources of energy
-Many new industrial cities specializing in certain industries

Living Conditions:
-No sanitary codes or building controls
-Lack of adequate housing, education, and police protection
-Lack of running water and indoor plumbing
-Frequent epidemics sweeping through slums
-Eventually, better housing, healthier diets, and cheaper clothing

Working Conditions:
-Industrialization creating new jobs for workers
-Workers trying to keep pace with machines
-Factories dirty and unsanitary
-Workers running dangerous machines for long hours in unsafe conditions
-Harsh and severe factory discipline
-Eventually, higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions

Emerging Social Classes:
-Growing middle class of factory owners, shippers, and merchants
-Upper class of landowners and aristocrats resentful of rich middle class
-Lower middle class of factory overseers and skilled workers
-Workers overworked and underpaid
-In general, a rising standard of living, with some groups excluded
Despite the problems that followed industrialization, the Industrial Revolution eventually had a number of positive effects. It created jobs for workers. It contributed to the wealth of the nation. It fostered technological progress and invention. It greatly increased the production of goods and raised the standard of living. Perhaps more important, it provided the hope of improvement in people's lives.

The Industrial Revolution produced a number of other benefits as well. These included healthier diets; better housing; and cheaper, mass-produced clothing. Because the Industrial Revolution created a demand for engineers as well as clerical and professional workers, it expanded educational opportunities.

The middle and upper classes prospered immediately from the Industrial Revolution. For the workers it took longer, but their lives gradually improved during the 1800s. Labor eventually won higher wages, shorter hours, and better working conditions.

The long-term effects of the Industrial Revolution are still evident. Most people today in the industrialized countries can afford consumer goods that would have been considered luxuries fifty or a hundred years ago. Further, their living and working conditions are much into over over those of workers in the 19th century.
The entrepreneurs who opened factories and shipping companies became very rich at the beginning. The people who worked in the factories for them (working class) were soul-crushingly poor. The enclosure movement pushed people off of farms and into the cities. These cities grew rapidly without planning➡️no sewage, running water, sanitation system. Lived in crowded, flight slums.
Thomas Malthus argued that population tended to increase more rapidly than the food supply. Without wars and epidemics to kill off the extra people, most were destined to be poor and miserable.

His theory - population growth will always tend to outrun the food supply & betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits on reproduction.
(This thinking is commonly referred to as Malthusianism)