Research Methods - Exam III
Terms in this set (47)
assessment of right and wrong
what we do in the field
tells you what you should do
tells you what you should not do
22 examples of risky research
National Research Act (1974)
Nixon, research governance, protecting human participants
Belmont Report (1978)
distinguishes research and clinical work through 3 principles
3 principles of the Belmont Report
(1) respect for autonomous persons, (2) beneficence, (3) social justice
Purpose of the International Research Board (IRB)
protect the rights of participants by evaluating research plans
When is the IRB required?
humans involved, research-related; no grey area here
Requirements for members of the IRB
5 members, diversity (training, sex, affiliation, etc.), sensitivity, ethics training, etc.
Levels of review
exempt, expedited, full board
personal obligation of ethical behavior, should be intrinsic
obligation to the IRB, extrinsic
Concerns to participant respect
coercion, inducement, exploitation
Concerns to beneficence
harm to participant, researchers/staff; lack of benefit to public
Concerns to social justice
selection, treatment of groups and reflection of the larger population
Examples of ethical violations
Henrietta Lacks, Woo Suk Hwang, Wendell Johnson/Mary Tudor, Stanford Prison Experiment, etc.
Intentional distortion of research or the process
for money/performance expectations; easy to do/hard to detect
Things that may be unethical, but not necessarily research misconduct
-legitimate debates, disputes
-unintentional, unknown errors
-failing to retain records
-terrible design, incompetence
-poor oversight of collaborators, students, etc.
-refusing access to raw data
-use of inappropriate or wrong stats
-(sexual) harassment, financial fraud, etc.
Scientific dishonesty with data
some trimming of inconvenient results, cooking/falsifying, forging/fabrication
Research practice of refereed work
authors, reviewers, editors
Authors are required to...?
contribute to concept; draft/critically edit it; give final approval
With respect to the IRB, what regulations apply to authors?
report conflicts of interest, no multiple submission, disclosure, funding
With respect to the IRB, what regulations apply to reviewers?
confidentiality, who may review, self-or secondary citation
With respect to the IRB, what regulations apply to editors?
delay or suppression; publication biases
Repercussions of research misconduct
-retract articles already in print
-surrender or suspend grants or contracts
-letters of reprimand
-imposition of special requirements
»senior PI to oversee work and assure correctness
-rescind privilege of serving as PI
-rescind graduate faculty status
-termination of employment
author or reader
intense focus, analyzing, thinking about structure, metaphors, language, etc.
gleaning information from the layout of the page
passive; how you might read People magazine
Reading for information
active, critical, productive; trying to gain synthetic knowledge
How to be an active reader
-engage in conversation with the text
-read in parallel
-read out of order; come back to things
-ask questions of the text
-make predictions about what you think will come next
-read multiple times (recursiveness)
-pause and come back to text
-use external sources, use a dictionary
-draw, make flow-chart, concretize
Annotation in text
highlighter, pen, etc.
post-its, marginal or end-notes, bookmarks, flags, etc.
outline, take-away, summary, abstract, etc.
gained by context alone
requires external understanding, too
Synthesize the writing by...
(1) understanding the writing, (2) understanding extant writing, (3) connect current to extant
Asking questions of a text
-is this the real problem?
-is this the only logical solution to the problem?
-what other approaches could be done?
-what is missing?
-would I have done it this way?
-would my teachers have done it this way?
-is the story compelling? coherent?
-what is confusing?
statements that can be true or false
collection of propositions
basis proposition; transitions: since, because, as follows, etc.
affirmed proposition; transitions: thus, therefore, hence, etc.
make generalizations from examples
give evidence, make conclusion