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-Establish apical-basal polarity, induce vascular tissue development (xylem), mediate phototropism, promote formation of adventitious roots, promote cell elongation (if low levels-phototropism), inhibit leaf and fruit drop, and stimulate fruit development (seedless)

-Found in Embryo of seed, meristems of apical buds, young leaves


-Promote cell division, influence cell specialization and plant aging, activate secondary meristem development, promote adventitious root growth, and promote shoot development on callus

-Synthesized in roots and transported to other organs


-Stimulate cell division/enlargement and cell elongation, stimulate stem elongation and flowering, promote seed germination, retard leaf/fruit drop

-found in Meristems of apical buds and roots (primary), young leaves, embryo


-Promotes seedling growth/germination, induces fruit ripening, flood response in roots (development/stress), opposes auxin

-found in tissues of ripening fruit, nodes of stems, aging leaves and flowers

Abscisic acid

-Slows or stops metabolism during environmental stress, induces bud and seed dormancy, prevents seed germination in unfavorable conditions, and promotes stomatal closing and opening

-found in leaves, stems, roots, green fruit


-Promote cell (shoot) elongation, inhibit root elongation, xylem development, retard leaf drop, promote stress responses

-Found in seeds, fruits, shoots, leaves, floral buds

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