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lc bio nervous system
lc biology chap 37 nerves general brain seperate
Terms in this set (64)
Includes brain and spinal cord.
Nerves outside brain and spinal cord.Carries messages.
Afferent. Receives stimuli. Carries messages FROM sensory organs to CNS
Efferent. RESPONDS to stimuli. Carries nerve impulses from CNS to muscles glands,organs.
Somatic nervous system
controls skeletal muscles. Voluntary.
Autonomic nervous system
Involuntary. Regulates glands, and cardiac muscles. Includes sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
Fight or flight response
Relaxes. Has opposite effect on organs as sympathetic.
Function of Neurons
is to Transmit impulses
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
The network of sensory and motor nerves that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body ( 12 Cranial Nerves and 31 Spinal Nerves, broken into two parts(Somatic and Autonomic))
Cells that can't survive long without oxygen
Neurons 10 min without oxygen can lead to brain damage
does not perform mitosis. so cannot replicate
Where are most nerve cells located?
Where are most processes located?
PNS. (The processes stick out eg. are the axon and dendrites.)
Short, numerous, and branched processess attached to nerve cells are called
Singular long processes in nerve cells are called
One axon and many dendrites most common nerve type
One axon and one dendrite.
Rare, found only in eyes and ears
Bipolar Neuron structure
One axon. Rare. Function as sensory receptors.
Sensory afferent neurons
Transmit Action potential from sense organs eg skin/muscles toward CNS. Mostly unipolar and Bipolar.
Motor efferent neurons
Carry Action potential away from CNS to glands and to muscles or glands (organs). Mostly mulitpolar.
Convey incoming messages towards cell body
myelin sheath made from _________________
clusters of sensory nerve cell bodys in PNS usually found on the dorsal root
Bundles of nurons in PNS are called
they form sheaths of myelin around axons helping speed up nervous transmission.
Fatty, white insulaters around axons. Protect the axon. Increase in nerve impulse speed.
Dendrites and cell bodies.nerves in earthworms
Nodes of Ranvier
Gaps in the myelin sheath of the axons of peripheral neruons. Action potentials can 'jump' from node to node, thus increasing the speed of conduction (saltatory conduction).
Always the same - regardless of stimulus, neuron type and location.(all or nothing)
inside becomes less negative when impulse is being transmitted
returns to resting potential
in unmyelinated axons slower
Electrical current movement
forward movement - and depolarizes next region.
What part of Axon generates Action Potential?
Determined by presence of myelin sheath (which increase speed) axon diameter, and temperature.
Faster if warmer.
Site of signal transfer from neuron to neuron.
impulses toward synapse - info center.
Post synaptic Neuron
transmits impulses away from synapse - info receiver.
one-way communication. Use neurotransmitters. Carried in Vesicles.
Two way, fast communication. Less common. Gap junctions present to allow ion flow. Synchronize many neurons simultaneously.
chemicals used to carry nerve impulses from one nuron to another ( There are 50+. is Acetylcholine the first one to be identified.)
6 common Neurotrasmitters
Dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, Acetylcholine, serotonin, and histamine.
autonomic nervous system
Regulates smooth, cardiac muscles and glands
Multipolar neurons. In CNS between sensory and motor neurons also called connective nerves
Axon conduction speed
Factors are; myelin sheath, diameter of axon, and temperature
relative Speed of myelin sheath conduction
30 x faster than wirthout myelin
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse (action potential).
the time it takes for a nerve to return to normal potential after conducting a nerve impulse in order to transmit the next one
terminal swelling that converts electrical impulse to a chemical impulse by releasing a neurotransmitter in nerves.
tiny gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of the next neuron
the simplest form of motor output, involuntary response to a stimulus, usually as a protective measure
Action that involves only the nerves and spinal cord without you thinking of it. Helps protect your body.eg coughing, sneezing, blinking,.
Blood-derived fluid that surrounds, protects against infection, nourishes, and cushions the brain and spinal cord.
Canal that extends down the length of the spinal cord; contains cerebrospinal fluid.
The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in cell bodies of neurons rather than axons. The colour appears grey relative to white matter
The portions of the central nervous system that are abundant in axons rather than cell bodies of neurons. The colour derives from the presence of the axon's myelin sheaths
consists of axons of sensory neurons entering dorsal column of gray matter, cell bodies of these sensory axons are outside cord in dorsal root ganglia
one of two roots that joins the spinal nerves to the spinal cord; carries motor impulses away from the cord toward a muscle or gland
free nerve endings
sensory receptor cells in the skin that detect pressure, temperature, and pain
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