Chapter 12; Psychological Disorders
Terms in this set (60)
Patterns of behaviors, thoughts, or emotions considered pathological for one or more of these four reasons; deviance, dysfunction, distress, or danger.
The diagnostic perspective which assumes that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and possibly cured.
The branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)
A classification system developed by the American Psychiatric Association that is used to describe abnormal behaviors.
An outmoded term and category dropped from earlier versions of the DSM, in which a person does not have signs of brain abnormalities and does not display grossly irrational thinking or violate basic norms but does experience subjective distress.
A serious mental disorder characterized by extreme mental disruption and defective or lost contact with reality.
The legal designation for the state of an individual judged to be legally irresponsible or incompetent to manage his or her own affairs because of mental illness.
The co-occurence of two or more disorders in the same person at the same time, as when a person suffers from both depression and alcoholism.
A mental disorder characterized by overwhelming tension and irrational fear accompanied by physiological arousal.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
An anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, uncontrollable, and free-floating, non-specified anxiety.
An anxiety disorder in which sufferers experience sudden and inexplicable panic attacks; symptoms include difficulty breathing, heart palpitations, dizziness, trembling, terror, and feelings of impending doom.
A persistent and intense, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
A group of mental disorders, including major depressive disorder, characterized by sad, empty, or irritable moods that interfere with the ability to function.
A mental disorder characterized by repeated episodes of mania alternating with depression.
Seligman's term for a state of helplessness or resignation, in which human or nonhuman animals learn that escape from something painful is impossible; the organism stops responding and may become depressed.
A group of sever disorders involving major disturbances in perception, language, thought, emotion, and behavior.
A false, imaginary sensory perception that occurs without an external, objective source.
A false or irrational belief maintained despite clear evidence to the contrary.
A hypothesis about the cause of certain disorders, such as schizophrenia, which suggests that people inherit a predisposition that increases their risk for mental disorders if they are exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences.
A mental disorder characterized by persistent, anxiety-provoking thoughts that will not go away and/or irresistible urges to perform repetitive behaviors according to certain rules or in a ritualized manner.
A psychological disorder marked by a disturbance in the integration of consciousness, identity, memory, and other features.
Dissociative Identity Disorder
A mental disorder characterized by the presence of two or more distinct personality systems in the same individual at different times; previously known as multiple personality disorder.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
The pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others beginning in childhood or early adolescence and continuing into adulthood; includes traits like unlawful behaviors, deceitful and manipulative behaviors, impulsivity, irritability and aggressiveness, consistent irresponsibility, reckless disregard for self and others, and lack of remorse.
A mental disorder characterized by chronic, inflexible, maladaptive personality traits, which cause significant impairment of social and occupational functioning.
Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD)
A mental disorder characterized by severe instability in emotion and self-concept, along with impulsive and self-destructive behaviors.
Problems associated with excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral disturbances.
Depressive Disorders (DSM)
Problems characterized by the presence of sad, empty, or irritable mood.
Bipolar and Related Disorders
Problems associated with alternating episodes of depression and mania.
Schizophrenia Spectrum and Other Psychotic Disorders
Group of disorders characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thinking or motor behavior, and negative symptoms, such as diminished emotional expression.
Obsessive Compulsive and Related Disorders
Group of disorders characterized by the presence of obsessions, compulsions, preoccupations, and/or repetitive behaviors or mental acts.
Group of disorders characterized by the disruption and/or discontinuity in the normal integration of consciousness, memory, identity, emotion, perception, body representation, motor control, and behavior
problems related to an enduring pattern of experience and behavior that deviates markedly from the expectations of an individual's culture, and leads to distress or impairment
Trauma and Stressor Related Disorders
problems associated with exposure to a traumatic or stressful event
Sleep wake Disorders
dissatisfaction regarding the quality, timing, and amount of sleep.
Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
A cluster of cognitive, behavioral, and physiological symptoms related to alcohol, tobacco, other drugs, and gambling.
Feeding and Eating Disorders
Problems related to persistent disturbance of eating or eating-related behavior
Problems involving an intense and persistent sexual interest causing distress or impairment to the person or whose satisfaction has entailed personal harm, or risk of harm, to others.
A significant disturbance in a person's ability to respond sexually or to experience sexual pleasure.
Distress that may accompany the incongruence between a person's experienced or expressed gender and one's assigned gender.
Developmental deficits that typically manifest early in development, often before the child enters grade school, and produce impairments of personal, social, academic, or occupational functioning.
Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders
Problems related to unusual preoccupation with physical health or physical symptoms producing significant distress and impairment.
Problems related to the inappropriate elimination of urine or feces , usually first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence.
Disruptive, Impulse Control, and Conduct Disorders
Problems related to kleptomania, pyromania, and other disorders characterized by inability to resist impulses, drives, or temptations to perform certain acts harmful to self or others.
A group of disorders involving cognitive function, including Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, and physical trauma to the brain.
Other Mental Disorders
Residual category of mental disorders causing significant distress or impairment but do not meet the full criteria for any other disorder in DSM-5.
Medication-Induced Movement Disorders and other Adverse Effects of Medication
These are not mental disorders but are included because of their importance in the management by medication and differential diagnosis of mental disorders.
Other Conditions that may be a Focus of Clinical Attention
These are not mental disorders but are included to draw attention to and document issues that may be encountered in routine clinical practices.
generally happen after frightening experiences or prolonged stress
people restrict their normal activities because they fear having a panic attack in crowded, enclosed, or wide-open places where they would be unable to receive help in an emergency
A fear of a specific object or situation
Social Anxiety Disorder
People are irrationally fearful of embarrassing themselves in social situations.
Faulty Cognitive Processes
People tend to have habits of thinking, or cognitive processes, that make them prone to fear
Anxiety disorders result from inadvertent and improper conditioning and social learning
Delusions of Grandeur
People believe that they are someone very important.
Delusions of Reference
People believe that unrelated events are given special significance.
Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms
Additions to or exaggerations of normal thought processes and behaviors, including bizarre delusions and hallucinations.
Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms
Include the loss or absence of normal thought processes and behaviors and appear as impaired attention, limited or toneless speech, flat or blunted affect, and social withdrawal.
Overactivity of certain dopamine neurons in the brain causes some forms of schizophrenia
Culture General Symptoms
Can diagnose disorders across cultures.
Culture Bound Symptoms
People learn to express their problems in ways that are acceptable to others in the same culture.