In insects, bathes internal organs directly, moving through sinuses by contracting of a "heart."
A circulatory system consisting of a single pump and circuit, in which blood passes from the sites of gas exchange to the rest of the body before returning to the heart. (fish)
Amphibian double circulation.
A circulation scheme with separate pulmonary and systemic circuits, which ensures vigorous blood flow to all organs. (amphibians)
Mammal/Bird double circulation
Double circulation is similar to that of amphibians except that oxygenated and
deoxygenated blood does not mix due to possession of two ventricles.
Valves between each atrium and ventricle that keep blood from flowing back into the atria
Valves located where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and where the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle; prevents blood from flowing
back into ventricles.
Volume of blood per minute that the left ventricle pumps into the
systemic circuit; depends on heart rate and stroke volume.
sinoatrial (SA) node
a specialized region of the heart that controls the rate
of contraction; the pacemaker. Located in the right atrium wall
controlled by hormones, body temperature, and by the opposing actions of
two sets of nerves.
Send signals to the brain that
trigger small blood vessels to relax, increasing their diameter and blood flow. The
brain is also signaled, and heart rate decreases.
Kidneys secrete the enzyme in response to a decreased blood flow in the
kidneys. Converts a protein to angiotensin, a hormone that causes small blood vessels to contract. This in turn causes an increase in blood pressure.