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Chapter 3: Atoms- The Building Blocks of Matter
Terms in this set (48)
the transformation of a substance or substances into one or more new substances is known as a...
mass is neither created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes, is stated in the...
law of conservation of mass
a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound, is stated in the...
law of definite proportions
if two or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the second element combined with a certain mass of the first element is always a ratio of small whole numbers, is stated in the...
law of multiple proportions
Dalton's atomic theory
1) all matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms
2) atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass, and other properties
3) atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed
4) atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds
5) in chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged
modern atomic theory changes
1) atoms are divisible into even smaller particles
2) a given element can have atoms with different masses
the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element is an...
a very small region located at the center of an atom is the...
the nucleus is made up of at least one positive charged particle called a proton and usually one ore more...
neutral particles called neutrons
surrounding the nucleus is a region occupied by negatively charged particles called...
protons, neutrons, and electrons are often referred to as...
experiments in the late 1800s showed that cathode rays were composed of...
negatively charged particles (later called electrons)
Joseph John Thomson's cathode ray tube experiments measured the...
charge to mass ratio of an electron
Robert A. Millikan's oil drop experiment measured the...
charge of an electron
discovery of a very densely packed bundle of matter with a positive electric charge was the result to the...
gold foil experiment
Rutherford called this positive bundle of matter the...
except for the nucleus of the simplest type of hydrogen atom, all atomic nuclei are made of...
protons and neutrons
a proton as a positive charge equal in magnitude to the...
negative charge of an electron
atoms are electrically neutral because they contain equal numbers of...
protons and electrons
the nuclei of atoms of different elements differ in their number of protons and therefore in the amount of...
positive charge they posses
the number of protons determines that atom's...
when two protons are extremely close to each other there is a strong attraction between them
a similar attraction exists when neutrons are very close to each other or when protons and neutrons are very close together
the short range proton-neutrons, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear particles together are referred to as...
the radius of an atom is the distance from the center of the nucleus to...
the outer portion of its electron cloud
the unit used to express atomic radii is...
atoms of different elements have different...
numbers of protons
atoms of the same elements all have the same...
number of protons
the atomic number of an element is the number...
of protons of each atom of the element
atoms of the same element that have different masses are...
the isotopes of particular element all have the same number of protons and electrons but...
different numbers of neutrons
most of the elements consist of...
mixtures of isotopes
the total number of protons and neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope is the...
the mass number is written with a hyphen after the mane of the element is...
the superscript indicates the mass number and the subscript indicates the atomic number is the...
the number of neutrons if found by...
subtracting the atomic number from the mass number
a general term for a specific isotope of an element is a...
one atomic mass unit (1 amu) is exactly...
1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
the atomic mass of any atom is determined by comparing it with the mass...
of the carbon-12 atom
the weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element is the...
average atomic mass
the average atomic mass of an element depends on both the mass and the...
relative abundance of each of the element's isotopes
the mol is the SI unit for...
amount of substance
a mole (mol) is the amount of a substance that...
contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
6.0221415x10^23 the number of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance is...
the mass of one mole of a pure substance is called...
the molar mass of that substance
molar mass is written in units of...
the molar mass of an element is numerically equal to the atomic mass of the...
element in atomic mass units
chemists use molar mass as a conversion factor in...
Avogadro's number can be used to find the number of atoms of an element from the amount in moles or...
to find the amount of an element in moles from the number of atoms
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