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What type of furniture and equipment is typically shown on furniture plans?

1. New furniture 2. Relocated reused furniture 3. Copy machines; printers; microwaves; etc. 4. Custom-built furniture.

The BIFMA standards for commercial office furniture; approved by ANSI; define what?

1. The test itself 2. The laboratory equipment that can be used 3. The conditions of the tests 4. Recommended minimum acceptance levels

What are the 7 ANSI/BIFMA American National Standard for Office Furnishigs standards for construction and durability of commercial office furniture?

1. ANSI/BIFMA X5.1 - General Purpose Office Chairs 2. ANSI/BIFMA X5.3 - Vertical Files 3. ANSI/BIFMA X5.4 - Lounge Seating 4. ANSI/BIFMA X5.5 - Desk Products 5. ANSI/BIFMA X5.6 - Panel Systems 6. ANSI/BIFMA X5.9 - Storage Units 7. ANSI/BIFMA X6.5 - Small Office/Home Office

What are the 2 ANSI/BIFMA standards for indoor air quality?

1. ANSI/BIFMA M7.1 - VOC Emissions from Office Furniture Systems; Components and Seating 2. ANSI/BIFMA X7.1 - Formaldehyde & TVOC Emissions of Low-emitting Office Furniture Systems and Seating.

What is the BIFMA standard for furniture intended for computer use?

BIFMA G1 - Ergonomics Guideline for VDT (Visual Display Terminal) Furniture Used on Office Work Spaces

What is the procedure most commonly used in residential projects for specifying furniture?

Designer selects furniture; writes purchase orders and coordinates delivery & installation; no furniture spec's are written

What is the procedure most commonly used in non-bid commercial projects for specifying furniture?

Designer selects furniture; writes spec's but a furniture dealer orders; buys and installs furniture; dealer contracts directly with the client.

What is the procedure most commonly used in bid commercial projects for specifying furniture?

Same as non-bid except the spec's must be more detailed and state bidding requirements; responsibilities; installation procedures and methods of invoicing.

What are the 6 trade souces involved with the furniture and furnishings industry that the designer works with?

1. Sales representatives (both factory reps or independent reps) 2. Dealerships (both manufacturers' dealers & independent dealers; full-Service dealers have a showroom; provide design services; assist with purchasing; handle delivery & install furniture) 3. Showrooms (sometimes can purchase from them directly; other times; ordering is done through a contractor; tradesperson or Dealership) 4. Specialty shops (ie; art gallery; open to the public) 5. Manufacturers 6. Internet

What are the 3 ways a designer can proceed after furniture and other purchased items have been selected and specified?

1. Designer gives the furniture spec's to a dealer who takes over. 2. Designer acts as a purchasing agent for the client (& client pays manufacturer; etc.). 3. Designers acts as a reseller of goods (& designer pays manufacturer; etc.).

What is the procedure once furniture and other goods have been selected?

1. Receive a sales agreement or contract proposal signed by the client (obligates the client to pay for the items listed in the agreement) 2. A purchase order is written (form sent to manufacturer/vendor listing items to be purchased; their exact catalog numbers; prices; shipping info; etc.) 3. Manufacturer sends an acknowledgment or confirmation (repeats the PO items; quantites; costs and shipping info). 4. Manufacturer ships items; and sends an invoice to whomever ordered them. 5. Along with shipment; is a freight bill; and a packing list and a bill of lading listing contents of the shipment; both should be checked.

What info should be included in a purchase order?

1. Designer's name and contact info 2. Vendor's name and contact info 3. A shipping address 4. A unique; sequential identifying number 5. Date 6. Shipping instructions 7. "Tag for" info 8. Merchandise description 9. Total price; shipping price; other charges; grand total 10. Authorization signature 11. Any boilerplate info (terms; Cancellation policies; requirement for sending acknowledgement; etc.)

What are the 3 main ways budgets are set?

1. The client has estimated the amount of money available and gives the figure to the designers. 2. Public funding or legislation. 3. Client describes the extent of work and the designers develops ananticipated budget.

What are the 10 main expense categories on an interior design project budget?

1. Construction costs . FF&E costs 3. Contractor's overhead (10-20%) and profit (5-15%) 4. Professional fees (designer's and other consultants; legal fees & testing)5. Taxes 6. Moving costs 7. Telephone & data system installation 8. Contingencies (5-10%) 9. Financing 10. Inflation factor

What is the difference between a contractor's general overhead and project overhead?

General overhead is the cost of running a contracting business and includes office rent; secretarial help; utilities; etc. Project overhead is the money it takes to complete a specific job; not including labor; materials; or equipment (ie; temporary offices; project telephones; trash removal; Insurance; permits; etc.)

What is debt service and is it typically included in the budget?

Debt service is long-term interest and is not included in the project budget because it is an ongoing cost to the owner (like Maintenance costs).

How is an inflation factor incorporated into the budget?

Use past cost index and inflation rates and apply an estimate to the expected conditions of the construction.

What are the 3 main methods of estimating how much a project will cost?

1. Square Footage (first and most preliminary type of estimate) 2. Parameter (refines the budget) 3. Detailed Quantity Takeoffs (most precise)

Describe the square footage method of estimating.

The anticipated square footage of the project is multiplied by a cost per square foot.The square footage costs may be based on the designer''s or client''s experience with similar projects or they may come from knowledgeable contractors or commercially available cost books.Develop 3 budgets (low; med and high cost per square foot)

Describe the parameter method of estimating.

Uses an expanded itemization of construction quantities and furnishings and assigns unit costs to these quantities. Can evaluate the cost implication of each building component and make decisions concerning both quantity and Quality that meet the original budget estimate. Makes use of allowances if necessary.

Describe the detailed quantity takeoff method of estimating.

Count actual quantities of materials and furnishings and multiply them by firm; quoted costs. Can include an applicable discounts; delivery costs; taxes; etc. Contractor or independent cost estimator prices the documents and Includes overhead and profit.

How is the impact of geographical location and inflation accounted for in developing budgets?

By using cost indexes that are published in a variety of sources; They use a base year as index 1000 for selected cities around the country and new indexes are developed each year that reflect the increase in costs (both material and labor) that year.

Given the cost indexes of two cities; City A where the designer works (and compiles construction costs) and City B where there is a new project; along with the amount the new project would cost in the designer's city; how is the expected cost in the other city calculated?

Divide cost index of City B by cost index of City A and multiply the result by the estimate for City A.

What are the 7 specific costs included in a life-cycle cost analysis?

1. Initial cost 2. Operaltional costs 3. Maintenance costs 4. Replacement costs (if any during the study period) 5. Finance costs 6. Taxes (for initial cost and operational costs) 7. Residual value (based on resale; salvage or scrap value)

What is the difference between a life-cycle cost analysis and a life-cycle assessment?

LCC is a method for determining the total cost of a building or building component or system over a specific length of time called the study period. LCA analyzes the environmental impact of a product or building system over the entire life of the product or system.

Why are life-cycle cost analyses used?

They allow two or more alternatives to be evaluated and their total costs to be compared.

What are the 4 basic types of wood flooring?

1. Strip flooring: 2-1/4" wide (some 1-1/2" wide); varying lengths; tongue and groove edges 2. Plank flooring: 3-1/4" - 8" wide 3. Block flooring: unit block; laminated block or parquet 4. End-grain blocks: very durable & Resistant to oils; mild chemicals; and indentation.

What are wood floor gradings?

Unfinished oak flooring is graded as clear; select; no. 1 common and no. 2 common (clear is the best grade with the most uniform color; typicall plain-sawn but can special order quarter-sawn) Birch; Beech; maple are available in first; second and third Grades along with some combo grades.

What are 2 environmentally friendly wood flooring materials?

1. Bamboo - almost as hard & twice as stable as red oak & maple; usually comes prefinished with a hard; durable polyurethane coating; comes from far away. 2. Palm wood - by-product from plantation-grown coconut palms; harder and more stable thatn maple; red oak and white oak.

What is wood flooring sometimes installed over sleepers?

To give a more resilient floor that is more comfortable underfoot and provide an air space so any excess moisture can escape. (or can use resilient pads)

What are engineered wood floors?

Consists of 3; 5 or 7 layers of wood veneer; each oriented at 90 degrees to the adjacent ones; like plywood (laminated block floors and parquet floors). More dimensionally stable than solid wood; shrink and swell less with moisture.

What are the 5 types of stone commonly used in interior construction for flooring (and walls)?

1. Granite 2. Marble 3. Limestone 4. Slate 5. Sandstone

What type of rock is granite and what are the 5 finishes it is typically available in?

Igneous 1. Polished - mirror gloss 2. Honed - dull sheen; w/o reflections 3. Fine-rubbed - smooth surface; no scratches; no reflections 4. Rubbed - occational slight "trails" or scratches 5. Thermal or Flame - coarse surface

What type of rock is marble and what are the 4 finishes it is typically available in?

Metamorphic (layers of shells under head and pressure from into a composition of crystalline grains of calcite and/or dolomite) 1. Polished - brings out full color/character 2. Honed - satin smooth; no gloss 3. Abrasive - flat; nonreflective surface (non-slip) 4. Wet-sand - smooth; non-slip

What variety of limestone is typically used for interior flooring? Special characteristics? Finishes?

Travertine Network of holes must be filled with epoxy resin colored to match stone. Polished

What type of rock is slate and what are the 3 finishes it is typicall available in?

Metamorphic 1. Natural cleft - surface level varies by about 1/8" 2. Sand-rubbed - even plane showing a slight grain 3. Honed - semipolished without a sheen

What type of rock is sandstone and what is it called when cleaved from the original rock?

Sedimentary Flagstone

Describe the thin-set installation method for stone flooring.

A uniform thickness of stone is set on the subloor with a special thin-set mortar (1/8" or less). Less expensive Add much less weight to the floor Faster to install Suitable for thin stone floors cut in uniform thicknesses.

Describe the thick-set installation method for stone flooring.

A layer of mortar (3/4" - 1-1/4") is applied to a suitably prepared; structurally sound subfloor. Either the stone is then set in the semiwet mortar or the mortar is allowed to cure and the stone is set with another thin layer of dry-set mortar on top of the first. Must be used when the subloor is uneven or when the stone varies in thickness. The mortar bed can be bonded to the subfloor or separated from it with a cleavage membrane. Used with steel reinforcing mesh in the mortar bed; this method allows the Finish floor to be structurally separate from the subfloor.

When should latex grout be used in a stone flooring installation?

When slight movement in the floor is expected.

What is terrazzo?

Marble; quartz; granite or other suitable chips in a matrix that is cementitious; chemical or a combo of both; it's poured; cured; ground and polished to produce a smooth surface - either 80-grit (smooth) or 24-grit (rougher)

What are the advantages of terrazzo?

Durability Water resistance Easy to clean Fire resistant Wide choice of patterns and colors

Describe the 4 basic types of terrazzo.

1. Standard terrazzo - chips smaller than 3/8" 2. Venetian terrazzo - chips larger than 3/8" 3. Palladian terrazzo - then; random-fractured slabs of marble With standard terrazzo between 4. Rustic terrazzA - matrix is depressed to expose the chips.

What are 4 common installation methods for terrazzo?

1. Sand-cushion - best way to avoid cracking 2. Bonded - use if floor movement or deflection is not expected 3. Monolithic - use when installation thickness must be low 4. Thin-set - use when installation thickness must be low

What is resilient flooring in general; how is it installed and what are 4 specific types?

Resilient flooring: Composition materials made from various resins; fibers; plasticizers and fillers; formed under heat and pressure to produce a thin material.Installation: Applied with a mastic to a subfloor of concrete; plywood or other smooth underlayment.1. Vinyl flooring2. Rubber flooring 3. Cork flooring 4. Linoleum flooring

What are the advantages of vinyl flooring?

Durable Resistant to indentation; abrasion; grease; Water; alkalis; & some acids Variety of colors & patterns Inexpensive Easy to install

What is the difference between vinyl tile and vinyl composition tile?

Vinyl composition tile includes various types of fillers that decrease the percentage of polyvinylchloride; it's less expensive; less flexible and has lower abrasion resistane.

What are the advantages and disadvantages to rubber flooring?

dvantages: 1. Excellent resistane to deformation under loads 2. Comfortable; quiet; resilient floor Disadvantages: 1. Not very resistant to oils or grease.

How is cork flooring made? What country produces about half of the world's cork? Advantages?

Granulated pieces of bark from the cork oak tree are bonded together under heat and pressure. Portugal Acoustic & very resilient

What are the 3 finish options for cork and how often do they need to be reapplied?

1. Acrylic - every 4-6 months 2. Polyurethane - every 3-7 years (old finish must be completely sanded off First) 3. Carnauba wax - once a year

What is linoleum made of? Advantages? Disadvantages?

Oxidized linseed oil; wood flour; pigments; and fillers applied over a backing of burlaP or asphalt-saturated felt. Very good abrasion and grease resistance; sustainable Not as resistant to alkalis.

What is the maximum limit for moisture emission from concrete for resilient flooring to be installed?

3.0 lb/1000 sq ft/24 h at 73 degrees & 50% relative humidity

What are the 5 tests that can be used to determine moisture content in a concrete slab?

1. Calcium chloride test (aka moisture dome test) - most common; inexpensive and easy.2. Hygrometer test (aka relative humidity test) - measures RH at the floor - RH must be less than 75% 3. Polyethylene sheet test - qualitative test 4. Mat test - qualitative 5. Electrical impedance test - uses meters with probes to read out the moisture content in the slab.

What tests are used to determine the alkalinity in concrete? What are acceptable levels?

1. pH test - 8.5 is considered ideal; values up to 9 may be acceptable (pH level is an indication of the Presence of alkalinity but not necessarily the amount of alkalinity)2. Tritration test - measures alkalinity; a lab must perform the test.

What problems can high alkalinity on the surface of the concrete slab cause for resilient flooring?

1. Can cause the adhesive to re-emulsify or return to its original liquid state. 2. Can cause alkali-silica reaction - strongly alkaline cement begins to dissolve sand and rock within the concrete; creates tremendous pressure which can buckle or blister floor finishes.

What are 5 big advantages of carpet?

1. Attractive 2. Durable 3. Quiet 4. Easy to install 5. Requires less maintenance than many other flooring types.

What are the 6 fibers carpet can be made from?

1. Wool 2. Nylon 3. Acrylic 4. Modacrylic 5. Polyester 6. Olefin

What are the advantages and disadvantages of wool carpet fiber?

Advantages: 1. Very durable & resilient 2. Wears well & high appearance retention 3. Flame resistance 4. Easy to clean & Maintain Disadvantages: 1. Highest initial cost

What are the advantages and disadvantages of nylon carpet fiber?

Advantages: 1. Economical 2. Very strong & wear resistant 3. Stain resistant 4. Crush resistant 5. Can be dyed a wide range of colors 6. Cleans easily

What are the advantages and disadvantages of acrylic carpet fiber?

Advantages: 1. Wool-like appearance 2. Can be dyed a wide range of colors 3. Good crush resistance 4. Easy to maintain Disadvantages: 1. Moderate abrasion resistance

What are the advantages and disadvantages of polyester carpet fiber?

Advantages: 1. Highly abrasion resistant 2. Good crush resistance 3. Cleans well 4. Mildew resistant 5. Inexpensive

What are the advantages and disadvantages of olefin carpet fiber? What is it typically used for?

Advantages: 1. Durable 2. Stain resistant 3. Cleans easily Disadvantages: 1. Not attractive 2. Low melting point Used for indoor/outdoor carpet or carpet backing (alt to jute)

What are the 6 methods of manufacturing carpet?

1. Weaving (most expensive)2. Tufting 3. Needle punching 4. Fusion bonding 5. Knitting 6. Custom tufting

What are the 3 primary carpet weaving methods?

1. Wilton - uses Jacquard loom; heavier; more expensive 2. Velvet - simplest form of weaving; places all pile yarn on the face of the carpet 3. Axminster - uses modified Jacquard loom; most of the pile yarn is placed on the surface (unlike Wilton).

Describe the tufting manufacturing process for carpet.

Pile yarn is punched through the backing with rows of needles.Fast and low cost.Majority of carpet manufacturing.

Describe the needle punching manufacturing process for carpet.

The fiber is pulled through a backing with barbed needles. Limited texture variety so few carpets are made this way.

Describe the fusion bonding manufacturing process for carpet

The pile yarn is embeds in a backing of liquid vinyl which hardens; locking the tufts. Primarily for carpet tile.

What are 3 factors affecting the appearance and durability of a carpet?

1. Pitch - for woven carpet; the number of ends of surface yarn in a 27" width (guage for tufted carpet) 2. Stitch or stitch rate - number of lengthwise tufts in 1" 3. Pile height - shorter & more tightly packed fibers Result in a more durable but more expensive carpet.

What is the purpose of carpet backing?

Provide support for the pile yarn. Give added strength and dimensional stability to the carpet.

Why use carpet cushions?

Increases the life of the carpet Provides better resiliency & comfort Helps sound absorption Lessens impact noise

What are 4 common materials for carpet cushion?

1. Sponge rubber 2. Felt 3. Urethane 4. Foam rubber (sometimes applied as an integral backing to carpet)

What are the 2 ways carpet is installed?

1. Direct glue down 2. Stretched-in installation - uses Tackless strips attached around the room's perimeter; strips have sharp points that face toward the walls; the carpet is stretched against the strips.

1. All carpet sold in the U.S. must pass what test? . The IBC also requires carpet to pass what test under certain conditions?

1. ASTM D2859 - the methenamine pill test 2. ASTM E648 - the flooring radiant panel test

What are the 2 primary types of tile?

1. Ceramic Tile 2. Quarry Tile

What are the advantages of tile?

1. Durability 2. Water resistance (if glazed) 3. Ease of Installation & cleaning 4. Wide choice of colors; sizes and patterns 5. Fire resistance 6. Fade resistance 7. The ability to store heat for passive solar collection.

Describe the dust-pressed method and the extrusion method for making tile.

Dust pressing uses large presses to shape the tile out of relatively dry clay (glazed and unglazed non-mosaic tile over 6 sq in) is paver tile). Extrusion process uses machines to cut tiles from a wetter and more Malleable clay extruded through a die (glazed and unglazed tile is quarry tile).

What are nonvitreous; impervious; semivetreous and vitreous tile?

Nonvitreous - water absorption rate of more than 7% Impervious tile - water absorption rate of less than 0.5% Semivitreous & vitreous tile - classified between nonvitreous and impervious.

Describe the classifications of abrasion resistance for tile.

Group I - light residential Group II - Moderate residential Group III - maximum residental Group IV - commercial

What is laminate flooring?

Flooring composed of a clear wearing sheet over a melamine-impregnated decorative printed sheet with core layers of phenolic-impregnated kraft paper. These sheets are laminated to a high-density fiberboard core under heat & pressure and covered with a water-resistant backing sheet.

How is laminate flooring installed?

It is laid on a cushioned foam underlayment with the tongue-and-groove edges glued together. A vapor barrier is normally required when it is laid over a concrete floor.

What are the advanges of laminate flooring?

1. Hard; durable 2. Resistant to staining 3. Easy to install 4. Less expensive alternative to wood 5. Can be used in most locations (though not restrooms or other wet areas)

What is seamless flooring?

A high-performance flooring that is used where special characteristics are required (extreme harness; severe stain & chemical resistance; excellent water resistance) or where cleanliness & ease of cleaning are required. It's a mixture of a resinous matrix; fillers and decorative materials applied in a liquid or viscous form that cures to a hard; seamleass surface (ie; epoxy terrazzo)

What are the two categories of seamless flooring materials?

1. Thermosetting (two-part epoxy; two-part polyurethane; polychloroprene (neoprenE); two-part polyester) 2. Thermoplastic (acrylic & mastic products)

What is the coefficient of friction (COF) of a floor surface?

A measurement of the degree of slip resistance. Ranges from 0 to 1 Higher COF = less slippery

Which is usually measured - the static COF or the dynamic COF? (& which is usually a higher number?)

The static COF is typically measured since the dynamic COF is so difficult to measure Static COF is a higher number.

What are 4 tests that measure COF?

1. ASTM D2047 - James machine (most common & most accurate but only used in the lab on smooth; dry surfaces; 0.5 COF is min for a slip-resistant floor; UL & OSHA agree) 2. ASTM C1028 - Horizontal Dynamometer Pull-Meter (measures both dry & wet surfaces in the field but has inconsistent results) 3. ASTM F609 - Horizontal Pull Slipmeter (measures static COF of foot-wear soles/heels on walkway surfaces) 4. ASTM F462 - Slip-Resistant Bathing Facilities (soapy water in bathtubs & showers)

What does ADA say about slip resistant floors?

Floors should be slip resistant but doesn't give a specific test value; An appendix recommends a static COF of 0.6 for accessible routes and 0.8 for ramps

How are paints/coatings constructed?

1. Vehicle - the liquid part; has a binder (nonvolatile) and a solvent (volatile) which evaporates. 2. Body - titanium dioxide (& pigments if the coating is opaque)

What are the 2 classifications of paints?

1. Solvent-based (have binders dissolved in or containing organic solvents) 2. Water-based (have binders that are soluble or dispersed in water) more environmentally friendly; low VOC's

Describe oil paints.

Use a drying; or curing; oil as a binder. Durable but have a strong odor. Must be cleaned up with solvents. Cannot be painted on damp surfaces or on surfaces that may become damp from behind.

Describe latex paints.

Water-based with vinyl chloride or acrylic resins as binders (acrylic latex is better than vinyl latex)

Describe epoxy paints.

Epoxy is used as a binder. Very durable; resistant to corrosion & chemicals. Resist abrasion Strongly adhere to concrete; metal & wood.

Describe urethane paints.

Superior resistance to abrasion; grease; alcohol; water & fules. Used for wood floors & for antigraffiti coatings.

How is the amount of coating material to be applied specified?

As either wet or dry film thickness in mils (thousandths of an inch) for each coat needed.

Buildings built before what year may have lead-based paint?


What are VOC's and how are they harmful? What regulation restricts their use?

Hydrocarbon solvents released into the air during paint application & react with nitrous oxides and sunlight to form ozone. The Clean Air Act of 1972 - required the EPA to issue a regulation in 1999 that requires the amount of VOCs in paint & other coatings to be reduced.

1. What are wallpaper roll dimensions? 2. How is wallpaper applied? 3. What types of matching is there?

1. 20-1/2" wide by 21 ft long 2. A liquid sizing is applied; then an adhesive; then the wallpaper. 3. Straight match & drop match (or none for no pattern repeats)

1. What are vinyl wallcovering roll dimensions? 2. What are the 3 grades? 3. How is it applied? 4. What are the 2 seaming methods?

1. 52" or 54" wide by 30 yds long 2. Type I (7-13 oz/sq d); Type II (13-22 oz/sq yd); Type III (over 22 oz/sq yd) 3. Primer is applied over new wallboard; then a mastic; then VWC. 4. Double-cutting (tight joint) & Butting (where matching is critical)

What is a tuck joint for VWC or fabric wallcovering?

A small recess where the wall covering can be tucked into a small crack; giving a neater edge and concealing any minor delamination of the edges from the partition should it occur.

What are the 2 methods of installing fabric wall covering?

1. Apply directly to the wall with adhesive - typically fabric is backed to prevent adhesive from damaging the fabric and to give the fabric additional dimensional stability. 2. Upholstered wall - fabric is stretched over a frame and secured into place.

How are acoustic panels different from upholsted walls?

They have at least 1" of sound absorbing material and are covered with a permeable material (loose weave fabric) so that the sound energy can pass through and be dissipated in the material underneath.

What are 3 good characteristics of acoustic panel fabric?

1. Unbacked 2. Hydrophobic (modacrylics; polyesters; cotton; linen. olefin; wool) 3. Balanced weave (jacquards and damasks; not satin; taffetas and basket weaves)

What materials can be used for the cores of acoustic panels?

1. Fiberglass 2. Polyester batting 3. Mineral fiberboard (tackable) 4. Tackable acoustic fiberglass

How thick are stone slabs applied to walls? Tiles?

1. 3/4" 2. 3/8"

How are stone slabs applied to walls?

Stainless steel wires or ties are anchored to the substrate & hold the stone by being set in holes or slots cut unto the back or sides of the stone panel; lumps of plaster of paris (spots) are placed between the substrate and the back of the stone panel at each anchor; joints are filled with portland cement mortar; sealant or left open.

What are the 7 reasons for window treatments?

1. Enhance window's appearance 2. Control light 3. Provide privacy 4. Reduce heat gain & heat loss 5. Block undesirable views 6. Reduce sound reflections within a space 7. Unify or disguise an awkward or undesirable grouping of openings.

What are the 11 types of window treatments?

1. Roller shades & inverted roller shades 2. Roman shades (accordion folds) 3. Austrian shades (scallops) 4. Venetian blinds 5. Mini blinds 6. Vertical blinds 7. Louvered shutters 8. Drapery (pleating: pinch; stack; roll; accordion) 9. Curtains (meant to remain fixed across all or a portion of the window) 10. Translucent panels 11. Grilles

What are important considerations for calculating carpet yardage?

Carpet comes in 12 ft (4 yd) Rolls. Carpet is measured by the yard. Draw a seaming diagram. Carpet should be laid so that all the nap runs in the same direction. Include an allowance of 2" for in case rooms are out of square. Minimize seams. Don't put seams across traffic paths; perpendicular into doorways;where light hilights them; near architectural features.

How is carpet yardard for stairs calculated?

1. Multiply number of risers by the riser height. 2. Multiply number of treads + 1 by the tread depth. 3. Allow 1" for each combined tread & riser (nosing). 4. Add 1-3; convert to feet (round up to nearest whole number) 5. Multiply 4 by the stair width; convert to sq yds (round up to nearest whole nuber) 6. Add the area of any Intermediate landing if necessary.

Describe the square footage method for wallpaper calculations. When is it useful?

1. Total area to be covered is calculated; modified by allowance for waste (add 20%) & deductions for doors; windows; etc. 2. That total area is divided by the area covered by one roll of wallcovering (a 27" wide roll covers 36 sq ft) Determines the number of rolls needed (good for wallpaper)

Describe the strip method for wallpaper calculations.

1. The total perimeter of the room is calculated in inches . 2. That perimeter is divided by the width of the roll which gives the number of strips needed. 3. That number is multiplied by the height of the ceiling to get the number of linear feet (or linear yards) (good for wall covering)

How does a wallpaper with a pattern repeat & a half-drop match affect calculations?

Use a modified ceiling height: Divide the height of the wall to be covered in inches by the distance of The pattern repeat in inches; ROUND FRACTIONS UP TO THE NEAREST WHOLE NUMBER. Multiply result by the distance of the pattern repeat in inches. This is the working Height for the calculation.

How are calculations for vinyl wallcovering different from those for wallpaper?

VWC is sold by the linear yard; not the roll. VWC is 54" wide which is wider than most doors and windows so Deductions aren't made for them. There is 13.5 sq ft/yd in on linear yard of wallcovering 54" wide.

In estimating fabric for draperies; what does the total fabric width consist of?

Opening size + Stacking space + The return + Any overlap of 2 sections + Amount of fullness

How is drapery stacking space calculated?

Divide the window width by 3.

What is return and overlap generally estimated to be for draperies?

R&O = 12" Returns: 3" deep; one on each side Overlap: 6"

How is the desired drapery fullness incorporated into the total fabric width?

Fabric width = (drapery width) x (fullness factor) 100% fullness = fullness factor of 2 150% fullness = fullness factor of 2.5 200% fullness = fullness factor of 3

What is the typical width of drapery panels?

48" wide or 54" wide (if it's not given; assume 54")

What length should header and hem be assumed to be if it's not given?


Describe how to calculate drapery yardage.

1. Calculate stacking space width (divide window width by 3) 2. Determine total drapery width (window width + stacking space + R&O) 3. Determine total fabric width (multiply by the fullness factor) 4. Determine the number of panels needed (divide the total fabric width by the panel width = 54" and round up) 5. Determine the cut length of the panels (window height + header & hem) 6. Determine the amount of linear yards needed (number of panels x cut length)

How does a fabric with a pattern repeat affect calculations?

Use a modified cut length (height): Divide the cut length (window height + header & hem) by the distance of the pattern repeat. ROUND UP TO NEAREST WHOLE NUMBER. Multiply this number by the distance of the pattern repeat to get the modified cut length.

What are the 3 basic qualities of sound?

1. Velocity (depends on the medium in which the sound is traveling & the temp of the medium) 2. Frequency (number of cycles completed per second - Hz) 3. Power (quality of acoustic energy as measured in watts; is perceived as loudness)

Designers can control the acoustic quality of a room in what 3 ways?

1. Space planning 2. The design of walls & ceilings 3. The selection of finishes

How does the decible work? What decible level is the threshold of human hearing? The threshold of pain? Usual background?

Relates actual sound intensity to the way humans experience sound (hearing is proportional to the logarithm of the source intensity) 0 dB 130 dB 60 dB

A decible change of each of the following results in what change in apparent loudness? 1. 1 dB 2. 3 dB 3. 5 dB 4. 6 dB 5. 10 Db

1 dB = almost imperceptible 3 dB = just perceptible 5 dB = clearly noticeable 6 dB = change when distance to source in a free field is doubled or halved 10 dB = twice or half as loud

1. What frequency range can a health young person hear? 2. What frequency range are they most sensitive to? 3. What frequency range does most speech fall in?

1. 20 Hz - 20;000 Hz 2. 3000 hz - 4000 Hz 3. 200 Hz - 5000 Hz

Describe 2 important concepts in noise reduction: transmission loss and actual noise reduction between 2 spaces.

1. Transmission loss takes into account only the loss through the partition separating the 2 spaces. 2. Noise reduction takes into account the transmission loss and the area of the partition separating the 2 spaces and the absorption of the surfaces in the quiet room.

What is sound transmission class (STC)?

A single-number rating used to rate the transmission loss of construction; higher STC = better the barrier is at stopping sound. (It's best to look at values for various frequencies rather than the single STC average value)

What is the effect on hearing through partitions with the following STC values? 1. 25 2. 35 3. 50

1. 25: normal speech can clearly be heard 2. 35: loud speech is not intelligible but can be heard 3. 50: loud speech not audible

What 3 things can noise criteria curves be used for?

1. Specify the maximum amount of continuous background noise allowable in a space. 2. Establish a minimum amount of noise desired to help mask sounds. 3. Evaluate an existing condition.

What is sound absorption used for?

1. Control unwanted sound reflections (noise) 2. Improve speech privacy 3. Decrease or increase reverberation.

What is the coefficient of absorption?

The ratio of the sound intensity absorbed by the material to the total intensity reaching the material; Quantifies the absorption of a material; Varies with the frequency of the sound Max = 1 (free space) Below 0.2; material is reflective Above 0.2; material is sound absorbing.

What is Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)? What is the NRC of these materials? 1. Vinyl tile on concrete 2. Carpet; 1/2" pile on concrete 3. 1" suspended ACT

The average of a material's absorption coefficients at the four frequencies of 250; 500; 1000 and 2000 Hz rounded to the nearest multiple of 0.05. 1. 0.05 2. 0.50 3. 0.90

What is Sound Absorption Average (SAA)?

The average of the absorption coefficients for the 12 one-third-octave bands from 200 Hz to 2500 Hz when tested in accordance with ASTM C423 (similar to NRC).

In designing a space; what should be the minimum average absorption coefficient? What is too high?

0.20 0.50 is usually not desirable; nor is it economically justified

Where are absorptive materials must effective in 1. large rooms 2. small rooms

1. ceilings 2. walls

What 3 primary ways can sound be controlled within a space?

1. By reducing the level of loudness of the sound source 2. By modifying the absorption in the space 3. By introducing nonintrusive background sound to mask the unwanted sound.

If there is 75 dB of sound on one side of a partition with an STC rating of 45 dB; how much sound is transmitted to the other side?

75 dB - 45 dB = 30 dB

What are the 3 methods used to build a sound-resistant partition?

1. Doubld layer of wallboard on one or both sides 2. Place insulation within the stud cavity 3. Use resilient channels - wallboard floats and dampens sound striking it rather than transmitting it to the stud.

How can sound transmission be minimized at gaps or openings in walls?

Seal/caulk gaps. Don't line up electrical outlets. Don't rigidly connect pipes and ducts to the wall. Seal doors; use automatic door bottom; use heavy doors (solid core) Use laminate glass with two or more layers and an air gap between.

What is speech privacy?

A condition in which talking may be heard as a general background sound but not easily understood.

What are 5 important factors in designing for speech privacy in an open area?

1. Ceiling must be highly absorptive. 2. Use absorptive space dividers 3. Floor; furniture; windows; light fixtures must be designed/arranged to minimize soud reflections. 4. Activities should be distanced. 5. Use a properly designed background masking system.

What is impact insulation class (IIC)?

Quantifies impact noise; A single-number rating of a floor/ceiling's impact sound performance. The higher the IIC; the better the floor performs in reducing impact sounds in the test frequency range.

How can IIC be improved?

1. Add carpet 2. Use a resiliently suspended ceiling 3. Foat a finished floor on resilient pads over the structural floor 4. Use sound-absorbing material (insulation) in the air space between the floor and finished ceiling below.

What are 6 ways space planning can minimize acoutic problems?

1. Plan similar use areas next to each other 2. Use buffer spaces 3. Stagger doorways in halls 4. Locate furniture; etc. away from the common wall 5. Minimize the area of the common wall 6. Avoid barrel-vaulted hallways; circular rooms and similar geometry.

What are the 3 ratings applied to acoustics in regard to ceilings?

1. NRC 2. SRA - speech range absorption (similar to NRC but focuses on frequency ranges for speech) 3. CAC - ceiling attenuation class: single number measure of the transmission loss thru ceiling tiles between two closed rooms where there is no wall or other barrier above the suspended ceiling. Similar to STC (dB). Most ceilings have CAC's between 30 dB and 35 dB.

What are the 2 methods used to measure speech privacy in open offices?

1. Articulation class (AC) - single number summation of how effective a ceiling is in absorbing sound reaching it from over low partitions. 2. Articulation index (AI) - better method of rating speech privacy measuring the performance of all the elements of a particular configuration working together (ceilings; space dividers; furniture; etc.). An acceptable level of privacy exists when the AI is above 0.30 (ranges from 0-1).

What is the wavelength range for visible light? White light?

400 nm (violet) - 700 nm (red) White light is produced when a source emits approximately equal quantities of energy over the entire visible spectrum.

Define candlepower (cp)

The unit of luminous intensity approximately equal to the horizontal light output from an ordinary wax candle. SI = candela (cd)

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