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What type of furniture and equipment is typically shown on furniture plans?
1. New furniture 2. Relocated reused furniture 3. Copy machines; printers; microwaves; etc. 4. Custom-built furniture.
The BIFMA standards for commercial office furniture; approved by ANSI; define what?
1. The test itself 2. The laboratory equipment that can be used 3. The conditions of the tests 4. Recommended minimum acceptance levels
What are the 7 ANSI/BIFMA American National Standard for Office Furnishigs standards for construction and durability of commercial office furniture?
1. ANSI/BIFMA X5.1 - General Purpose Office Chairs 2. ANSI/BIFMA X5.3 - Vertical Files 3. ANSI/BIFMA X5.4 - Lounge Seating 4. ANSI/BIFMA X5.5 - Desk Products 5. ANSI/BIFMA X5.6 - Panel Systems 6. ANSI/BIFMA X5.9 - Storage Units 7. ANSI/BIFMA X6.5 - Small Office/Home Office
What are the 2 ANSI/BIFMA standards for indoor air quality?
1. ANSI/BIFMA M7.1 - VOC Emissions from Office Furniture Systems; Components and Seating 2. ANSI/BIFMA X7.1 - Formaldehyde & TVOC Emissions of Low-emitting Office Furniture Systems and Seating.
What is the BIFMA standard for furniture intended for computer use?
BIFMA G1 - Ergonomics Guideline for VDT (Visual Display Terminal) Furniture Used on Office Work Spaces
What is the procedure most commonly used in residential projects for specifying furniture?
Designer selects furniture; writes purchase orders and coordinates delivery & installation; no furniture spec's are written
What is the procedure most commonly used in non-bid commercial projects for specifying furniture?
Designer selects furniture; writes spec's but a furniture dealer orders; buys and installs furniture; dealer contracts directly with the client.
What is the procedure most commonly used in bid commercial projects for specifying furniture?
Same as non-bid except the spec's must be more detailed and state bidding requirements; responsibilities; installation procedures and methods of invoicing.
What are the 6 trade souces involved with the furniture and furnishings industry that the designer works with?
1. Sales representatives (both factory reps or independent reps) 2. Dealerships (both manufacturers' dealers & independent dealers; full-Service dealers have a showroom; provide design services; assist with purchasing; handle delivery & install furniture) 3. Showrooms (sometimes can purchase from them directly; other times; ordering is done through a contractor; tradesperson or Dealership) 4. Specialty shops (ie; art gallery; open to the public) 5. Manufacturers 6. Internet
What are the 3 ways a designer can proceed after furniture and other purchased items have been selected and specified?
1. Designer gives the furniture spec's to a dealer who takes over. 2. Designer acts as a purchasing agent for the client (& client pays manufacturer; etc.). 3. Designers acts as a reseller of goods (& designer pays manufacturer; etc.).
What is the procedure once furniture and other goods have been selected?
1. Receive a sales agreement or contract proposal signed by the client (obligates the client to pay for the items listed in the agreement) 2. A purchase order is written (form sent to manufacturer/vendor listing items to be purchased; their exact catalog numbers; prices; shipping info; etc.) 3. Manufacturer sends an acknowledgment or confirmation (repeats the PO items; quantites; costs and shipping info). 4. Manufacturer ships items; and sends an invoice to whomever ordered them. 5. Along with shipment; is a freight bill; and a packing list and a bill of lading listing contents of the shipment; both should be checked.
What info should be included in a purchase order?
1. Designer's name and contact info 2. Vendor's name and contact info 3. A shipping address 4. A unique; sequential identifying number 5. Date 6. Shipping instructions 7. "Tag for" info 8. Merchandise description 9. Total price; shipping price; other charges; grand total 10. Authorization signature 11. Any boilerplate info (terms; Cancellation policies; requirement for sending acknowledgement; etc.)
What are the 3 main ways budgets are set?
1. The client has estimated the amount of money available and gives the figure to the designers. 2. Public funding or legislation. 3. Client describes the extent of work and the designers develops ananticipated budget.
What are the 10 main expense categories on an interior design project budget?
1. Construction costs . FF&E costs 3. Contractor's overhead (10-20%) and profit (5-15%) 4. Professional fees (designer's and other consultants; legal fees & testing)5. Taxes 6. Moving costs 7. Telephone & data system installation 8. Contingencies (5-10%) 9. Financing 10. Inflation factor
What is the difference between a contractor's general overhead and project overhead?
General overhead is the cost of running a contracting business and includes office rent; secretarial help; utilities; etc. Project overhead is the money it takes to complete a specific job; not including labor; materials; or equipment (ie; temporary offices; project telephones; trash removal; Insurance; permits; etc.)
What is debt service and is it typically included in the budget?
Debt service is long-term interest and is not included in the project budget because it is an ongoing cost to the owner (like Maintenance costs).
How is an inflation factor incorporated into the budget?
Use past cost index and inflation rates and apply an estimate to the expected conditions of the construction.
What are the 3 main methods of estimating how much a project will cost?
1. Square Footage (first and most preliminary type of estimate) 2. Parameter (refines the budget) 3. Detailed Quantity Takeoffs (most precise)
Describe the square footage method of estimating.
The anticipated square footage of the project is multiplied by a cost per square foot.The square footage costs may be based on the designer''s or client''s experience with similar projects or they may come from knowledgeable contractors or commercially available cost books.Develop 3 budgets (low; med and high cost per square foot)
Describe the parameter method of estimating.
Uses an expanded itemization of construction quantities and furnishings and assigns unit costs to these quantities. Can evaluate the cost implication of each building component and make decisions concerning both quantity and Quality that meet the original budget estimate. Makes use of allowances if necessary.
Describe the detailed quantity takeoff method of estimating.
Count actual quantities of materials and furnishings and multiply them by firm; quoted costs. Can include an applicable discounts; delivery costs; taxes; etc. Contractor or independent cost estimator prices the documents and Includes overhead and profit.
How is the impact of geographical location and inflation accounted for in developing budgets?
By using cost indexes that are published in a variety of sources; They use a base year as index 1000 for selected cities around the country and new indexes are developed each year that reflect the increase in costs (both material and labor) that year.
Given the cost indexes of two cities; City A where the designer works (and compiles construction costs) and City B where there is a new project; along with the amount the new project would cost in the designer's city; how is the expected cost in the other city calculated?
Divide cost index of City B by cost index of City A and multiply the result by the estimate for City A.
What are the 7 specific costs included in a life-cycle cost analysis?
1. Initial cost 2. Operaltional costs 3. Maintenance costs 4. Replacement costs (if any during the study period) 5. Finance costs 6. Taxes (for initial cost and operational costs) 7. Residual value (based on resale; salvage or scrap value)
What is the difference between a life-cycle cost analysis and a life-cycle assessment?
LCC is a method for determining the total cost of a building or building component or system over a specific length of time called the study period. LCA analyzes the environmental impact of a product or building system over the entire life of the product or system.
Why are life-cycle cost analyses used?
They allow two or more alternatives to be evaluated and their total costs to be compared.
What are the 4 basic types of wood flooring?
1. Strip flooring: 2-1/4" wide (some 1-1/2" wide); varying lengths; tongue and groove edges 2. Plank flooring: 3-1/4" - 8" wide 3. Block flooring: unit block; laminated block or parquet 4. End-grain blocks: very durable & Resistant to oils; mild chemicals; and indentation.
What are wood floor gradings?
Unfinished oak flooring is graded as clear; select; no. 1 common and no. 2 common (clear is the best grade with the most uniform color; typicall plain-sawn but can special order quarter-sawn) Birch; Beech; maple are available in first; second and third Grades along with some combo grades.
What are 2 environmentally friendly wood flooring materials?
1. Bamboo - almost as hard & twice as stable as red oak & maple; usually comes prefinished with a hard; durable polyurethane coating; comes from far away. 2. Palm wood - by-product from plantation-grown coconut palms; harder and more stable thatn maple; red oak and white oak.
What is wood flooring sometimes installed over sleepers?
To give a more resilient floor that is more comfortable underfoot and provide an air space so any excess moisture can escape. (or can use resilient pads)
What are engineered wood floors?
Consists of 3; 5 or 7 layers of wood veneer; each oriented at 90 degrees to the adjacent ones; like plywood (laminated block floors and parquet floors). More dimensionally stable than solid wood; shrink and swell less with moisture.
What are the 5 types of stone commonly used in interior construction for flooring (and walls)?
1. Granite 2. Marble 3. Limestone 4. Slate 5. Sandstone
What type of rock is granite and what are the 5 finishes it is typically available in?
Igneous 1. Polished - mirror gloss 2. Honed - dull sheen; w/o reflections 3. Fine-rubbed - smooth surface; no scratches; no reflections 4. Rubbed - occational slight "trails" or scratches 5. Thermal or Flame - coarse surface
What type of rock is marble and what are the 4 finishes it is typically available in?
Metamorphic (layers of shells under head and pressure from into a composition of crystalline grains of calcite and/or dolomite) 1. Polished - brings out full color/character 2. Honed - satin smooth; no gloss 3. Abrasive - flat; nonreflective surface (non-slip) 4. Wet-sand - smooth; non-slip
What variety of limestone is typically used for interior flooring? Special characteristics? Finishes?
Travertine Network of holes must be filled with epoxy resin colored to match stone. Polished
What type of rock is slate and what are the 3 finishes it is typicall available in?
Metamorphic 1. Natural cleft - surface level varies by about 1/8" 2. Sand-rubbed - even plane showing a slight grain 3. Honed - semipolished without a sheen
What type of rock is sandstone and what is it called when cleaved from the original rock?
Describe the thin-set installation method for stone flooring.
A uniform thickness of stone is set on the subloor with a special thin-set mortar (1/8" or less). Less expensive Add much less weight to the floor Faster to install Suitable for thin stone floors cut in uniform thicknesses.
Describe the thick-set installation method for stone flooring.
A layer of mortar (3/4" - 1-1/4") is applied to a suitably prepared; structurally sound subfloor. Either the stone is then set in the semiwet mortar or the mortar is allowed to cure and the stone is set with another thin layer of dry-set mortar on top of the first. Must be used when the subloor is uneven or when the stone varies in thickness. The mortar bed can be bonded to the subfloor or separated from it with a cleavage membrane. Used with steel reinforcing mesh in the mortar bed; this method allows the Finish floor to be structurally separate from the subfloor.
When should latex grout be used in a stone flooring installation?
When slight movement in the floor is expected.
What is terrazzo?
Marble; quartz; granite or other suitable chips in a matrix that is cementitious; chemical or a combo of both; it's poured; cured; ground and polished to produce a smooth surface - either 80-grit (smooth) or 24-grit (rougher)
What are the advantages of terrazzo?
Durability Water resistance Easy to clean Fire resistant Wide choice of patterns and colors
Describe the 4 basic types of terrazzo.
1. Standard terrazzo - chips smaller than 3/8" 2. Venetian terrazzo - chips larger than 3/8" 3. Palladian terrazzo - then; random-fractured slabs of marble With standard terrazzo between 4. Rustic terrazzA - matrix is depressed to expose the chips.
What are 4 common installation methods for terrazzo?
1. Sand-cushion - best way to avoid cracking 2. Bonded - use if floor movement or deflection is not expected 3. Monolithic - use when installation thickness must be low 4. Thin-set - use when installation thickness must be low
What is resilient flooring in general; how is it installed and what are 4 specific types?
Resilient flooring: Composition materials made from various resins; fibers; plasticizers and fillers; formed under heat and pressure to produce a thin material.Installation: Applied with a mastic to a subfloor of concrete; plywood or other smooth underlayment.1. Vinyl flooring2. Rubber flooring 3. Cork flooring 4. Linoleum flooring
What are the advantages of vinyl flooring?
Durable Resistant to indentation; abrasion; grease; Water; alkalis; & some acids Variety of colors & patterns Inexpensive Easy to install
What is the difference between vinyl tile and vinyl composition tile?
Vinyl composition tile includes various types of fillers that decrease the percentage of polyvinylchloride; it's less expensive; less flexible and has lower abrasion resistane.
What are the advantages and disadvantages to rubber flooring?
dvantages: 1. Excellent resistane to deformation under loads 2. Comfortable; quiet; resilient floor Disadvantages: 1. Not very resistant to oils or grease.
How is cork flooring made? What country produces about half of the world's cork? Advantages?
Granulated pieces of bark from the cork oak tree are bonded together under heat and pressure. Portugal Acoustic & very resilient
What are the 3 finish options for cork and how often do they need to be reapplied?
1. Acrylic - every 4-6 months 2. Polyurethane - every 3-7 years (old finish must be completely sanded off First) 3. Carnauba wax - once a year
What is linoleum made of? Advantages? Disadvantages?
Oxidized linseed oil; wood flour; pigments; and fillers applied over a backing of burlaP or asphalt-saturated felt. Very good abrasion and grease resistance; sustainable Not as resistant to alkalis.
What is the maximum limit for moisture emission from concrete for resilient flooring to be installed?
3.0 lb/1000 sq ft/24 h at 73 degrees & 50% relative humidity
What are the 5 tests that can be used to determine moisture content in a concrete slab?
1. Calcium chloride test (aka moisture dome test) - most common; inexpensive and easy.2. Hygrometer test (aka relative humidity test) - measures RH at the floor - RH must be less than 75% 3. Polyethylene sheet test - qualitative test 4. Mat test - qualitative 5. Electrical impedance test - uses meters with probes to read out the moisture content in the slab.
What tests are used to determine the alkalinity in concrete? What are acceptable levels?
1. pH test - 8.5 is considered ideal; values up to 9 may be acceptable (pH level is an indication of the Presence of alkalinity but not necessarily the amount of alkalinity)2. Tritration test - measures alkalinity; a lab must perform the test.
What problems can high alkalinity on the surface of the concrete slab cause for resilient flooring?
1. Can cause the adhesive to re-emulsify or return to its original liquid state. 2. Can cause alkali-silica reaction - strongly alkaline cement begins to dissolve sand and rock within the concrete; creates tremendous pressure which can buckle or blister floor finishes.
What are 5 big advantages of carpet?
1. Attractive 2. Durable 3. Quiet 4. Easy to install 5. Requires less maintenance than many other flooring types.
What are the 6 fibers carpet can be made from?
1. Wool 2. Nylon 3. Acrylic 4. Modacrylic 5. Polyester 6. Olefin
What are the advantages and disadvantages of wool carpet fiber?
Advantages: 1. Very durable & resilient 2. Wears well & high appearance retention 3. Flame resistance 4. Easy to clean & Maintain Disadvantages: 1. Highest initial cost
What are the advantages and disadvantages of nylon carpet fiber?
Advantages: 1. Economical 2. Very strong & wear resistant 3. Stain resistant 4. Crush resistant 5. Can be dyed a wide range of colors 6. Cleans easily
What are the advantages and disadvantages of acrylic carpet fiber?
Advantages: 1. Wool-like appearance 2. Can be dyed a wide range of colors 3. Good crush resistance 4. Easy to maintain Disadvantages: 1. Moderate abrasion resistance
What are the advantages and disadvantages of polyester carpet fiber?
Advantages: 1. Highly abrasion resistant 2. Good crush resistance 3. Cleans well 4. Mildew resistant 5. Inexpensive
What are the advantages and disadvantages of olefin carpet fiber? What is it typically used for?
Advantages: 1. Durable 2. Stain resistant 3. Cleans easily Disadvantages: 1. Not attractive 2. Low melting point Used for indoor/outdoor carpet or carpet backing (alt to jute)
What are the 6 methods of manufacturing carpet?
1. Weaving (most expensive)2. Tufting 3. Needle punching 4. Fusion bonding 5. Knitting 6. Custom tufting
What are the 3 primary carpet weaving methods?
1. Wilton - uses Jacquard loom; heavier; more expensive 2. Velvet - simplest form of weaving; places all pile yarn on the face of the carpet 3. Axminster - uses modified Jacquard loom; most of the pile yarn is placed on the surface (unlike Wilton).
Describe the tufting manufacturing process for carpet.
Pile yarn is punched through the backing with rows of needles.Fast and low cost.Majority of carpet manufacturing.
Describe the needle punching manufacturing process for carpet.
The fiber is pulled through a backing with barbed needles. Limited texture variety so few carpets are made this way.
Describe the fusion bonding manufacturing process for carpet
The pile yarn is embeds in a backing of liquid vinyl which hardens; locking the tufts. Primarily for carpet tile.
What are 3 factors affecting the appearance and durability of a carpet?
1. Pitch - for woven carpet; the number of ends of surface yarn in a 27" width (guage for tufted carpet) 2. Stitch or stitch rate - number of lengthwise tufts in 1" 3. Pile height - shorter & more tightly packed fibers Result in a more durable but more expensive carpet.
What is the purpose of carpet backing?
Provide support for the pile yarn. Give added strength and dimensional stability to the carpet.
Why use carpet cushions?
Increases the life of the carpet Provides better resiliency & comfort Helps sound absorption Lessens impact noise
What are 4 common materials for carpet cushion?
1. Sponge rubber 2. Felt 3. Urethane 4. Foam rubber (sometimes applied as an integral backing to carpet)
What are the 2 ways carpet is installed?
1. Direct glue down 2. Stretched-in installation - uses Tackless strips attached around the room's perimeter; strips have sharp points that face toward the walls; the carpet is stretched against the strips.
1. All carpet sold in the U.S. must pass what test? . The IBC also requires carpet to pass what test under certain conditions?
1. ASTM D2859 - the methenamine pill test 2. ASTM E648 - the flooring radiant panel test
What are the advantages of tile?
1. Durability 2. Water resistance (if glazed) 3. Ease of Installation & cleaning 4. Wide choice of colors; sizes and patterns 5. Fire resistance 6. Fade resistance 7. The ability to store heat for passive solar collection.
Describe the dust-pressed method and the extrusion method for making tile.
Dust pressing uses large presses to shape the tile out of relatively dry clay (glazed and unglazed non-mosaic tile over 6 sq in) is paver tile). Extrusion process uses machines to cut tiles from a wetter and more Malleable clay extruded through a die (glazed and unglazed tile is quarry tile).
What are nonvitreous; impervious; semivetreous and vitreous tile?
Nonvitreous - water absorption rate of more than 7% Impervious tile - water absorption rate of less than 0.5% Semivitreous & vitreous tile - classified between nonvitreous and impervious.
Describe the classifications of abrasion resistance for tile.
Group I - light residential Group II - Moderate residential Group III - maximum residental Group IV - commercial
What is laminate flooring?
Flooring composed of a clear wearing sheet over a melamine-impregnated decorative printed sheet with core layers of phenolic-impregnated kraft paper. These sheets are laminated to a high-density fiberboard core under heat & pressure and covered with a water-resistant backing sheet.
How is laminate flooring installed?
It is laid on a cushioned foam underlayment with the tongue-and-groove edges glued together. A vapor barrier is normally required when it is laid over a concrete floor.
What are the advanges of laminate flooring?
1. Hard; durable 2. Resistant to staining 3. Easy to install 4. Less expensive alternative to wood 5. Can be used in most locations (though not restrooms or other wet areas)
What is seamless flooring?
A high-performance flooring that is used where special characteristics are required (extreme harness; severe stain & chemical resistance; excellent water resistance) or where cleanliness & ease of cleaning are required. It's a mixture of a resinous matrix; fillers and decorative materials applied in a liquid or viscous form that cures to a hard; seamleass surface (ie; epoxy terrazzo)
What are the two categories of seamless flooring materials?
1. Thermosetting (two-part epoxy; two-part polyurethane; polychloroprene (neoprenE); two-part polyester) 2. Thermoplastic (acrylic & mastic products)
What is the coefficient of friction (COF) of a floor surface?
A measurement of the degree of slip resistance. Ranges from 0 to 1 Higher COF = less slippery
Which is usually measured - the static COF or the dynamic COF? (& which is usually a higher number?)
The static COF is typically measured since the dynamic COF is so difficult to measure Static COF is a higher number.
What are 4 tests that measure COF?
1. ASTM D2047 - James machine (most common & most accurate but only used in the lab on smooth; dry surfaces; 0.5 COF is min for a slip-resistant floor; UL & OSHA agree) 2. ASTM C1028 - Horizontal Dynamometer Pull-Meter (measures both dry & wet surfaces in the field but has inconsistent results) 3. ASTM F609 - Horizontal Pull Slipmeter (measures static COF of foot-wear soles/heels on walkway surfaces) 4. ASTM F462 - Slip-Resistant Bathing Facilities (soapy water in bathtubs & showers)
What does ADA say about slip resistant floors?
Floors should be slip resistant but doesn't give a specific test value; An appendix recommends a static COF of 0.6 for accessible routes and 0.8 for ramps
How are paints/coatings constructed?
1. Vehicle - the liquid part; has a binder (nonvolatile) and a solvent (volatile) which evaporates. 2. Body - titanium dioxide (& pigments if the coating is opaque)
What are the 2 classifications of paints?
1. Solvent-based (have binders dissolved in or containing organic solvents) 2. Water-based (have binders that are soluble or dispersed in water) more environmentally friendly; low VOC's
Describe oil paints.
Use a drying; or curing; oil as a binder. Durable but have a strong odor. Must be cleaned up with solvents. Cannot be painted on damp surfaces or on surfaces that may become damp from behind.
Describe latex paints.
Water-based with vinyl chloride or acrylic resins as binders (acrylic latex is better than vinyl latex)
Describe epoxy paints.
Epoxy is used as a binder. Very durable; resistant to corrosion & chemicals. Resist abrasion Strongly adhere to concrete; metal & wood.
Describe urethane paints.
Superior resistance to abrasion; grease; alcohol; water & fules. Used for wood floors & for antigraffiti coatings.
How is the amount of coating material to be applied specified?
As either wet or dry film thickness in mils (thousandths of an inch) for each coat needed.
What are VOC's and how are they harmful? What regulation restricts their use?
Hydrocarbon solvents released into the air during paint application & react with nitrous oxides and sunlight to form ozone. The Clean Air Act of 1972 - required the EPA to issue a regulation in 1999 that requires the amount of VOCs in paint & other coatings to be reduced.
1. What are wallpaper roll dimensions? 2. How is wallpaper applied? 3. What types of matching is there?
1. 20-1/2" wide by 21 ft long 2. A liquid sizing is applied; then an adhesive; then the wallpaper. 3. Straight match & drop match (or none for no pattern repeats)
1. What are vinyl wallcovering roll dimensions? 2. What are the 3 grades? 3. How is it applied? 4. What are the 2 seaming methods?
1. 52" or 54" wide by 30 yds long 2. Type I (7-13 oz/sq d); Type II (13-22 oz/sq yd); Type III (over 22 oz/sq yd) 3. Primer is applied over new wallboard; then a mastic; then VWC. 4. Double-cutting (tight joint) & Butting (where matching is critical)
What is a tuck joint for VWC or fabric wallcovering?
A small recess where the wall covering can be tucked into a small crack; giving a neater edge and concealing any minor delamination of the edges from the partition should it occur.
What are the 2 methods of installing fabric wall covering?
1. Apply directly to the wall with adhesive - typically fabric is backed to prevent adhesive from damaging the fabric and to give the fabric additional dimensional stability. 2. Upholstered wall - fabric is stretched over a frame and secured into place.
How are acoustic panels different from upholsted walls?
They have at least 1" of sound absorbing material and are covered with a permeable material (loose weave fabric) so that the sound energy can pass through and be dissipated in the material underneath.
What are 3 good characteristics of acoustic panel fabric?
1. Unbacked 2. Hydrophobic (modacrylics; polyesters; cotton; linen. olefin; wool) 3. Balanced weave (jacquards and damasks; not satin; taffetas and basket weaves)
What materials can be used for the cores of acoustic panels?
1. Fiberglass 2. Polyester batting 3. Mineral fiberboard (tackable) 4. Tackable acoustic fiberglass
How are stone slabs applied to walls?
Stainless steel wires or ties are anchored to the substrate & hold the stone by being set in holes or slots cut unto the back or sides of the stone panel; lumps of plaster of paris (spots) are placed between the substrate and the back of the stone panel at each anchor; joints are filled with portland cement mortar; sealant or left open.
What are the 7 reasons for window treatments?
1. Enhance window's appearance 2. Control light 3. Provide privacy 4. Reduce heat gain & heat loss 5. Block undesirable views 6. Reduce sound reflections within a space 7. Unify or disguise an awkward or undesirable grouping of openings.
What are the 11 types of window treatments?
1. Roller shades & inverted roller shades 2. Roman shades (accordion folds) 3. Austrian shades (scallops) 4. Venetian blinds 5. Mini blinds 6. Vertical blinds 7. Louvered shutters 8. Drapery (pleating: pinch; stack; roll; accordion) 9. Curtains (meant to remain fixed across all or a portion of the window) 10. Translucent panels 11. Grilles
What are important considerations for calculating carpet yardage?
Carpet comes in 12 ft (4 yd) Rolls. Carpet is measured by the yard. Draw a seaming diagram. Carpet should be laid so that all the nap runs in the same direction. Include an allowance of 2" for in case rooms are out of square. Minimize seams. Don't put seams across traffic paths; perpendicular into doorways;where light hilights them; near architectural features.
How is carpet yardard for stairs calculated?
1. Multiply number of risers by the riser height. 2. Multiply number of treads + 1 by the tread depth. 3. Allow 1" for each combined tread & riser (nosing). 4. Add 1-3; convert to feet (round up to nearest whole number) 5. Multiply 4 by the stair width; convert to sq yds (round up to nearest whole nuber) 6. Add the area of any Intermediate landing if necessary.
Describe the square footage method for wallpaper calculations. When is it useful?
1. Total area to be covered is calculated; modified by allowance for waste (add 20%) & deductions for doors; windows; etc. 2. That total area is divided by the area covered by one roll of wallcovering (a 27" wide roll covers 36 sq ft) Determines the number of rolls needed (good for wallpaper)
Describe the strip method for wallpaper calculations.
1. The total perimeter of the room is calculated in inches . 2. That perimeter is divided by the width of the roll which gives the number of strips needed. 3. That number is multiplied by the height of the ceiling to get the number of linear feet (or linear yards) (good for wall covering)
How does a wallpaper with a pattern repeat & a half-drop match affect calculations?
Use a modified ceiling height: Divide the height of the wall to be covered in inches by the distance of The pattern repeat in inches; ROUND FRACTIONS UP TO THE NEAREST WHOLE NUMBER. Multiply result by the distance of the pattern repeat in inches. This is the working Height for the calculation.
How are calculations for vinyl wallcovering different from those for wallpaper?
VWC is sold by the linear yard; not the roll. VWC is 54" wide which is wider than most doors and windows so Deductions aren't made for them. There is 13.5 sq ft/yd in on linear yard of wallcovering 54" wide.
In estimating fabric for draperies; what does the total fabric width consist of?
Opening size + Stacking space + The return + Any overlap of 2 sections + Amount of fullness
What is return and overlap generally estimated to be for draperies?
R&O = 12" Returns: 3" deep; one on each side Overlap: 6"
How is the desired drapery fullness incorporated into the total fabric width?
Fabric width = (drapery width) x (fullness factor) 100% fullness = fullness factor of 2 150% fullness = fullness factor of 2.5 200% fullness = fullness factor of 3
Describe how to calculate drapery yardage.
1. Calculate stacking space width (divide window width by 3) 2. Determine total drapery width (window width + stacking space + R&O) 3. Determine total fabric width (multiply by the fullness factor) 4. Determine the number of panels needed (divide the total fabric width by the panel width = 54" and round up) 5. Determine the cut length of the panels (window height + header & hem) 6. Determine the amount of linear yards needed (number of panels x cut length)
How does a fabric with a pattern repeat affect calculations?
Use a modified cut length (height): Divide the cut length (window height + header & hem) by the distance of the pattern repeat. ROUND UP TO NEAREST WHOLE NUMBER. Multiply this number by the distance of the pattern repeat to get the modified cut length.
What are the 3 basic qualities of sound?
1. Velocity (depends on the medium in which the sound is traveling & the temp of the medium) 2. Frequency (number of cycles completed per second - Hz) 3. Power (quality of acoustic energy as measured in watts; is perceived as loudness)
Designers can control the acoustic quality of a room in what 3 ways?
1. Space planning 2. The design of walls & ceilings 3. The selection of finishes
How does the decible work? What decible level is the threshold of human hearing? The threshold of pain? Usual background?
Relates actual sound intensity to the way humans experience sound (hearing is proportional to the logarithm of the source intensity) 0 dB 130 dB 60 dB
A decible change of each of the following results in what change in apparent loudness? 1. 1 dB 2. 3 dB 3. 5 dB 4. 6 dB 5. 10 Db
1 dB = almost imperceptible 3 dB = just perceptible 5 dB = clearly noticeable 6 dB = change when distance to source in a free field is doubled or halved 10 dB = twice or half as loud
1. What frequency range can a health young person hear? 2. What frequency range are they most sensitive to? 3. What frequency range does most speech fall in?
1. 20 Hz - 20;000 Hz 2. 3000 hz - 4000 Hz 3. 200 Hz - 5000 Hz
Describe 2 important concepts in noise reduction: transmission loss and actual noise reduction between 2 spaces.
1. Transmission loss takes into account only the loss through the partition separating the 2 spaces. 2. Noise reduction takes into account the transmission loss and the area of the partition separating the 2 spaces and the absorption of the surfaces in the quiet room.
What is sound transmission class (STC)?
A single-number rating used to rate the transmission loss of construction; higher STC = better the barrier is at stopping sound. (It's best to look at values for various frequencies rather than the single STC average value)
What is the effect on hearing through partitions with the following STC values? 1. 25 2. 35 3. 50
1. 25: normal speech can clearly be heard 2. 35: loud speech is not intelligible but can be heard 3. 50: loud speech not audible
What 3 things can noise criteria curves be used for?
1. Specify the maximum amount of continuous background noise allowable in a space. 2. Establish a minimum amount of noise desired to help mask sounds. 3. Evaluate an existing condition.
What is sound absorption used for?
1. Control unwanted sound reflections (noise) 2. Improve speech privacy 3. Decrease or increase reverberation.
What is the coefficient of absorption?
The ratio of the sound intensity absorbed by the material to the total intensity reaching the material; Quantifies the absorption of a material; Varies with the frequency of the sound Max = 1 (free space) Below 0.2; material is reflective Above 0.2; material is sound absorbing.
What is Noise Reduction Coefficient (NRC)? What is the NRC of these materials? 1. Vinyl tile on concrete 2. Carpet; 1/2" pile on concrete 3. 1" suspended ACT
The average of a material's absorption coefficients at the four frequencies of 250; 500; 1000 and 2000 Hz rounded to the nearest multiple of 0.05. 1. 0.05 2. 0.50 3. 0.90
What is Sound Absorption Average (SAA)?
The average of the absorption coefficients for the 12 one-third-octave bands from 200 Hz to 2500 Hz when tested in accordance with ASTM C423 (similar to NRC).
In designing a space; what should be the minimum average absorption coefficient? What is too high?
0.20 0.50 is usually not desirable; nor is it economically justified
What 3 primary ways can sound be controlled within a space?
1. By reducing the level of loudness of the sound source 2. By modifying the absorption in the space 3. By introducing nonintrusive background sound to mask the unwanted sound.
If there is 75 dB of sound on one side of a partition with an STC rating of 45 dB; how much sound is transmitted to the other side?
75 dB - 45 dB = 30 dB
What are the 3 methods used to build a sound-resistant partition?
1. Doubld layer of wallboard on one or both sides 2. Place insulation within the stud cavity 3. Use resilient channels - wallboard floats and dampens sound striking it rather than transmitting it to the stud.
How can sound transmission be minimized at gaps or openings in walls?
Seal/caulk gaps. Don't line up electrical outlets. Don't rigidly connect pipes and ducts to the wall. Seal doors; use automatic door bottom; use heavy doors (solid core) Use laminate glass with two or more layers and an air gap between.
What is speech privacy?
A condition in which talking may be heard as a general background sound but not easily understood.
What are 5 important factors in designing for speech privacy in an open area?
1. Ceiling must be highly absorptive. 2. Use absorptive space dividers 3. Floor; furniture; windows; light fixtures must be designed/arranged to minimize soud reflections. 4. Activities should be distanced. 5. Use a properly designed background masking system.
What is impact insulation class (IIC)?
Quantifies impact noise; A single-number rating of a floor/ceiling's impact sound performance. The higher the IIC; the better the floor performs in reducing impact sounds in the test frequency range.
How can IIC be improved?
1. Add carpet 2. Use a resiliently suspended ceiling 3. Foat a finished floor on resilient pads over the structural floor 4. Use sound-absorbing material (insulation) in the air space between the floor and finished ceiling below.
What are 6 ways space planning can minimize acoutic problems?
1. Plan similar use areas next to each other 2. Use buffer spaces 3. Stagger doorways in halls 4. Locate furniture; etc. away from the common wall 5. Minimize the area of the common wall 6. Avoid barrel-vaulted hallways; circular rooms and similar geometry.
What are the 3 ratings applied to acoustics in regard to ceilings?
1. NRC 2. SRA - speech range absorption (similar to NRC but focuses on frequency ranges for speech) 3. CAC - ceiling attenuation class: single number measure of the transmission loss thru ceiling tiles between two closed rooms where there is no wall or other barrier above the suspended ceiling. Similar to STC (dB). Most ceilings have CAC's between 30 dB and 35 dB.
What are the 2 methods used to measure speech privacy in open offices?
1. Articulation class (AC) - single number summation of how effective a ceiling is in absorbing sound reaching it from over low partitions. 2. Articulation index (AI) - better method of rating speech privacy measuring the performance of all the elements of a particular configuration working together (ceilings; space dividers; furniture; etc.). An acceptable level of privacy exists when the AI is above 0.30 (ranges from 0-1).
What is the wavelength range for visible light? White light?
400 nm (violet) - 700 nm (red) White light is produced when a source emits approximately equal quantities of energy over the entire visible spectrum.
Define candlepower (cp)
The unit of luminous intensity approximately equal to the horizontal light output from an ordinary wax candle. SI = candela (cd)
Define lumen (lm)
The unit of luminous flux equal to the flux in a unit solid angle of one steradian from a uniform point source of one candlepower. A source of 1 cp produces 12.57 lm.
The density of luminous flux incident on a surface in lumens per unit area. 1 lm uniformly incident on 1 sq ft of area produces an illuminance of 1 fc.
The luminous flux per unit of projected (apparent) area and unit solid angle leaving a surface; either reflected or transmitted.Takes into account the reflectance and transmittance properties of materials and the direction in which they are viewed.Sometimes called brightness.Unit: candela/sq m (or footlambert)
Define luminous intensity
The solid angular flux density in a given direction measured in candlepower or candelas.
How is quantity of light needed determined?
IESNA has assigned an illuminance category from A to I (A represents the lowest values for general lighting; I the requirements for difficult visual tasks) to various areas & activities. These categories are used with other variables of age; surface reflectances and importance of the task to establish the recommended task and background illumances. Also must meet the power budget.
What are some strategies to meet power budgets? (codes require them to conserve energy)
Provide the recommended illumination level for task areas only. Provide less general background illumination (ambient light) - usually about 1/3 of the task level. Provide noncritical areas (corridors) with levels even below background levels.
What is the difference between direct glare and reflected glare? What is a veiling reflection?
Direct glare results when a light source in the field of vision causes descomfort and interference with the visual task. Reflected glare occurs when a light source is reflected from a viewed surface into the eye. If the reflected glare interferes with the viewing task; it is also called a veiling reflection.
What is the visual comfort probability (VCP) factor?
The percentage of people who; when viewing from a specified location and in a specified direction; will find the situation acceptable in terms of discomfort glare. Manufacturers often publish the VCP rating for their light fixtures.
What is an easy way to solve direct glare problems?
Use a luminaire with a 45 degree cutoff angle or move the luminaire out of the offending field of view.
What is one way to design a space so that veiling reflections are avoided?
Provide general background illumination plus specific task lighting that can be moved around by the user.
What should the brightness ratio be between: 1. the task and the desktop 2. the task and nearby general surroundings 3. the task and more remote surroundings
1. 3:1 2. 5:1 3. 10:1
How does uniformity of lighting affect a space?
Complete uniformity is typically not desirable; some amount of shade and shadow provides highlight and interest to a space.
Besides daylight; what are the 4 types of light sources?
1. Incandescent 2. Fluorescent 3. high-intensity discharge 4. LEDs
What is the efficacy of a light source?
A measure of energy efficiency: The ratio of luminous flux emitted to the total power innut of the source (measured in lumens per watt)
Describe the make-up of an incandescent lamp.
A tungsten filament placed within a sealed bulb containing an inert gas. When electricity is passed through the lamp; the filament glows.
What are the 10 shapes of incandescent lamps?
A - arbitrary ER - elliptical reflectorG - globular CA - candle shaped PS - pear shaped MR - multifaceted mirror reflector PAR - parabolic aluminized reflector R - reflector S - straight T - tubular
What are the light distribution characteristics of the reflector lamps: R; ER; PAR and MR-16?
R - wide beam spread ER - slightly smaller beam spread PAR - even tighter beam spread MR-16 - narrowest beam spead (R & PAR are available in flood spreads and spotlights)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of incandescent lamps?
Advantages: 1. Inexpensive 2. Compact 3. Easy to dim 4. Can be repeatedly started without a decrease in lamp life. 5. Have a warm color rendition 6. Light output can be easily controlled with reflectors and lenses. Disadvantages: 1. Low efficacy 2. Short lamp life 3. High heat output
Tungsten-halogen is one type of incandescent lamp. How do they work?
Like a regular incandescent except there is a small amout of a halogen (iodine or bromine) in the bulb with the inert gas. As the tungsten filament is burned off; it mixes with the halogen and is redeposited on the filament. Bulb is made from quartz (to combat higher pressures) and is much smaller than standard incandescent bulbs.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of tungsten-halogen lamps?
Advantages (compared to standard incandescents): 1. Longer lamp life 2. Low lumen depreciation 3. More uniform light color 4. Greater efficacy 5. More compact 6. Whiter light (higher operating temperature) Disadvantages: 1. Because of high operating temp; failures result in an explosive shattering of he lamp so halogen lamps are enclosed in another bulb or are covered with a piece of glass or a screen.
Low-voltage lamps are a type of incandescent lamp. How do they work?
The require a transformer to step down the line voltage from 120 V to 12 V. They operate at a higher current; so their filaments have to be thicker. They are more compact; resulting in smaller lamps and lamps with better beam control.
How do fluorescent lamps work?
They contain a mixture of an inert gas and low-pressure mecury vapor. When the lamp is energized; a mercury arc is formed that creates UV light which strikes the phosphor-coated bulb; causing it to fluoresce and produce visible light.
What does a ballast do?
Supplies the proper starting and operating voltages to the fluorescent lamp as well as limiting the current.
What type of lamp does an F40T12WW/RS designation refer to?
Fluorescent lamp , 40 Watts Tubular shape 12/8" diameter (1-1/2") Warm white color Rapid start circuit
What is the typical color temperature range that fluorescents can come in?
6500 K (cool daylight) - 2800 K (warm white deluxe)
What are the advantages & disadvantages if fluorescents?
Advantages: 1. High efficacy (55 lm/W - 80 lm/W) 2. Low initial cost 3. Long life 4. Available in a variety of color temps Disadvantages: 1. Although they can be dimmed; fluorescent dimmers are more expensive than incandecent ones and fluorescents are more difficult to control precisely (because they're larger than incandescents)
Describe the GU-24 lamp & luminaire
High-efficacy compact fluorescent with a two-pin base; making it impossible to use any other type of lamp in a GU-24 luminaire. The Energy Star Program Requirement for Residential Lighting Fixtures require that residential lighting fixtures cannot use the standard Edison screw base and this replaces that.
How do high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps work?
Produce light by passing an electric current through a gas or vapor under high pressure. Require time to restart after being shut off (minutes)
Describe mercury-vapor HID lamps.
Uses high-pressure mercury vapor Emits bluish light (although various phosphors can be applied ot the inside of the lamp for better color rendition) Long lamp life Used for outdoor lighting and industrial applications
Descripe metal-halide HID lamps.
Similar to mercury vapor but halides of metals are added to the arc tube; increasing the efficacy and color rendition but decreasing lamp life. The best combo of features of HID lamps. Color rendering indexes between 60 and 90. Experience a large shift in apparent color temp over their life.
Describe ceramic metal halide HID lamps.
Use a ceramic arc tube (rather than a quartz tube; improving color rendition; light control; efficacy and color consistency over lifetime. Disadvantages: higher initial cost; difficulty in dimming and the requirement of a ballast.
Describe high-pressure sodium HID lamps.
Produce light by passing an electric arc through hot sodium vapor (arc tube is ceramic). Very high efficacy and very long life Very yellow light; although some CRI up to 70 are available.
Neon and cold-cathode lamps are what type of lamp? What is the difference between them?
HID Cold-cathode lamps can also be produced in long runs of thin tubing bent to shape; but they have a higher efficacy; are slightly larger and can produce several shades of white as well as many colors.
Describe a light-emitting diode (LED).
A semiconductor device that uses solid-state electronics to create light.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of LEDs?
Advantages: 1. Very bright 2. Long life (100;000+ hr) 3. Low power consumption 4. No heat production 5. Many colors & white Disadvantages: 1. Low efficacy 2. High cost
What are 7 lighting systems/installations?
1. Direct 2. Semidirect 3. Direct-indirect 4. General diffuse 5. Semi-indirect 6. Indirect 7. Task-ambient
What are the 6 types of lighting fixtures?
1. Surface-mounted 2. Recessed 3. Suspended 4. Wall-mounted 5. Furniture-mounted 6. Freestanding
What are the two light sources that have a continuous spectrum light curve without any shap peaks?
What is a light's color temperature?
A single number rating of their dominant color based on the temperature in degrees Kelvin to which a blackbody radiator would have to be heated to produce that color. Lower = warmer Higher = cooler; whiter Designers should specify all lamps within a space to have a similar color temperature.
What is a light's color rendering index (CRI)?
A measure of how well one source renders the color of an object when compared with the same object lighted with a reference source of similar chromaticity whose CRI is 100. The index is a number between 1 and 100 and in many cases the reference source closely resembles a common incandescent lamp.
Describe the 5 steps in the lighting design process.
1. Determine the function of the space and the visual tasks to be performed. Study exg conditions that will impact lighting (daylighing; ceiling height; etc.) 2. Study the character of the space so the lighting design can enhance it. 3. Select lamp types based on color rendition required; overall economy & type of control required. 4. Select luminaires to control glare; fit the power and monetary budget; provide adjustability if required and fit into the structure of the room. 5. Determine the number and locations of the luminaires based on the light level required and the tasks to be performed.
Describe the zonal cavity method used to calculate the number and location of luminaires developed by IES.
Determines the number of luminaires required to provide a given footcandle level by using the efficacy of the lamp; the number of lamps in the luminaire; the coefficient of utilization of the luminaire; the gradual loss of light output of the lamps over time and the conditions under which the luminaire will be used (gives the luminaire dirt depreciation factor)
What is the coefficient of utilization of a luminaire?
A number that represents how efficiently the luminaire distributes the light from the lamps under various degress of finish reflectivity of the floor; walls and ceiling.
What are the 5 factors that affect how lights in a space should be switch?
1. The function of the lighting 2. How much individual control is required 3. Where the switches would be best located 4. Energy conservation needs 5. The maximum electrical load requirements on any one circuit as given in building codes)
What does a 3-way switch configuration consist of?
2 switches controling one light. (The 3 refers to the number of conductors required to make the switching possible)
Why should incandescent and fluorescent lights be on separate circuits?
Because incandescents are on 120 V circuits and fluorescents are on 277 V circuits.
Electric lighting and the cooling it requires typically accounts for what percentage of a commercials building's total energy use?
What are the benefits of incorporating daylighting into a lighting design?
1. Energy savings 2. Reduce dependence on power-generating plants that use nonrenewable energy. 3. Natural light & views benefit building occupants both physically & psychologically.
Utilizing photcell controls to dim electric lighting when it isn't needed (daylight is strong enough) can reduce perimeter energy use by what percentage?
What are the 7 main variables in daylighting design?
1. The compass orientations of the facades utilizing daylight 2. The brightness of the sky 3. The area of the glass 4. The height of the head of the glass 5. The transmittance of the glass 6. The reflectance of both room surfaces & nearby outdoor surfaces 7. Obstructions such as overhangs & trees
What are 3 potential problems caused by daylighting?
1. Unwanted heat gain or loss 2. Glare 3. Imbalanced lighting if side lighting is too strong
What is the effective daylighting depth in a space?
Approximately 2-1/2 times the height of the head of the window.
What is a light shelf?
A horizontal surface placed above eye level that reflects direct daylight onto the ceiling while shading the lower portions of the window and the interior of the room. Helps prevent glare and heat gain. Distributes light more evenly from the window to the back of the room.
What is the daylight factor of a space?
The ratio of the indoor illuminance at a point on a horizontal surface to the unobstructed exterior horizontal illuminance. Can be compared with recommended daylight factors for various tasks (1.5% for ordinary visual tasks to 4% for difficult visual tasks) LEED credit for providing a daylight factor of 2% for 75% of all space occupied for critical visual tasks.
What are 8 strategies a designer can use to help minimize energy use with respect to lighting?
1. Use daylighting 2. Use high-efficacy lamps 3. Use efficient luminaires 4. Minimize unneeded ambient illumination 5. Provide task lighting only where it is needed 6. Select high-reflectance ceiling; wall and floor surfaces. 7. Use automatic switching 8. Use return-air luminaires
What is typically the max amount of power that can be consumd in a commercial building by lighting?
2.3 W/sq ft
What is lighting system turning?
The adjustment of the lighting installation after construction is complete. , Lamps are replaced with lower wattage units Adjustable luminaires are aimed for their optimal position Ballasts are adjusted for max efficiency Switches are replaced with dimmer controls or time-out units
What to codes say in general about emergency lighting?
Sufficient lighting must be available to safely evacuate building occupants. The means of egress must be illuminated at all times the building is occupied. Emergency power systems must provide illumination to exit access corridors and stairways & exit discharge elements. The means-of-egress illumination level must be a min of 1 fc measured at the floor level and must be maintained for not less than 90 minutes.
Exit signs are required at exits & exit access doors such that no point in an exit access corridor is more than how many feet from an exit sign?
Illuminated exit signs; whether illuminated internally or externally; must be connect to what?
An emergency power circuit.
What info do material safety data sheets contain?
Info on the physical makeup of a substance; the proper procedures for storage and handling and what to do in case of a spill.
What 3 objectives does detailing meet?
1. Resolve how to physically connect the various components of a design 2. Solve functional problems 3. Enhance the design intent of the project & contribute to the overall look or style of the project design
What are the 4 categories that should be considered in developing and/or reviewing a detail?
1. Design intent2. Constraints 3. Function4. Constructability
How does design intent impact designing and reviewing a detail?
It should be the basic starting point and survive to the finished product; balanced against constraints; function and constructability.
What are 7 typical constraints on drawing/reviewing details?
1. codes 2. substrates 3. cost 4. industry standards - ie; wall construction 5. material availability 6. climate 7. labor & construction practices - ie; use standard ones whenever possible
What are 8 functional elements that impace drawing/reviewing details?
1. concealment & finish 2. human fit 3. safety 4. security 5. durability & maintainability 6. fire resistance 7. acoustics 8. resistance to moisture & weathering 8. sustainability
What are 7 common constructability elements of a detail?
1. connection - rigid; rigid but adjustable for installation; flexible to allow for movement 2. structure - will withstand the various forces put on it 3. movement - both of the surrounding building and the detail itself 4. tolerances - details should allow for expected tolerances 5. clearances - allow enough to make construction possible 6. construction trade sequence - design details to allow for a clear division of the labor trades to minimize interference & potential conflicts 7. designer liability - detail to minimize exposure to liability; especially with new materials
What are 6 influences that a design theory can be based on?. 1. The designer's personal worldview 2. Historic precedent 3. Environmental design research 4. Functional needs
1. The designer's personal worldview 2. Historic precedent 3. Environmental design research 4. Functional needs 5. How humans perceive their environment 6. A particular process of design
How can historic precedent influence design theory?
Design ideas can be based on ideas and styles of the past; Current design can be either inspired by or react against past styles; History can suggest how past designs solved certain problems or represented particular ideals
What is environmental design research?
It focuses on theories of the interaction between humans and their environment. Attempts to develop an approach to rational design based on scientific research rather than just anecdotal evidence or personal philosophies.
What is the main limitation of environmental design research?
The interaction between humans and buildings is so complex and so it is difficult to isolate a single variable to study.
What are two important concepts to come out of environmental design research?
1. Territoriality 2. Personal space
Define Evidence-Based Design (EBD).
Basing design decisions on credible research that links one or more environmental elements with a desired outcome.
How is research typically conducted for EBD?
1. Literature searches 2. Observations of existing facilities 3. Interviews and questionnaires 4. Post-occupancy evaluations
How does the concept of functional needs impact design theories?
Places emphasis on providing simple; rational solutions to design problems without extraneous decoration.
What are 2 architectural historical examples that based design theory purely on functionalism?
1. the Bauhaus school of design - used newly emerging technology to create functional; machine-like objects and architecture (early 20th century modernism) 2. Le Corbusier - "a house is a machine for living in." Design requires efficiency; simplicity; and elegance with a form consistent with its function.
What does the ultimate reaction against the strict functional dogma of modernism suggest about functionalism directing design theory?
Humans require more than just functional space and so functionalism should only be one aspect of a larger theory of design.
What are 4 basic processes of perception that are useful in understanding how people perceive the world?
1. Gestalt Psychology 2. Perceptual Constancy 3. Depth Perception . Cue inconsistency and Cooperation of the Senses
What is the main belief of Gestalt psychology? When; where; by whom was Gestalt psychology founded?
Humans innately perceive things as a whole so that what is perceived is complete and comprehensible. Founded in Germany in the early 20th century by Max Wertheimer.
How is Gestalt psychology applicable to interior design?
Individual elements cannot be placed or designed as single entities but must be seen as part of a larger environment. People will bring to the setting their own ideas about what things are.
What are 5 principles of Gestalt psychology that help explain how most people see forms in the environment?
1. Grouping 2. Closure 3. Continuity 4. Simplicity 5. Figure-Ground
Describe the Gestalt concept of grouping.
Humans perceive separate units in the visual field as a group through proximity; similarity; direction and context.
Describe the Gestalt concept of continuity.
The tendency to see a line or shape as continuing in a particular direction rather than making a sharp turn.
Describe the Gestalt concept of simplicity.
People prefer the simplest; most stable organization of forms or the overall structure of elements in the visual field rather than complex individual parts.
Describe the Gestalt concept of figure-ground.
Refers to the way people distinguish a form (the figure) from its surroundings (the ground).Occurs both in 2D and 3D.The ground is also called negative space.
Describe the idea of perceptual constancy.
regardless of perceptual changes due to different viewing angles and distances; and lighting; etc.; people perceive an object or space as essentially the same regardless of the exact image on the retina.
What are the 4 types of perceptual constancies?
1. Shape constancy 2. Size constancy 3. Lightness constancy 4. Color constancy
Describe the biological way that depth perception works.
Binocular disparity: the eyes are separated by a slight distance so the left eye and the right eye see slightly different views of the world; the brain interprets this difference and allows people to perceive distance. Works best at distances under about 10 ft.
What are 6 observable phenomena the brain uses to perceive depth?
1. Interposition 2. Linear perspective 3. Atmospheric perspective 4. Texture perspective 5. Size clues 6. Relative closeness of objects to the horizon line
Explain how cue inconsistency can affect how people perceive their surroundings.
Cue inconsistency occurs when there are conflicting visual cues (ie; 2 or more details/finishes may not be compatible with each other; considering the design intent of the space.
Explain how cooperation of the senses can affect how people perceive their surroundings.
People gather information through all their senses; not just visual and the messages from all their senses should be consistent; otherwise; a person may experience discord or discomfort.
What are some social and cultural influences on design theory?
1. hierarchy/status 2. privacy 3. political conditions (sustainability) 4. economic conditions (less prosperous times promote austere or inward-looking design) 5. cultural attitudes (impact of fashion trends) 6. symbolism (people expect certain buildings to have certain shapes; which are symbolic to hem) 7. regionalism (design reflects the local geographic area)
What are 7 common psychological influences on interior design?
1. Maslow's heirarchy of needs 2. behavior settings 3. territoriality 4. proxemics 5. personalization 6. group interaction 7. status
Describe Maslow's theory behind his heirarchy of needs.
Humans have a variety of needs; The most basic needs must be met before a person can move to the next level of needs Meeting needs and moving to the next highest level provides the motivation for behavior.
What are Maslow's heirarchy of needs?
Deficiency needs: 1. physiological (food; water) 2. safety (avoidance of personal harm) 3. belonging & love (acceptance to a group) 4. self-esteem need to achieve Growth needs 5. cognitive need to know & understand 6. aesthetic need for order and beauty 7. self-actualization (reach full potential) 8. self-transcendence (help others find self-fulfillment)
What is a behavior setting?
A particular place with definable boundaries and objects in which a standing pattern of behavior occurs at a particular time. Connects the strictly behavioral aspects of human activity with the effects of the physical environment on people. Programmatic concepts can be developed that support the setting by knowing the people involved and the activities taking place.
Describe the human behavior aspect of territoriality.
People's need to lay claim to the spaces they occupy and the things they own; Related to the needs for self-identity and freedom of choice. Environments should allow people to claim territory and make choices about where to be and what activities to engage in.
What is proxemics?
The issue of spacing between people; territoriality; organization of space and positioning of people in a space (all relative to their culture) Developed by anthropologist Edward T. Hall to describe the interrelated observations and theories about how people use space as a specialized elaboration of culture
What are the names and average distance ranges of the 4 distances defined in proxemics?
1. Intimate distance: 0-1.5 ft 2. Personal distance: 1.5 ft - 4 ft 3. Social distance: 4 ft - 12 ft 4. Public distance: 12 ft +
How can successful interior design allow for the psychological need to personalize a space?
They allow personalization to take place without major adverse effects to other people or to the interior as a whole (ie; provide movable rather than fixed furniture where appropriate)
In places where informal group interaction takes place; studies have shown that what percentage of groups are composed of two - four people?
97% , So plan for 2 - 4 people in group interaction spaces but allow for flexibility as well.
What are the book's 11 elements of design?
1. FORM 2. Point 3. Line 4. Plane 5. Volume 6. Shape 7. SCALE 8. COLOR 9. TEXTURE 10. PATTERN 11. LIGHT
What is form? What are some typical words to describe forms? How can the desiger use form?
The basic shape and configuration of an object or space. Cylindrical; flat; square; linear. Form gives the designer a powerful tool to create order; establish mood; and coordinate the diverse components of a finished space.
What is a point? How can they be used in design?
A point is perceived when a two-dimensionally perceived object appears relatively small in relation to the plan against which it is seen. Points used in groups can create either static or dynamic compositions and energize the plane on which they are placed. Composition with points generally works best on walls; but small point objects can e suspended on the ceiling plan or the floor plane.
What is a line? Where are they perceived in an interior space?
An object or form whose actual or visual length greatly exceeds any actual width or depth it may have. Lines are perceived where one plane meets another; where edges occur and where there is a change in material; texture or color.
How are horizontal lines perceived?Vertical lines?diagonal lines?Curved lines?
Horizontal: Restful; stable; related to the plane of the earth.Vertical: Connote strength; equilibrium; permanence and a strong upward movement.Diagonal: Dynamic; represent movement. Curved: Relate to the natural world and the human body; graceful; suggest gentle movement.
Given a horizontal line and a vertical line of the same length; which will appear longer?
The vertical line.
What is a plane? How is it important in designing spaces?
A form with two dominant dimensions; length and width; Planes have some depth but that dimension is not perceived as much as the dominant dimensions.Space is typically defined by planar surfaces - walls; ceilings; floors; furniture surfaces; all of which can be either harmonized or contrasted with one another.
What is volume? How is it usually classified?
A spatial form having length; width and depth. Can be either solid or void = positive or negative space = figure-ground. Categorized as regular (cubic; cylindrical) or irregular (free-form or complex shapes) or by a dominant characteristic (tall; narrow; curvilinear)
What is shape? How are they classified?
The unique characteristic of an object or space that defines it as distinct from adjacent objects or spaces. Distinguished by planar or volumetric forms and can be geometric; irregular or natural.
What are some examples of symbolic qualities of the shapes square; circle; triangle?
Square: rational; stable form with no directionality. Circle: unity and completeness with a definite focus at its center. Triangle: stable yet dynamic
What is scale?
What is the most common scale; often used to judge the appropriateness of the dimensions of spaces?The relative size of something as related to another element of known size. Human scale (spaces can be judged against and actual person or an inanimate object that has a direct relationship to a human; ie a chair)
What are some ways scale can be used in design?
Can be used to give spaces an intimate feeleing or a monumental character. Can be used to provide emphasis and contrast or to harmonize otherwise diverse forms.
1. What are additive colors? 2. Subtractive colors?
1. Colors created with light 2. Colors created with pigments
Describe the 3 basic qualities of color.
1. Hue: basic color 2. Value: lightness or darkness 3. Intensity (or chroma): degree of purity
1. How is a tint created? 2. A shade? 3. A tone?
1. Add white to the color 2. Add black 3. Add grey or the color's complement.
Describe the Brewster color system (aka Prang color system).
The typical color wheel with 3 primaries (red; yellow; blue); 3 secondaries (orange; green; purple); & 6 tertiary colors (mix a primary with an adjacent secondary)
Describe the Munsell color system.
Describes color more accurately than Brewster system by incorporating hue; value and chroma (not just hue). 5 principle hues: yellow; green blue; purple and red.Colors are designated with letters and numbers: G/6/3 is a green hue with a value of 6 and a chroma position of 3.
What are some effects of adjacent colors and light on color?
1. Complementary colors reinforce eachother. 2. Noncomplementary colors will tint the other with its own complement. 3. Two primary colors seen together will appear tinted with the third primary. 4. Simultaneous contrast (a color looks lighter on a dark background and darker on a light background) 5. A neutral grey will appear warm on a blue background and cool on a red background. 6. Light that has a strong hue component will intensify colors with similar hues and neutralize colors of complementary hues. 7. Dim lighting reduces a color's value and diminishes its hue.
What are some symbolic and associative meanings associated with specific colors?
1. People universally distinguish between warm and cool colors and perceive them to be active/stimulating and restful/quiet respectively. 2. Red: exciting; hot 3. Yellow: cheerful 4. Green: nature; cool; restful 5. Blue: calming; restive
What are some effects of color on spatial perception?
1. Warm colors tend to advance while cool colors recede 2. Bright; warm colors tend to make an object appear larger; dark colors tend to make an object appear smaller and heavier. 3. Light; neutral colors extend the apparent space of a room while dark values make a space feel closed in.
What are 5 common color schemes?
1. Monochromatic (or monotone for grayed out colors) 2. Analogous 3. Complementary (or split complementary or double complementary) 4. Triad (3 colors equally spaced around the color wheel) 5. Tetrad (4 colors equally spaced around the color wheel)
What is texture?
The surface quality of a material; either actual or visual; the perception of which is tied to the texture's visual qualities; the relationship of the texture with surrounding textures; the viewing distance and the lighting.
How can texture be used in design?
Adds interest to a space Reinforces the design concept Helps differentiate objects and surfaces from each other Modulates light Adds scale Provides emphasis or focus on one part of a space
What is pattern? How is it differentiated from texture?
The repetition of a decorative motif on a surface. The individual elements of a pattern are usually discernible (at a reasonable viewing distance) as individual forms; whereas texture appears as an overall tone.
How can pattern be used in design?
Can add visual interest to a space. Change the scale of a room. Reinforce the design concept.
How is light used as an element of design?
It dictates how elements in the space are seen. It has a physiological and emotional effect on people; making both quantity and quality of light important. Can be used to provide emphasis; rhythm; balance and contrast. Can be a point; line or plane.
What are the book's six principles of design?
1. Balance 2. Harmony & Unity 3. Rhythm 4. Emphasis & Focus 5. Contrast & Variety 6. Proportion
What is balance? What does it depend on?
The arrangement of elements in a composition to achieve visual equilibrium. Depends on both an object's visual weight and placement.
What size carries more visual weight? What texture? What shade? What color? What level of complexity?
Larger Highly textured Darker Brighter More complex
What are 3 types of balance used in design?
1. Symmetrical (aka bisymmetrical; bilateral; or axial symmetry): very stable; formal; traditional; static 2. Asymmetrical: informal; dynamic 3. Radial: type of symmetrical balance; usually focuses attention on the center of the grouping.
What is harmony in design?
The agreement of the parts to each other and to the whole; includes the opposing concepts of unity/variety and rhythm/emphasis. Creates the feeling that all pieces seem to belong together and work to reinforce the overall design theme.
What are some ways to achieve harmony in design?
1. Relate a number of different elements through a common characteristic (scale or form or color) 2. Group the elements close together 3. Relate the elements to a common architectural element 4. Organize the elements around a shared design feature 5. Use a common shape in varying sizes and textures.
What is rhythm in design?
The repetition of elements in a regular pattern. Sets up a sequence of multiple elements through space; incorporating a time component as the eye or body moves past the individual pieces.
What are some ways of achieving rhythm?
1. Uniform repetition of identical objects 2. Irregular spacing of repeated objects 3. Emphasizing or changing elements at regular intervals 4. Gradation of color; size or value 5. Juxtapose 2 or more rhythms or change the repeating element slightly.
Why is emphasis important in design?
Enhances the hierarchies of dominant and subordinate parts of a space and provides focus on the important features; if everything is equally important; the space is bland and lifeless. What are some ways of creating emphasis in a space?1. Locate part in an important position (centered; placed at the termination of an axis; offset from a rhythmic grouping of other elements) 2. Size; color; shape; texture that creates a noticeable contrast against the surroundings.
What is contrast in design?
The juxtaposition of dissimilar elements. The way we perceive the difference between things; create importance; and add interest and variety to our environment.
How is lighting often used to create contrast?
Varying light levels can make similar objects appear very different. Natural light can provide contrast that changes throughout the day. Highlight painting; sculpture or other small accent pieces with bright light (but avoid glard and undesirable brightness ratios)
What is proportion in design and how is it differentiated from scale?
The relationship between one part of an object or composition and another part and to the whole; or between one element and another. It is not dependent on the relationship of one element to another of known size (such as the human body)
What is the golden section?
Most well-known attempt to quantify the ideal proportioning system. A single line is divided into two unequal segments such that the ratio of the smaller part is to the larger part as the larger part is to the whole. The most pleasing proportion possible and has been found to occur repeatedly in nature as well as in human-formed structures; artwork and musical harmony.
What is the Fibonacci series?
0; 1; 1; 2; 3; 5; 8; 13; 21.....Each number in the series is the sum of the previous two. When any number is divided by the previous term; the quotient approximates the golden ratio.
What is the Modulor system?
Proportioning system developed by Le Corbusier. Loosely based on the golden section but uses the human body as a starting point. The dimensions can be used to maintain human scale in design and created unity with diversity. Divide the height of a man (6 ft) at the navel - get a proportion from waist to feet and waist to head (and continue dividing)
What are 9 things a program should contain?
1. Client's goals; objectives & requirements 2. Analysis of existing building (list of spaces and square footages) 3. Aesthetic considerations 4. Space Needs 5. Adjacency requirements 6. Organizing concepts 7. Code review 8. Budget requirements 9. Scheduling requirements
What is the 5-step programming process?
1. Establish goals (both result-oriented and functional)2. Collect and analyze facts 3. Uncover and test concepts 4. Determine needs 5. State the problem
What does uncovering and testing concepts entail?
Develop programmatic concepts: abstract ideas that are functional solutions to the client's performance problems; without defining the physical means that could be used to solve them. Later design concepts are developed: a specific physical response that attempts to achieve a programmatic concept.
During which step in the 5-step programming process is a budget typically established?
4. Determing needs
What is a problem statement? How many should there be?
A succint statement of the essence of the project; the bridge between programming and design; describe the most important aspects of the problem and serve as the basis for design and as the criteria by which the solution can be evaluated. 4 - one for each of the major considerations of the design problem.
What does the major design consideration of form relate to?
The existing conditions in a space. The physical and psychological environment of the interior. The quality of construction.
What does the major design consideration of function relate to?
The people using a space. The activities to be performed there. The relationship of spaces to each other.
What does the major design consideration of economy relate to?
Money. The initial cost of the interior. Operating costs. Life cycle costs.
What does the major design consideration of time relate to?
Ideas of the past; present and future as they affect the other three considerations. The required construction schedule. The need for expansion.
What are 3 programmatic concepts that relate to company structure and public perception?
1. Priority: establishes the order of importance of things such as size; position or social values. 2. Hierarchy: relates to the idea of the exercise of authority and is expressed in physical symbols of authority. 3. Character: a response to the desired image the client want to project.
What are 4 programmatic concepts that relate to how people/spaces are grouped?
1. Density: low; medium or high 2. Service grouping: how support areas/functions are grouped 3. Activity grouping: whether activities should be integrated or separated and compartmentalized. 4. People grouping: degree of massing of people in a space and is derived from the physical social and emotional characteristics of the group.
What are 5 programmatic concepts that relate directly to the workers/users of the space?
1. Home base: territoriality 2. Relationships: include the affinities of people and activities. 3. Communications: describes who communicates with who and how they do it. 4. Neighbors: refers to how the project will promote or prevent sociability and how it will relate to its neighboring spaces. 5. Accessibility: making the building entry and the facility accessible to the disabled.
What are 3 programmatic concepts that relate to the flow of a space?
1. Separated flow: segregating the flow of people; service access; and other activities of a space. 2. Mixed flow: a response to the goal of promoting interaction among people. 3. Sequential flow: often required where a specific series of events or processes is required.
What are 3 programmatic concepts that relate to the big picture?
1. Orientation: provide a point of reference within a space to help keep people from feeling lost within a larger context. 2. Flexibility: expandability; convertibility; versatility 3. Tolerance: allows for extra space for a dynamic activity instead of fitting the space precisely to a static activity.
What are 2 programmatic concepts that relate to safety/security?
1. Safety: incorporate building codes and other safety precautions2. Security controls: protect both people and property.
What are 2 green programmatic concepts?
1. Energy conservation 2. Environmental controls: climate-control systems to maintain comfort.
What are 2 programmatic concepts that relate to schedule and budget?
1. Phasing: determines if the project must be completed in stages to meet time and cost schedules 2. Cost control: explores ways to establish a realistic preview of costs and a balanced budget to meet the client's available funds.
What does the field of "human factors" involve?
The correctness of fit between objects and spaces and the needs of the people using those objects and spaces.
What is anthropometrics?
The measurement of the size; proportions and range of motion of the human body.
How much space is needed between to filing cabinets facing eachother? In front of a single filing cabinet?
82"-94" 44" min
How much space is needed for a person sitting in a chair at a table? Behind the seated person? From CL to CL of seated person?
18"-24" 30" 30"
What diameter conference table is needed to seat 6 people? What diameter dining table is needed to seat 4 people?
5 ft 4 ft
The study of the relation between human physiology and the physical environment; using the information developed by anthropometrics.
Adjustability is one of the most important factors to include in the selection of workstations and chairs. What elements should be adjustable?
Chair height Angle of computer monitor Keyboard position (26" - 28.5" high) Angle of chair back Height of lumbar support in chair back Distance from the front of the chair to the back support Armrest height
Human comfort is based on the quality of what primary environmental factors?
Temperature Humidity Air movement Temperature radiation to and from surrounding surfaces Air quality Sound Vibration Light
Due to metabolic process; how much heat does the human body give off at rest? At moderate activity? At strenuous activity?
400 Btu/hr 700-800 Btu/hr 2000 Btu/hr
What are the 3 main ways the human body loses heat?
1. Convection: transfer of heat thru the movement of a gas or liquid - happens when air temp is cooler than skin temp (85 deg F) 2. Evaporation: moisture changes to a vapor as a person perspires or breathes. 3. Radiation: the transfer of heat energy thru EM waves from one surface to a colder surface.
The sensation of thermal comfort depends on the interrelationship of what 4 environmental properties?
1. Air temp Comfortable: 69-80 deg F Tolerable: 60-85 deg F 2. Humidity Comfortable: 30%-65% Tolerable: 20%-70% 3. Air movement (increases evaporation & heat loss thru convection) Comfortable wind speeds: 50 ft/min - 200 ft/min 4. Radiation (if surroundings are cooler than 85 deg F; the body loses heat; if warmer; gains heat)
What is the effective temperature (ET)?
Combines the effects of air temp; humidity and air movement.
What is the mean radiant temperature (MRT)?
A weighted average of the various surface temps in a room; the angle of exposure of the occupant to these surfaces and any sunlight present. Used to determine radiation as an aspect of comfort.
What is the clo?
The unit developed to quantify the effects of clothing. About equal to the typical American man's business suit.
What is ventilation for?
Provide oxygen and remove carbon dioxide Remove odors Carry away contaminants
What sorts of regulations do building codes give for ventilation?
1. Minimum requirements (with either min operable window areas; min mechanical ventilation rates or both) 2. Minimum amount of fresh; outdoor air that must be circulated (cubic ft/min) 3. Min exhaust rates (cubic ft/min/sq ft or how often a complete air change within the room must be made)
What are the 7 categories of specific information that should be gathered during programming?
. 1. Goals and objectives 2. User requirements 3. Activity requirements 4. Furnishings and equipment 5. Adjacencies 6. Space requirements listed by area and square footage 7. Time and money requirements
What are the 4 methods of collecting the info required to complete a program and prepare for design?
1. Client interview 2. Questionnaires 3. Observation (good way to verify info from interviews & questionnaires &/or to come up with questions for them) 4. Field Surveys (determine existing conditions/study arch plans)
Define site analysis.
The investigation and evaluation of conditions within which the project will be completed. It is a form of due diligence in that the designer can only competently design the nterior space after knowing the context of the project.
What are the 12 tasks included in site analysis?
1. Review any arch plans 2. Walk thru the space 3. Measure 4. Photograph 5. Determine views from the space 6. Understand the neighborhood & social context 7. Document with drawings 8. Inventory exg furn & equip to be reused 9. Analyze codes and regulations 10. Determine sustainability requirements and goals 11. Verify HVAC & electrical capacities (commercial) 12. Determine any zoning limitations; heating; plumbing; septic tank capacities (residential)
During field surveys; how should the structural systems be reviewed?
Determine the adequacy of the existing structure and to locate any loadbearing walls slated for modification.
During field surveys; how should the mechanical systems be reviewed?
Check the capacity of the central plant; the condition of the distribution system; and the adequacy of the registers; thermostats and any other equipment that is planned for reuse.
During field surveys; how should the plumbing systems be reviewed?
Verify capacity for any new fixtures that are proposed; to review the condition of pipes and fittings and to determine where existing piping can be tapped for new plumbing fixtures.
During field surveys; how should the fire protection system be reviewed?
. See if it meets current life safety codes. Study the extent of the sprinkler system to determine how much additional work would be required for the new space.
During field surveys; how should the electrical systems be reviewed?
Capacity of service to the building Conditions of primary and secondary service Conditions of wiring and devices Conditions of lighting and other electrical components
If a client is interested in LEED certification; what are important site selection criteria?
1. LEED certified building 2. Brownfield site 3. Stormwater management plan 4. Shaded site &/or high-albedo &/or open-grid pavement 5. 50% min parking underground/covered 6. High solar reflectance &/or green roof 7. Exterior lighting doesn't create light pollution 8. High-efficiency irrigation or captured rain water or recycled waste water 9. No permanent landscaping irrigation or captured rain water or recycled site water 10. Reduces municipally provided potable water for sewage conveyance 11. Uses on-site renewable energy 12. Walkable community with access to basic services 13. Near commuter rail/bus lines 14. Bike storage/showers 15. Encourages car pooling.
Of all programming data; what are the two primary factors that determine the size and configuration of the interior space?
1. Required area 2. Adjacencies (+ support spaces: corridors; closets; toilet rooms; mech areas)
If a client already has an idea of the net area they will need; where do those numbers typically come from?
1. The client's expertise 2. Based on corporate space standards 3. Based on what currently exists
If the interior designer needs to determine the net area a client will need; what are the 3 methods to do so?
1. Based on the number of people that must be accommodated 2. Based on an object or piece of equipment 3. Based on a specific activity that has its own clearly specified space needs ie; a court room; sports arena)
How are space needs determined based on the number of people that must be accommodated?
Multiply the area one person needs by the total number of people in the same area. Through experience and detailed analysis; general guidelines for space requirements (benchmarks) for one person engaged in various activities have been developed (these numbers include circulation around the person).
What are 4 common types of workflow? Why is a client's workflow method important to document?
1. Linear 2. Central 3. Departmental 4. Network Because each type of business process may fit better in some spaces thn others.
Workflow can be analyzed with respect to the existing building using what 7 criteria?
1. points of public entry 2. points of service entry 3. spaces with/without views 4. size and shape of space 5. locations of plumbing & other building services 6. interference with building structure 7. available ceiling height
What sorts of code items should be included in a preliminary code checklist?The code requirements that affect the overall planning of the space:
Occupancy groups/loads Number/locations of exits required Required exit/corridor widths & ratings ETC.
Once a preliminary space plan is selected; what sorts of code items should be included in a more detailed code checklist?
Construction of fire-rated corridors Locations of exit signs; fire extinguishers; sprinklers; smoke detectors; emergency lighting Hardward requirements Finishes requirements Toilet room accessories ETC.
All accessibility issues that relate to the broad issues of space planning should have been incorporated into the design prior to what phase?
What sorts of accessibility issues should be included in a preliminary checklist?
Widths of accessible routes Door sizes & maneuvering clearances Ramp locations & sizes Toilet room layout
As the space plan is finalized and DD begins; what sorts of accessibility issues should be evaluated?Surfaces of accessible routes
toilet room design details DF mounting Stair design details Protruding objects Amount of seating & other elements governed by scoping provisions ETC
What are some of the rules; regulations and standards the interior designer might run into on a leased space?
Rentable-usable ratio Building standard allowances on partitions; doors; light fixtures; etc. Building standard finishes/window coverings Signage regulations Security requirements Regulations for service access and used of fright elevator ETC.
What is a design concept (as opposed to a programmatic concept)?
A general idea of how a design problem will be approached. Takes into account the existing space within which the designer must work; its size; shape; entry points; windows; and other fixed elements. still a broad-brush approach that leaves some flexibility in deciding the details. The statement is concise and defines the essense of the design.
What are 8 components that may be incorporated into a design concept?
1. Plan arrangement 2. Space relationships 3. Components of Interior Design (walls; ceilings; doors; floors; steps; glazing) 4. Details 5. Lighting & color 6. Materials 7. Furniture 8. Accessories
What are 6 conceptual plan arrangements that can be used either alone or juxtaposed in a design concept?
1. Open (no walls) 2. Linear 3. Axial 4. Centralized 5. Grid 6. Clustered
When is an open plan arrangement typically used?
When a display of hierarchy through separate spaces is not wanted. Where function requires a free flow of people; materials; or ideas. Where individual functional areas change frequently.
When is a linear plan arrangement typically used?
As an efficient way to connect many different types and sizes of spaces with a circulation corridor and to provide for access to exits. To separage groups of enclosed spaces with a large open space.
When is an axial plan arrangement typically used?
When spaces are aligned on a significant feature or features; the space creating the axis is important; more than just a corridor. Combines features of both a centralized and a linear concept.
When is a centralized plan arrangement typically used?
When several areas need access to one centralized hub. It is nondirectional and focuses attention on the central space which then has a symbolic or functional importance.
When is a grid plan arrangement typically used?
To organize many different types and sizes of spaces while maintaining an overall regularity and pattern.
When is a clustered plan arrangement typically used?
When a variety of sizes and shapes of spaces need to be accommodated. When expansion or change is expected. Often organized about an axis or central space to avoid wayfinding problems.
What are 4 space relationships that can be incorporated into a design concept?
1. Adjacent spaces (separated by wall; floor change; furniture; etc.) 2. Overlapping spaces (the common pace belongs to both spaces to some degree) 3. Spaces sharing a common space (the common space has its own identity) 4. A space within another space (ie a private office within an open plan)
How can the components of interior design (walls; ceilings; floors; steps; doors; glazing) be used to solve clients' functional requirements as well as meet their emotional and psychological needs?
View the elements on a conceptual basis: Walls: vertical planes; space-defining elements. Ceilings: minor changes in height can define space; direct movement; affect the room's scale Floors: establish stability & a fixed reference plane; define space; direct movement steps/Ramps: Create vertical movement; define space Doors: celebrate movement and transition; set status Glazing: can establish connection and separation simultaneously
What are the 3 purposes of details in a design?
1. Resolve problems of connection and transition 2. Solve functional problems 3. Enhance the intent of the overall design concept.
How is lighting incorporated into a design concept?
Lighting can emphasize; obscure; create mood; add interest; shape space; provide variability in the environment; affect the appearance of colors and materials.
What are the 2 ways materials are used in a design concept?
1. Functional: finish; concealment; protection; sound modulation; light reflectance; fire resistance 2. Aesthetic: convey meaning; denote status; create style; symbolize ideals; add to the overall look of a space.
What are the 2 ways furniture is used in a design concept?
1. Satisfy the client's basic functional needs and budget. 2. Contribute to the overall design: light/heavy; soft/hard; small/large; colorful/neutral; similar to/contrasted with the architecture of the space.
How are accessories incorporated into a design concept?
Enhance the design intent of the space; complementing it while not dominating it.
What are 3 methods for documenting a client's adjacency requirements?
1. Adjacency matrix 2. Adjacency or bubble diagram 3. Stacking diagram
Define space planning.
The process used to translate programmatic needs and broad design concepts into a physical plan of the space by organizing major rooms and areas; determinging circulation systems; and laying out furniture (no materials; finishes; colors; accessories)
What are 6 aspects of existing conditions that may impact the space plan?
1. Relationship to surrounding areas (entrance; elevator lobbies; exits; corridors;etc.) 2. Size of the existing space 3. Views 4. Special features (unique historical elements; atriums; etc) 5. Structural considerations (existing columns & loadbearing walls; bearing capacity of the floor) 6. Plumbing (vertical stacks at core and wet columns)
What are the 4 most common ways of organizing a space plan?
1. Linear organization (typical layout of private offices; becomes a radial organization when more than one linear element extends from a central point) 2. Axial organization (featured termination at axis end or axes are a major design element) 3. Grid system (open plan workstations and restaurant tables) 4. Central organization (formal; hotel lobby)
How is circulation important in the space plan?
1. One of the primary ways of organizing a room; an open space; or an entire project 2. Can create efficient organization of space. 3. Can provide people with their strongest orientation within an environment. 4. Help maintain adjacencies. 5. Different sizes and types help create a heirarchy of paths. 6. Relates to the organizational pattern of a project but does not have to mimic it.
In space planning; what should be determined first; space location based on adjacency or main circulation paths?
Main circulation paths.
What are the 3 basic circulation patterns that can be applied to both furniture layout in a room and an entire facility?
1. Linear dumbbell layout (simplest and very flexible; typ. double loaded corridor) , 2. Doughnut configuration (very efficient; provides a double-loaded corridor and automatically makes a continuous exitway) 3. Radial layout (oriented on one major space with paths extending from this central area)
What are the three steps involved in furniture layout?
1. Determine the types and number of individual pieces. 2. Consider the space between the pieces and their orientations to each other.
3. Think about the general access to the grouping and its relationship to existing elements within the room.
What are the 8 major code items the space plan should be reviewed for?
1. Required number of exits 2. Required separation of exits (if 2+ are required) 3. Exit doors 3 ft wide min & swing in direction of travel 4. Doors don't encroach more than 7" into the exit space when fully open 5. Corridors are at least 36" wide for residential; 44" wide for commercial (60" is best for accessibility) 6. Dead-end corridors are avoided 7. Total corridor length is minimized with an efficient layout) 8. Accessiblity clearances are met (18" on pull side and 12" on push side of door)
What are 5 important design considerations for the space plan?
1. Maintain adjacencies 2. Public versus private spaces (use barriers; distance; sequencing; etc) 3. Enclosed versus open spaces (open encourages communication and reduces cost by making wall construction unnecessary) 4. Daylighting & views 5. Sustainability (plan space for recycling collection/storage; reuse existing parttions; ceilings; etc; plan bike storage & shower facilities)
At what point should the designer get the designers approval: design concept statement adjacency matrix bubble diagram/stacking diagram block diagram DD drawings
After every step.
What 5 steps should be used when researching FF&E?
1. Define the problem 2. Establish a strategy and schedule 3. Determine the appropriate sources 4. Determine the sequence of source contact 5. Contact sources and record information
What are the important aspects of "defining the problem"?
1. determine the purpose of the research (fact check or in-depth investigation) 2. determine how much time and money are available for te research 3. determine what degree of reliability is needed and how current the research must be 4. determine what the finished form of the research will be
What are the important aspects of "establish a strategy and schedule"?
1. Break down the research into manageable units; each unit having a specific info source that can respond to it. 2. Set a deadline by which the info must be obtained to allow time for analysis and compilation
What are the important aspects of "determine the appropriate sources"?
Evaluate the quality and reliability of a source by considering: 1. that source's motivation for providing the info 2. how the info was originally gathered 3. the timeliness of the info 4. whether it is primary or secondary data 5. how much the info costs
What are the important aspects of "determine the sequence of source contact"
Decide on one of the following sequences to minimize unwanted redundancy and cost: 1. most general to most specific 2. most reliable to least reliable 3. longest lead time first (ie; to get a sample/mock-up or to get a return email) 4. sources most likely to have the needed info; followed by confirmation sources
What are the important aspects of "contact sources and record information"?
Contact sources with long lead times first; then do immediate research (ie; internet)
What are 6 possible research needs a designer must satisfy when researching FF&E?
1. initial selection 2. standards 3. codes and regulations 4. sustainability 5. samples and mockups 6. costs
What is involved in initial selection?
Researching possible items from a variety of manufacturers that may satisfy the design requirements.
What is involved in standards?
In making FF&E decisions; the designer should consider industry standards for furniture to ensure that the item will perform as expected and meet minimum construction requirements (ie; BIFMA standards)
What is involved in codes and regulations?
Conform to any federal; state and local regulations related to FF&E as well as requirements established by a client or by rating systems such as LEED.
What is involved in sustainability?
Many clients require that FF&E conform to miminum green standards: LEED IAQ standards of CRI's Green Label Plus Program Energy Star
What is involved in samples and mockups?
Obtain furniture samples from a dealer Go to the dealership/mart to view large or a multitude of samples Create mockups of customs from cardboard; wood-panel products; etc.
What is involved in cost?
Use a approximate costs during preliminary design and budgeting Refine the budget as design progresses and FF&E selections are narrowed down.
How do specified interior design products differ from architecture ones?
ID products often become manufacturer specific or proprietary.
Besides experience; what are 5 other common sources of FF&E information?
1. Journals & Newsletters 2. Merchandise Marts; Shows and Showrooms 3. Manufacturers; Dealers and Representatives 4. Independent Information Sources 5. Product Information
What sort of info is available in journals and newletters?
1. Product introduction in advertisements with photos; manufacturer and features list 2. Editorials with direct comparisons between products and/or manufacturers
What are 2 journals that provide comprehensive coverage of the contract interior design profession and furniture industry? What is a web site that lists all current journals?
1. Contract 2. Interior Design www.dezignare.com
What are the main sources of info to get from manufacturers; deals and reps?
1. Info on product availability 2. Physical characteristics; 3. Prices (including discounts) 4. Info on conformance to industry standards
What are 3 independent information sources; often good for unbiased information?
1. Internet 2. Trade Associations 3. Databases
What are some internet sources?
1. Websites; blogs and forums that contain the experiences of designers that used a particular manufacturer or product 2. Local; state and federal websites with info on code; laws; regulations 3. TODL (Trade Only Design Library) 4. Dezignare Interior Design Collective 5. Contract Magazine 6. Material Connexion
What sort of info can be found from trade organizations? Where can you find a complete listing of trade associations?
Accurate and often voluminous info on the product type or interest they represent. Encyclopedia of Associations; published by Thomson Gale.
What are 6 good databases for interior design research?
1. Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals 2. Techstreet 3. IHS 4. NSSN 5. ASTM International 6. ANSI
What are the 3 types of scales (instruments) used for architectural; interior design; and engineering drawing?
1. architect's scale: uses fractions of an inch (or multiples of an inch) to represent feet and inches. 2. metric scale: graduated in proportions such as 1:50 (approx. 1/4" scale); 1:10; 1:5 and individual markings are based on millimeter lengths 3. engineer's scale: indicates feet and fractions of a foot and uses scales such as 1" = 40" or 1" = 100 ft
, 1" 1/4" Based on the number of graduations that can fit before the 0 on the scale Read measurements only to the accuracy allowed on the scale.
What scale is typically used for the following?: 1. floor plans 2. elevations 3. enlarged floor plans; complex elevations 4. full wall sections 5. ceiling details; simple cabinet details 6. door; cabinet; furniture details 7. complex cabinet details 8. very complex details
1. 1/8" = 1'-0" 2. 1/4" = 1'-0" 3. 1/2" = 1'-0" 3. 3/4" = 1'-0" 4. 1-1/2" = 1'-0" 5. 3" = 1'-0" 6. 6" = 1'-0" (half full size) 7. 1'-0" = 1'-0" (full size)
What scale should never be used (even though they appear on an architects' scale)? Why?
3/32" & 3/16" Because they are too close to 1/8" and 1/4"
When scaled drawings are going to be reproduced at a larger or smaller size than the original numeric scale; what sort of scale should be used?
A graphic scale: a band of alternating light and dark portions; each of which represents a certain length.(Not as accurate as a standard scale)
What are orthographic drawings?
Use orthographic projection so that a 3D object may be represented in 2 dimensions.
What is orthographic projection?
The view of an object seen as though the viewer's line of sight were simultaneously perpendicular to every point on the nearest face of the object. All pieces are shown in their true relationships with other pieces; and the scale and proportion are the same for multiple views of the same object. There is no distortion for lines and planes parallel to the plane onto which the view is projected but diagonal lines are foreshortened.
What are the 4 most common types of orthographic drawings?
1. floor plans 2. reflected ceiling plans 3. elevations 4. sections
Orthographic projection is used as the basis for what 3 types of 3D drawings?
1. axonometric drawings 2. elevation obliques 3. one-point sectional perspectives
What is the definition of a reflected ceiling plan?
An orthographic view of the ceiling of a room or building as though there were a mirror on the floor and a viewer could see through the roof to the ceiling''s reflection. (keeps the RCP at the same orientation as the floor plan)
Describe how the main components of a section are protrayed in a drawing:1. solid portions2. Voids 3. profile lines (lines separating solids and voids) 4. elements that occur beyond the section cut
1. poche with standard material indications 2. left blank 3. very heavy lines 4. thin lines
What is an axonometric drawing?
A view of an object inclined to the picture plane in such a way that the 3 principal axes are foreshortened.
What are the 3 types of axonometric drawings?
1. isometric drawing: the vertical axis of an object is vertical on the paper and the 2 horizontal axes form angles of 30 degrees. 2. dimetric drawing: two of the principal axes are equally foreshortened 3. trimetric drawing: all 3 of the principal axes are foreshortened
What is an oblique drawing?
A 3D view of an object where one plane of the object is parallel to the picture plane while the third axis is oblique to the picture plane. The vertical axis of an object is vertical and the 2 horizontal axes form angles of 30 deg & 60 deg. or 45 deg & 45 deg - the floor plan is just rotated; vertical dimensions are usually drawn at 1/2 to 3/4 of the scale to avoid a distorted look
What type of drawings give the most accurate 2D representation of the 3D world? Because they use what principle?
Perspective drawings The principle of convergence - the apparent diminishing size of objects as they get farther from the eye; things converge to vanishing points
Describe a one-point perspective drawing.
The point of view is perpendicular to one of the planes of the object All vertical lines are drawn vertically and all lines perpendicular to the line of sight are drawn horizontally. Lines parallel to the line of sight converge at the single vanishing point that is used to create the drawing.
Describe a two-point perspective drawing.
The point of view is at normal eye level and is not perpendicular to any plane of the object. 2 vanishing points
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: picture plane
A horizontal line drawn somewhere near the back edge of the plan; the imaginary vertical plane onto which all points of the object are projected to create the 2D image
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: station point
A point between the plan and the perspective drawing; two lines are extended from the SP to the left and right; parallel to the two major sets of parallel lines of the plan Where they intersect the picture plane line determines the vanishing points
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: horizon line
A horizontal line drawn at some convenient point below the plan Assumed to be at eye level; 5'-0"
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: left and right vanishing points
Two vertical lines are drawn from the points where the two lines drawn through the station point intersect the picture plane; the points where these 2 vertical lines cross the horizon line are the vanishing points.
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: height line
Where the line of the picture plane touches the plan drawing; a vertical line is projected down to intersect the horizon line; This becomes the true height line and is the only line on the perspective drawing where vertical dimensions can be directly scaled. The horizon line is 5 ft high so the height line is drawn the correct height based on that.
Describe the following term associated with drawing two-point perspectives: perspective grids
Shorten the perspective drawing process: Have horizon lines; vanishing points and distances already marked off. used as a template behind the perspective drawing.
Name 4 things that can be studied in a mock-up of a space.
1. see how a design component will look in three dimensions 2. study clearances 3. study human fit 4. study overall scale
How is the design program typically summarized to the client for approval?
In written reports and sometimes with face-to-face; virtual or internet presentations.
What is the main difference between a DD presentation and an earlier presentation to present the program?
The DD presentation is more specific: floor plan dimensions are set specific products and materials have been selected furniture is finalized colors and finishes are finalized
What are the typical duties of a project mananger?
1. planning 2. scheduling 3. setting fees/budgets and monitoring the budget 4. review invoices and consultant's billings to the client 5. coordinating & directing all members of the design and construction team 6. documenting 7. contract administration 8. closing out the job 9. client follow-up 10. marketing Centralizing the control of all the project manager's responsibilities in one person results in what? Increases the likelihood that the client's project will be completed on time and within budget and that the design goals will be met in a profitable manner.
Planning for a PM involves setting requirements in what 3 critical areas?
1. time - scheduling the work required and making sure there are enough fees and staff to complete it 2. fees 3. quality - determining with the client what the expectations are comcerning design; cost; and other aspects of the project.
What is a fee projection?
Takes the total fee the designer will receive for the project and allocates it to the schedule and staff members who will work on the project; after deducting amounts for profit; overhead; and other expenses that will not be used for professional time. Developed from a projection of the scope of work; its associated costs; consultant fees; reimbursables and profit desired.
Describe how a fee projection chart is set up.
Start with the total working fee (the fee available to pay people to do the job after subtracting for profit; consultants; & other expenses). Estimate the percentage of the total amount of work or fee that each project phase will require (based on experience or rules of thumb). Multiply those percentages by the total fee to figure out the budget for each phase. Closely monitor time sheets to makesure the actual hours/fees expended matches those budgeted.
How does a PM monitor a project?
Keep track of the progress of the job to see if the planned aspects of time; fee and quality are being accomplished. The original fee projections are monitored by comparing weekly time sheets with the original estimate. Quality is moinitored by periodically reviewing the progress of the job to see if the original problems are being solved and the job is being produced according to the client's and design firm's expectations.
Why should everything done on a project be documented electronically and in writing?
To provide a record in case legal problems develop To create a project history to use for future jobs Documentation is a vital part of communication (email is better than a phone call)
What should be included in the project notebook (one of the PM's best tools; taken to meeting and job site)?
1. General reference (contact info) 2. Contracts 3. Fees and schedules 4. Programming 5. Budget 6. Job communication 7. Construction administration 8. Closeout and follow-up
What should be included in meeting minutes?
1. Project name & number 2. Date 3. Time and place of the meeting 4. People in attendance 5. Subjects covered 6. Any needed follow-up (all with complete; accurate; unbiased and clear notes)
Why are meeting minutes important?
Improve communication Avoid misunderstandings Provide a written record should disputes or legal problems arise
What is excess perfection syndrome or project perfection syndrome?
The desire to put in extra time (and therefore fees) to make the final marginal progress toward "perfection". (Initial work usually results in a rapid progression toward profection but at the end of a project; the PM needs to decide when the design & doc's are good enough so not to eat into profits)
What are the 2 main parts of a project's schedule? Who is responsible for setting each part?
Design time: the designer develops schedule for design; CD production; possibly ordering; delivery and installation of FF&E. Construction/installation time: the contractor develops this schedule but the designer must be able to estimate the entire project schedule for the client (especially if they have a set move-in date)
What are the 5 factors that help determine the amount of time required for the various design phases?
1. The size and complexity of the project 2. The number of people working on the project 3. The abilities and design methodology of the project team 4. The type of client and the decision-making and approval process of the client 5. Fixed dates (move-in; lease expiration; etc.)
What are 4 different types of schedules that can be used to schedule design/construction?
1. Gantt chart: most common & easiest; typical bar chart; shows the start and end dates and overlap of project activities 2. Critical Path Method (CPM) chart: graphically depicts all the tasks required to complete a project; the sequence in which they must occur; their duration; the earliest or latest possible starting time and the earliest or latest possible finishing time. 3. Program Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart: similar to CPM technique but uses different charting methods; used by contractors 4. Full wall schedule: involves the design & construction team & the client; all put tasks on post-its; stick to timeline on wall; move stuff around until everyone's satisfied.
What are the 4 main aspects the PM needs to coordinate during schematic design?
1. Design office staff 2. Consultants 3. Building systems with the design 4. Code requirements with the design
What are 7 actions a PM can take to add the necessary personal dimension to the everyday direction of team coordination?
1. Know the 4 kinds of communication: work assignments; instructional; reward & punishment; social (deal with each separately) 2. Clarify the expectations of people on the project team 3. Don't give responsibility w/o the appropriate amount of authority to make decisions and carry out actions 4. Be sensitive to the manager-subordinate relationship 5. Provide for ways staff members can grow and advance 6. Every person needs to be recognized (praise publicly) 7. Evaluate performance of the staff members on the project team continuously (criticize privately)
What are 7 more actions a PM can take to add the necessary personal dimension to the everyday direction of team coordination?
8. Encourage general discussions of the broad issues involved in a project at appropriate times. 9. Do not be alarmed when people get angry (uncover the cause; don't just dismiss) 10. Commit to resolve conflects as the occur 11. Open up communication among the project team 12. Recognize that most clients want to be involved with the design of their building or space in some way 13. Bring in consultants at the earlies possible time 14. Establish an environment in which initiative will be encouraged
What are the possible consultants a PM may have to coordinate?
1. architect 2. structural engineer 3. mechanical engineer 4. electrical engineer 5. acoustical designer 6. construction specification writer 7. buliding code expert 8. fire protection specialist 9. harware specialist 10. commercial food service specialist 11. security systems specialist 12. audiovisual systems specialist 13. telecommunications systems specialist
Why should the PM involve the consultants in the project as early as possible?
Their advice and expertise is vital to determining the scope of the project; developing broad conceptual approaches to solving the client's problem; and understanding the concerns of the client and other design professionals working on the project.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the designer contracting directly with the consultant vs. the owner contracting directly with the consultant?
Owner + consultant: designer avoids problems with contract provisions & payment but may lose some ability to direct the consultant Designer + consultant: designer has more control but may encounter problems with paying the consultant's fees if the cilent's payment is delayed.
Who is responsible for ensuring the consultant's drawings & spec's comply with code: the designer or the consultant?
Although the interior designer is responsible for ensuring that the drawings & specs conform to the applicable codes; the consultants are responsible for code compliance regarding their area of work in the same way the interior designer is responsible to the owner. By signing their drawings; the consultants become responsible for compliance with applicable codes. However; the designer is the prime consultant and is liable to the owner for the consultant's work.
What are the code requirements that the PM needs to coordinate during schematic design?
1. number of exits 2. minimum exit separation 3. maximum travel distance 4. common path of egress travel 5. exit width 6. dead-end corridors 7. door swings 8. any design elements that could affect the overall space plan or have significant cost implications.
What sorts of things should the designer follow up with the client after move in?
1. having the contractor correct any defects which were not caught on the punch list 2. advising on minor adjustments to furniture; building controls; etc. 3. explaining maintenance procedures 4. generally answering questions of the occupants
What are the advantages for the design firm of maintaining a strong follow-up program?
1. Creates a good impression of the firm and gets referrals 2. Helps maintain contacts 3. Provides the opportunity for in-use evaluation of a complete design
What are the main follow-up tasks?
1. Close out project files and contracts 2. Schedule regular meetings with the client during the "shakedown" period 3. Compile a manual of all operating instructions; maintenance procedures; guarantees; names and phone numbers of people to call for help with major building components; where to reorder expendable items; etc (much comes from the contrator) 4. Send client copies of professional photos of the project 4. Schedule brief monthly meetings with the client for long-term follow-up5. Post-occupancy evaluation asap after move in
What are the 6 pieces of business knowledge/skills that the interior design should have?
1. business management 2. carrying appropriate insurance 3. financial management 4. an awareness of legal issues 5. business development 6. managing employees
What are the 5 organizational structures or business types an interior design business can take the form of?
1. Sole Proprietorship 2. Partnership 3. Corporation 4. Limited Liability companies/Limited Liability Partnership 5. Joint Venture
What is needed to set up a sole proprietorship?
1. establish a name & location for the business 2. open a company bank account 3. have stationery printed 4. obtain whatever licenses are needed by the local jurisdiction (5. if employees are hired; other state & local requirements must be met)
What are the advantages of a sole proprietorship?
1. easy set up 2. total management control by the owner 3. possible tax advantages to the owner because business expenses and losses may be deducted from the gross income of the business
What are the disadvantages of a sole proprietorship?
1. the owner is personally liable for all debts and losses of the company 2. more difficult to raise capital and establish credit 3. company usually ceases to exist when the owner quits or dies
Describe a general partnership business.
Two or more people share in the management; profits; and risks of the business. Income from the business is taxed as ordinary income on personal tax forms. Employees can be hired as with any form of business.
What are the advantages of a general partnership?
1. easy to form (sign a partnership agreement) 2. the business benefits from skills and talents of severl people (rather than just the sole proprietor)
What are the disadvantages of a general partnership?
1. all of the partners are responsible and liable for the actions of the others and personal assets of all partners are vulnerable to lawsuits; etc. 2. income is taxed at individual rates 3. if a partner wants to withdraw; the partnership is usually dissolved
What is a limited partnership?
Has general partners and limited partners; the limited partners are only investors and receive a portion of the profits but have no say in the management of the company; they are liable only to the extent of their investment (limited partnerships have generally given way to the limited liability company)
Describe a corporation (or a C corporation).
An association of individuals; created by statutory requirements; having an existence independent from its members. The formation and conduct of corporations are governed by the laws of individual states and formal articles of incorporation must be drawn up by an attorney and filed with the appropriate state office to legally form a corp.
What are the advantages of a corporation?
1. The stockholders are financially liable only for the amount of money invested on the corp (since the corp is a separate legal entity. 2. A corp is generally taxed at a lower rate than are individuals (though it is taxed at 2 levels: taxed on profits and shareholders are taxed on their dividends) 3. Have a continuity independent of changes in stockholders; deaths of board of directors members or changes in the principals 4. Relatively easy to raise capital by selling stock in the corp.
What are the disadvantages of a corporation?
1. High initial setup costs2. Continuing paperwork and formal requirements necessary to maintain the business
What is a subchapter S corporation?
Variation of the corporation with certain eligibility requirements and all the advantages of standard corp's but the profits or losses are paid or deducted from the stockholders' personal income taxes in proportion to the shares of stock they hold = advantageous when there are losses or when the state tax rates shift the financial benefits so that the individual is taxed rather than the corp
What is a professional corporation?
Similar to other corporations except that liability for malpractice in generally limited to the person responsible. (Formed by interior designers; architects; lawyers; doctors; accountants; etc.)
Describe a limited liability company or a limited liability partnership.
Hybrid business organizations that combine the advantages of the corp and the partnership.They are formed like a partnership wher the investors are called members and those who manageare called managers.Unlike with partnerships; it is possible to have nonmenbers as managers.
What are the advantages of a LLC or LLP?
1. Liability is limited to a member's investment 2. Taxed as a partnership or corporation; at the owner's discretion; with only one level of taxation for members (unlike a C corp) 3. Generally easier to set up and operate than a corp.
Describe a joint venture.
A temporary association of two or more persons or firms for the purpose of completing a project. A formal; written agreement should be developed that describes the duties & responsibilities of each firm; how profits and losses should be divided and how the work will be done. Can't be sued like a corp can. Profits may be taxed as a partnership or the individual members of the JV may be taxed separately.
What are the two main types of office organization often seen in ID or ARCH firms?
1. Departmental organization (marketing; design; spec; contract doc department; etc.2. Studio organization (each studio is responsible for completing an entire project)(or some combo of the two)
What are the advantages and disadvantages of departmental organization?
Advantages: 1. efficient organization 2. take advantage of many types of specialists Disadvantages: 1. Communication between departments about any particular project can be a challenge 2. Discourages or make it impossible for anyone to gain a breadth of experience or share their knowledge in other aspects of project planning and completion.
What are the advantages of studio organization?
1. Close and immediate communication among members of the design team and the synergy of sharing ideas and group problem solving 2. Project manager has daily contact with the design and production team as well as the client
What are the 6 types of insurance the designer should have?
1. Professional liability insurance (aka malpractice insurance or errors and omissions insurance) 2. General liability insurance 3. Property insurance 4. Personal injury protection insurance 5. Automobile insurance 6. Workers' compensation insurance (& health and life insurance; valuable papers insurance; business life insurance)
What is professional liability insurance?
Protects the designer in case some action by the designers causes bodily injury or property damage. (from incorrect spec's; mistakes on drawings; incorrect installation of furniture)
What is general liability insurance?
Protects against claims of property damage; liability and personal injury caused by the designer or employees; consultants or other people hired by the designer.
What is personal injury protection insurance?
Protects the designer against charges of slander; libel; defamation of character; misrepresentation; and other torts
What are the 2 types of insurance the owner is required to have in AIA Doc A251 (General Conditions of the Contract for Furniture; Furnishings and Equipment)?
1. Liability insurance 2. Property insurance for the full insurable value of the work (must be "all risk" type rather than "specified peril" type; all risk is broader in coverage)
The General Conditions of the Contract require that the contractor carry insurance that will protect them from what 6 things?
1. worker's comp claims 2. claims from injury; occupational sickness or death of employees 3. claims for injury or death of nonemployees 4. claims for personal injury 5. claims for damages other than to the work because of destruction of tangible property 6. claims for damages related to use of motor vehicles (& possibly insurance for any portions of the work that are stored off site or that are in transit to the site)
What are the 2 broad categories of accounting that the financial management of a design firm depends on?
1. Basic accounting that all businesses must do to keep track of money for day-to-day operations; banking; taxes; and auditing 2. Active financial management so the firm owners know that financial status of the business and can use financial reporting to help make decisions critical to the firm's survival and profit
Define accounts payable.
Claims from the suppliers of goods or services (such as consultants) but not yet paid for
Any type of tangible or intangible resource that can be measured in monetary terms. Include current assets (resources that are converted into cash within one year); fixed assets (long-term items; ie; equipment & property) & other assets (securities or copyrights)
Define chart of accounts.
A list of the various accounts a business uses to keep track of money along with corresponding account numbers used for data processing
Define direct labor.
All labor of technical staff; principals; and support staff that is directly chargeable to projects.
Define direct personnel expense.
The expense of employee salaries plus the cost of mandatory and discretionary expenses and benefits such as payroll taxes; health insurance; etc.
Define indirect labor.
All labor not charged to a project or revenue-producing account (administration; general office time and marketing)
Define discretionary distribution.
Voluntary distribution of profits to owners and nonowners; such as performance bonuses; profit sharing; incentive compensation; etc.
Claims by people outside the business and claims by the owners of the business against the total assets of the business.
Expenses incurred in order to keep a business operating whether or not any revenue is being generated; such as rent; power and telephone.
Describe cash accounting.
Revenue and expenses are recognized at the actual time the business receives the cash or pays a bill.Fairly simple; used by single-person or small firms but can''t be used by a corporation if the businss maintains an inventory.
Describe accrual accounting.
Revenue and expenses are recognized at the time they are earned or incurred; whether or not cash changes hands. Makes it possible to get a better overall picture of the financial status of a business and produce the reports vital for active finiancial anagement.
What method of bookkeeping does accrual accounting use?
Double-entry bookkeeping: all transactions are listed chronologically in a journal; they are then posted to a ledger in which transactions are grouped into individual accounts.
What are the 3 common types of accounting reports that can be generated?
1. balance sheet 2. profit and loss statement (or income statement) 3. cash flow statement
What is a balance sheet?
Summarizes all assets and liabilities and shows the financial position of a business; total assets must equal total liabilities plus the net worth or owner''s equity(Net worth of a firm is the total assets less the total liabilities. Owner''s equity is the money invested in a business by the owners or stockholders.)
What is a profit and loss statement?
Lists all the income and expenses of a business for a certain period of time which shows either a profit or loss for that period.
What is a cash flow statement?
Shows actual inflows and outflows of cash (anything accepted by a bank) or cash equivalents (short-term investments that can be quickly converted into cash)
What are the most important aspects of financial management that allows a design firm to stay in business; grow and make a profit?
Active planning Monitoring Controlling of financial information Acting on the information
What is the most fundamental equation for financial planning in any profit-oriented business?
profit + expenses = revenues (assumes the business will make a targeted profit and must then control expenses and generate appropriate revenue to make that happen)OR revenue - expenses = profit (assumes that profit is whatever may be left over after expenses are subtracted from whatever revenue may be generated)
How do design firms typically control expenses? Increase revenue?
Control expenses: reducing overhead cost wherever possible Increase revenue: increasing the amount of work the firm does or increasing fees
What is shown in a project progress report?
The hours and labor costs for each phase of a project for the current reporting period as well as the amount to date and compares these numbers with estimated hours and dollars. Costs for consultants; overhead allocations nad reimbursable expenses are also shown.
What is an office earnings report?
Summarizes each project in the office in terms of the amount of revenue it has generated; expenses; unbilled services; percent complete and profit or loss to date.
What is an aged accounts receivable report?
Shows that status of all invoices for all projects; whether they have been paid; and the "age" of each invoice (amount of time that passed between invoice date and payment date) For arch and ID firms; the average collection period for invoices runs between 60 and 75 days.
What is a time analysis report?
Lists each employee along with the number of hours spent on direct and indirect labor. Generates the chargeable ratio (or utilization rate). Break-even chargeable ratio: 65%
What are 6 financial ratios used to measure the status of a business''s financial health?
1. Current ratio: total current assets divided by total current liabilities 2. Net profit before tax 3. Overhead rate: total office overhead divided by total direct labor (used as a multiplier to calculate fees) 4. Quick ratio: cash & equivalents + accounts receivable divided by total current liabilities (more conservative than current ratio) 5. Revenue per technical staff (those most billable to projects) 6. Revenue per total staff
What is the most common method of setting fees on a project?
Charge an hourly rate for the people working on a project = the billing rate. Multiply that rate by the estimated amount of time that person will work on the job. Add costs for estimated non-reimbursable direct expenses; consultant's fees and a contingency (if any) Can compare to firm benchmarks for how much similar jobs cost as a check.
How are billing rates determined?
The designer''s hourly wage is multiplied by a net multiplier (generally from 2.7 to 3.0).
What is the net multiplier?
A factor derived by dividing net revnue of the design firm by the cost of direct labor. It covers firnge benefits; indirect labor; overhead and profit.
What is a multiplier based on direct personnel expense?
With DPE; the costs of providing taxes; benefits; etc. are included with the employee's base salery. So this multiplier just accounts for indirect labor and profit and thus is slightly less than the net multiplier.
What do most jurisdictions require of every business which allows the business to practice and usually serves as a basis for taxation?
a business license (ID firms reselling goods also need a sales tax license/resale license/transaction privilege tax license)
What are the 3 tax forms businesses with employees must complete?
1. IRS Form SS-4: Application for Employer Identification Number (EIN), 2. W-4: Employee''s Wighholding Allowance Certificate3. Form W-2: Employer''s Wage and Tax Statement
What are some of the specific taxes business have to pay?
1. Self-employment tax (sole proprietors and some partnerships) 2. Use tax on goods purchased from out of state (sales tax) 3. City income taxes 4. Employment taxes 5. Occupational privilege taxes 6. Use taxes 7. Property taxes
What is the difference between practice acts and title acts?
Practice acts: must be licensed to practice Title acts: anyone can practice but the use of the title "interior designer" is regulated
What are 4 legal Acts to be aware of when hiring employees?
1. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 2. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972 3. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 4. The Americans with Disabilities Act
What are 4 federal laws that regulate the emploee-employer relationship?
1. National Labor Relations Act (aka Wagner Act; for union employees) 2. Equal Pay Act 3. Family and Medical Leave Act (companies with 50+ employees must give an employee up to 12 weeks of leave for family/medical issues w/o losing their job) 4. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) (employers must provide a safe work environment)
What are the 2 conditions under which employees are hired?
1. Formal employment contract 2. Employmentat will
What is included in an employment contract?
ermployee's responsibilities; work duties; compensation; benefits; work conditions; termination procedures and policies for working outside the office (moonlighting) and may include a noncompete clause (aka restrictive covenant)
Describe the concept of employment at will.
No written contract; the employee can be terminated at any time without explanation (as long at it's not against age; sex; religion; etc); the employee can quit at any time without explanation.
Describe the legal concept of agency.
One person; the "agent" (designer) acts on behalf of another; the "principal" (owner) in dealings with another; the "third party" (contractor) When the agent consents to act on behalf of and represent the interests of the principal; the agent is empowered to create legal relationships between the principal and third parties.
The law attempts to define what one person "owes" another in particular relationships; including contracts. What is this called?
For the interior designer; what are the 3 ways duty is established?
1. By the terms of a contract; whether written or oral. 2. By legislative enactment; such as building codes and interior design licensing or title laws 3. By the interior designer's conduct: courts often look to the implied duties based on how the parties conduct themselves in the course of performing their work.
What are some implied duties of the interior designer?
1. Duty to cooperate with the contractor or vendor 2. Duty not to interfere with the contractor's or vendor's work 3. Duty to inform the contractor or vendor of relevant information that may affect the job's progress 4. Duty to assist the owner in coordinating the schedules and requirements of other contractors and vendors not reporting to the GC
What is one of the primary ways interior designers can be liable?
Through negligence - the failure to use due care to avoid harming another person or property.
What are the 3 conditions that must be met in order for an interior designer to be found negligent?
1. There must be a legal duty established between the parties. 2. It must be shown that the designers breached that duty. 3. It must be shown that the breach of duty was the cause of the damage or injury suffered by the other party.
Why does the law hold interior designers liable for their professional actions?
Because they represent themselves as having special knowledge and skill. However; the prevailing legal concept is that the professional is not expected to be perfect.
The interior designer can limit exposure to liability thru good risk management which involves what 6 procedures?
1. Use well-written contracts and follow them thoroughly. 2. Maintain an active quality control program 3. Document every decision; meeting and observation 4. Be vary careful of last-minute changes and substitutions 5. Carry sufficient liability insurance for the types of work the office does. 6. Avoid third-party claims.
What are the 4 ways the designer can avoid third-party claims?
1. Include indemnification clauses in the contract 2. Do not include contract language that would expressly state or imply responsibility to provide management; supervision; coordination or planning of construction (unless there''s a formal agreement)3. Do not give directions concerning methods of construction 4. Point out obvious construction safety problems to the contractor; follow up in writing to contractor and owner; if problem isn''t solve; suggest to owner that they stop construction
What are the 2 categories of copyright protection for interior design?
1. Copyright for drawings; specs and other pictorial or graphic representations of the designer's work 2. Copyright for the design itself (Architectural Works Copyright Protection Act which applies to buildings and interior designs erected after 12/1/90). Can't make unauthorized copies exactly or derivatively (similar copies)
How can the designer protect their copyright on a project?
1. Specifically claim ownership rights of the building copyright by making such a declaration in the Owner-Designer Agreement (AIA Doc B152) 2. Register the work with the U.S. Copyright Office (not technically required but advisable) within 3 months of publication (construction completion).
A set of activities related to facilitating an honest exchange of something one party has for something another needs.
What are 7 common marketing techniques?
1. Corporate identity (branding; logo; graphics) 2. Developing leads. 3. Brochures (paper or CD/DVD) 4. Audiovisual presentations 5. Newsletters (distributed regularly; paper or email) 6. Websites 7. Advertising (any paid communication in some type of media; once considered unethical)
What can a properly designed corporate identity program do for a company?
1. visually communicate the firm's philosophy 2. present a strong; visible identity to support the firm's marketing efforts 3. organize the firm's internal office procedures and project documentation 4. Give the firm a visual coherence and consistency
How does public relations differ from marketing?
It is not tied to a particular potential job or single potential client. It establishes and communicates the firm's presence to various groups of "publics" on many different levels. (Publics that may need designer's services or recommend them to others)
What is one of the most common ways to promote an interior design firm through good public relations?
Press release: a short statement concerning some newsworthy event related to the design firm that is sent to appropriate publications with the hope that the editors will use it.
What are other PR methods besides a press release?
1. An article about one of the design firm's projects in a magazine (better in a magazine that potential clients will read than a design trade magazine). 2. Organizing seminars/workshops on a topic of interest to the firm's publics. 3. Volunteering for local service groups or projects. 4. Getting involved with local politics. 5. Winning design awards 6. Setting up open houses for the public.
What is a trade source?
Any dealer; manufacturer; representative; subcontractor; craftworker or tradesperson who supplies goods or services to an interior designer.
What are two sources of written ethics requirements for interior designers?
1. ASID code of ethics: establishes minimum standards of conduct for its members and sanctions for violators. 2. IIDA code of ethics: stated differently but covers many of the same areas and provides for discipline of a member who is found to have violated the code.
What are the 5 areas covered in the ASID code of ethics?
1. Responsibility to the public 2. Responsibility to the client 3. Responsibility to other interior designers and colleagues 4. Responsibility to the profession 5. Responsibility to the employer
What is covered under "responsibility to the public"?
1. public's health; safety & welfare 2. designer can only sign drawings if they or their firm has directly prepared; supervise or reviewed the doc's. 3. designer must not engage in any form of false/misleading promotion or advertising 4. designer can't offer or give payments or gifts to any public official with the intent of unduly influencing the official's judgment
What is covered under "responsibility to the client"?
1. perform services in the best interests of the client as long as those interests don't violate laws; codes; the designer's aesthetic judgment; HSW of public 2. prohibited from divulging any privileged info about the client or the client's project; w/o the express permission of the client 3. allowed to offer services to clients for any form of legal compensation 4. must fully disclose to the client all compensation the designer will receive in connection with a project & must not accept any form of compensation from a supplier of goods and services in cash or in kind
What is covered under "responsibility to other interior designers and colleagues"?
1. cannot interfere with the fulfillment of another designer's contractual arrangement with a client 2. cannot initiate any discussion or activity that might cause unjust injury to another profession; however can render a second opinion to a client or may serve as an expert witness in a judicial proceeding 3. can only take credit for work that has actually been created by the designer or under the designer's direction
What is covered under "responsibility to the profession"?
1. as a member of ASID; the designers agrees; whenever possible and within the scope of his/her interests & abilities; to encourage & contribute to the sharing of ideas & info among designers; allied professionals & others in the industry & to encourage & offer support to ID students 2. designers should continually upgrade their professional knowledge and competency
What is covered under "responsibility to the employer"?
1. when leaving an employer's service; can't take drawings; data or other material except with permission 2. cannot disclose any confindential info obtained during the course of his/her employment; w/o permission of both client and employer 3. employers should not unreasonably withhold from employees leaving the firm permission to take copies of materials relating to the employee's work; as long as those materials aren't confidential.
What is one of the primary sources of ethical and business problems during design and construction?
Lack of communication. All communication should be in writing.
What is a contract in general terms?
A bargain between two or more parties; each of whom agrees to exchange something one or more of the others desire to obtain.
In a legal sense; what are the two parts of a contract?
1. An offer by one party 2. An acceptance by the other *every contract; whether written or oral; must have both to be valid.
What are the 11 provisions every contract should contain?
1. Parties to the contract & date 2. Detailed scope of work and designer's responsibilities (& sometimes work that will NOT be provided) 3. Purchasing agreements; if any (consistant with UCC) 4. Method & schedule of payment 5. Reinbursable expenses (travel; long-distance phone calls; postage; reproduction costs) 6. Extra services (ie; studying more design options; specifying additional furniture) 7. Responsibilities of the client (provide as-builts; arrange for space to receive furniture; etc.) 8. Ownership of documents (states the designer owns the doc's) 9. Provisions for arbitration 10. Termination of the contract (a clause that gives either party the right to terminate upon giving adequate written notice) 11. Signatures (only client must sign to be legally valid but both should sign anyway)
What are the 8 basic interior design services outlined in the AIA Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner and Architect for Interior Design Services; Doc B152 & ASID Documents 301; 302; 303 Agreement Between Designer an dClient for Design Services?
1. Programming 2. Schematic Design 3. Design Development 4. Contract Documents 5. Bidding 6. Contact Administration 7. Purchase Orders (+ various "additional services")
What is included in schematic design?
Diagrams showing functional relationships required by the project Preliminary space allocation plans showing partitions; furnishings Design concept studies including types and qualities of materials; finishes and furniture. Preliminary statement of probable project cost.
What is included in design development?
Refine approved SD work so size; scope and character of the project are generally fixed. Detailed plans with partitions; doors; furniture/fixtures/ ighting Built-in furn sketches 3D drawings Outline spec's Revised preliminary budget
What is included in contract documents?
Document approved DD work in detailed drawings; spec's and other documents required to have the project constructed. Advise the client of any adjustments/changes to the probable project cost.
What is included in bidding?
ASSIST owner in preparing bidding doc's; necessary procurement forms; conditions of the contracts and forms of agreement between the owner & contractor; assist in filing doc's required for various governmental approvals. ASSIST owner to obtaining bids or negociating proposals and evaluating bids/proposals ASSIST owner in preparing contracts for interior construction and for FF&E
What is included in contract administration?
Be owner's representative & advise & consult with owner; forward on instructions to the contractor. Assist owner in coordinating schedules for delivery & installation. Visit the site to keep owner informed and protect against defective work & products. NOT responsible for construction methods; procedures; etc. or for furnishing fabrication; shipment; installation; etc.; or for job site safety. Evaluate and issue certificates of payment for contractor. Interpret the contract documents. Review contractor submittals. Prepare change orders as needed. Review final state of construction upon project completion. Can only recommend to client to stop non-conforming work (can't order it stopped themself)
What is included in purchase orders?
Used when the designer buys goods or services for the owner; either as a reseller or as an agent.
What are some additional services listed in the AIA Standard Form of Agreement?
1. Making revisions to drawings & spec's 2. Investigate existing conditions 3. Making surveys or detailed inventories of materials or furniture 4. Providing services to verify the accuracy of info supplied by the owner 5. Assisting the owner in contracting for special surveys; environmental studies & submissions required by government 6. Designing graphics/signage 7. Procurement of art 8. Subcontracting structural; mechanical; & electrical consultants 9. Providing services relative to future facilities; furniture & equipment 10. Interviewing prospective contractors 11. Receiving & accepting furniture on owner's behalf 12.POE's 13. Record drawings 14. Providing services made necessary by the default of any contractor or supplier 15. Providing services in connection with a public hearing; arbitration; etc. except where the designer is a party thereto
What are the owner's responsibilites outlined in the AIA Agreement?
1. Furnish full info regarding requirements of the project including budget with contingencies. 2. Furnish all legal; accouting and insurance counseling services necessary for the project. 3. Furnish any required lab tests; inspections and storage of materials & equipment used on the job. 4. Remove or relocate existing facilities; furniture & equipment (UNO in the agreement) 5. Designate; when necessary; a rep w/ authority to act on their behalf. 6. Maintain working funds to pay the designer if they are purchasing furniture.
What is one of the most important provisions of contract language concerning project cost?
The interior designer does not warrant that bids or negotiated costs will not vary from the owner's budget or from any estimate prepared by the designer.
When the lowest bid is too high; when is the designer obligated to modify the drawings and specifications at no additional charge to reduce project cost?
Only if both the client and the designer agreed to a fixed limit of project cost in the contract (otherwise; the AIA agreement specifically states that no fixed limit of project cost shall be established)
What are the owner's 4 options if the lowest bid or negotiated proposal exceeds the project budget or fixed limit of project cost?
1. Owner can give written approval of an increase in the budget. 2. Owner can authorize rebidding or renegotiating of the project. 3. Owner can abandon the project. 4. If there is a fixed limit on project cost; the owner can have the designer modify the drawings and specifications; w/o charge; to reduce the project cost. (5. Owner may work with the designer to reduce the scope of the project; must pay if there is no contractrual fixed limit of project cost)
What are the 2 broad categories of ways to charge for interior design work?
1. Charges that are based only on professional services 2. Charges that are based on the retail method of reselling furniture & fixtures.
The ASID 301; 302 and 303 agreements allow for fees based on what 3 different methods?
1. A fixed design fee with no purchasing services 2. An hourly design fee with no purchasing services 3. A combination of hourly charges for project program services; a percentage of interior construction costs and a percentage of the vendor costs for FF&E.
The AIA agreements allow for fees based on what 5 different methods?
1. Fixed fee (designer must accurately estimate all costs and allow for profit; reimbursable expenses are additional) 2. Hourly rate or hourly rate up to a maximum fee (protects designer from unforseen problems & if client keeps changing things) 3. Percentage of project cost (must accurately predict the project cost; client may think the designer is not trying to keep project costs down so they will get paid more) 4. Area fee (must accurately predict project scope; usually used on tenant finish planning) 5. Retail method (reseller of goods; generally a discourage method)
What aspects does a POE look at?
1. Program requirements satisfied 2. Client''s goals met 3. Adequate flexibility 4. Adequately sized spaces 5. Adjacencies met 6. Finishes holding up 7. Any maintenance problems 8. Adequate construction details 9. Evaluate furniture & fixtures function; ergonomics; etc. 10. Adequate lighting 11. HVAC problems 12. Adequate power & communications 13. Adequate acoustics 14. Contractor; etc. performance 15. Client satisfaction 16. User satisfaction 17. Any problems arisen 18. Evaluate the designer''s own project delivery process and make suggestions for improvements.
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