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If you have a "frightening experience" immediately after hearing a strange sound, your fear may be aroused when you hear that sound again. This best illustrates

classical conditioning.

Researchers condition a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with electric shock. The electric shock is a(n)

unconditioned stimulus.

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed to your eye. Blinking to the tone presented without an air puff is a


Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place in which she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney's anxiety.

conditioned stimulus

After being bitten by his neighbor's dog, Miguel experienced fear at the sight of that dog but not at the sight of other dogs. This best illustrates the process of


If you get violently ill a couple of hours after eating contaminated food, you will probably develop an aversion to the taste of that food but not to the sight of the restaurant where you ate or to the sound of the music you heard there. This best illustrates that associative learning is constrained by

biological predispositions.

Through direct experience with animals, we come to anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates

associative learning.

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of

observable behavior.

Pavlov noticed that dogs began salivating at the mere sight of the person who regularly brought food to them. For the dogs, the sight of this person had become a(n)

conditioned stimulus.

Blinking in response to a puff of air directed to your eye is a


Conditioning seldom occurs when a ________ comes after a(n) ________.


Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when first shown her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates

spontaneous recovery.

A year after surviving a classroom shooting incident, Angie still responds with terror at the sight of toy guns and to the sound of balloons popping. This reaction best illustrates


The predictability of an association between a CS and a US facilitates an organism's ability to anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a ________ perspective.


In teaching her son to play basketball, Mrs. Richards initially reinforces him with praise for simply dribbling while standing still, then only for walking while dribbling, and finally only for running while dribbling. She is using a procedure known as


If the onset of a light reliably signals the onset of food, a rat in a Skinner box will work to turn on the light. In this case, the light is a ________ reinforcer.


A word of praise is to a soothing back rub as ________ is to ________.

conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer

Airline frequent flyer programs that reward customers with a free flight after every 50,000 miles of travel illustrate the use of a ________ schedule of reinforcement.


Because she has oversight responsibility for the servicing and repair of her company's fleet of cars, Rhonda frequently calls the garage mechanic to inquire whether service on various cars has been completed. Because service completion times are unpredictable, she is likely to be reinforced with positive responses to her inquiries on a ________ schedule.


Punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative reinforcement ________ the rate of operant responding.

decreases; increases

If children get attention from their parents for doing cartwheels, they will repeat the trick in anticipation of more attention. This best illustrates

operant conditioning.

Matt regularly buckles his seat belt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of

negative reinforcement

A pigeon receives food for pecking a key, but only rarely and on unpredictable occasions. This best illustrates

partial reinforcement

For professional baseball players, swinging at a pitched ball is reinforced with a home run on a ________ schedule.


During a typical morning, Colin checks the clock frequently before being reinforced with confirmation that the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break has arrived. In this case, Colin's behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.


To reduce the personally harmful behavior of some self-destructive children, therapists have squirted water in their faces whenever they bite themselves. The squirt of water is a


If one chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward, the first chimp may thereby learn how to solve the puzzle. This best illustrates

observational learning.

Which of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon and by simply watching another person pick up a spoon?

mirror neurons

We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are

followed by reinforcement.

Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to

preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.

Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to

perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.

The tendency for children to imitate behaviors seen on television best illustrates the importance of


An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of

mirror neurons.

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?


Experiments suggest that children exposed to a model who says one thing and does another will

talk in ways consistent with what the model says and act in ways consistent with what the model does.

The violence-viewing effect is especially pronounced when the observed violence

goes unpunished

After Maya gave her friend the password to a protected Web site, the friend was able to remember it only long enough to type it into the password box. In this instance, the password was clearly stored in her ________ memory.


The extensive rehearsal necessary to encode nonsense syllables best illustrates

effortful processing

Students who review previously learned course material at various times throughout a semester to pass a comprehensive final are especially likely to demonstrate long-term retention of the course material. This best illustrates the value of

the spacing effect.

At a block party, Cyndi is introduced to eight new neighbors. Moments later, she remembers only the names of the first three and last two neighbors. Her experience illustrates

the serial position effect.

Employing the single word HOMES to remember the names of North America's five Great Lakes best illustrates the use of

a mnemonic device.

Which of the following is believed to be the synaptic basis for learning and memory?

long-term potentiation

Memories of emotional events are especially likely to be facilitated by activation of the


Mr. Nydam suffers from amnesia and is unable to remember playing golf on a particular course. Yet the more he plays the course, the more his game improves. His experience illustrates the need to distinguish between

explicit memory and implicit memory.

Which of the following offers the best explanation for infantile amnesia?

The hippocampus is one of the last brain structures to mature.

The happier Judie is, the more readily she recalls experiences with former teachers who were warm and generous. This best illustrates that emotional states can be

retrieval cues.

When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of

automatic processing

An understanding of the spacing effect provides insight into effective strategies for


The peg-word system relies heavily on the use of

visual encoding.

Combining individual letters into familiar words enables you to remember more of the letters in this sentence. This best illustrates the value of


Many people can easily recall exactly what they were doing when they heard the news of the 9/11 terrorist tragedy. This best illustrates ________ memory.


Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory?

conditioned fear of guns

Having read a story once, certain amnesia victims will read it faster the second time even though they can't recall having seen the story before. They have most likely suffered damage to the


A measure of your memory in which you need to pick the correctly learned answer from a displayed list of options is known as a measure of


To recall his early life experiences, Aaron formed vivid mental images of the various rooms in his childhood home. Aaron was applying the process of


Whenever Valerie experiences intense feelings of fear, she is overwhelmed with childhood memories of her abusive parents. Valerie's experience best illustrates

mood-congruent memory.

After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates

encoding failure.

During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates

proactive interference

Mrs. McBride can't consciously recall how frequently she criticizes her children because it would be too anxiety-arousing to do so. Sigmund Freud would have suggested that her poor memory illustrates


After Teresa was verbally threatened by someone in a passing car, she was asked whether she recognized the man who was driving the car. Several hours later, Teresa mistakenly recalled that the driver was a male rather than a female. Teresa's experience best illustrates

the misinformation effect

Recalling something that you had once merely imagined happening as something you had directly experienced best illustrates

source amnesia.

Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of

encoding failure.

While taking the final exam in American history, Marie was surprised and frustrated by her momentary inability to remember the name of the first president of the United States. Her difficulty most clearly illustrates

retrieval failure.

Although Ron typically smokes two packs of cigarettes a day, he recalls smoking little more than a pack a day. This poor memory best illustrates

motivated forgetting

The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve

memory construction

Several months after watching a science fiction movie about spaceship travel and alien abductions, Steve began to remember that he had been abducted by aliens and personally subjected to many of the horrors portrayed in the movie. His mistaken recall best illustrates

source amnesia.

In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of

a heuristic.

Because he erroneously believes that older workers are not as motivated as younger workers to work hard, a factory foreman is especially vigilant for any signs of laziness among his senior workers. His supervision strategy best illustrates

confirmation bias.

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of

the representativeness heuristic.

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit


When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates

belief perseverance.

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our ________ of a bird.


To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of

an algorithm.

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of

the availability heuristic.

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as it was originally. This best illustrates

belief perseverance.

Students are more likely to choose a condom that is said to be effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of


Vocal sounds that are not included in one's native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ________ stage of language development.


Which language theorist would have been most likely to emphasize that children master the rule for forming the past tense of regular verbs like "push" before they learn common past tense constructions of irregular verbs like "go"?


It has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos' rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticed. This suggestion most clearly illustrates

linguistic determinism.

During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun he is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of

language on thinking.

Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustrates their capacity to develop


The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.


The principles of learning emphasized by B. F. Skinner are most helpful in explaining why children

add new words to their vocabulary.

Those who learn sign language as teens never become as fluent as children exposed to sign language from birth. This best illustrates the importance of ________ for mastering language.

a critical period

Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates

linguistic determinism.

Research on the language capabilities of apes indicates that they cannot

grammatically order language symbols as well as most 3-year-old children.

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