Upgrade to remove ads
Module 11 Air Pollution
Terms in this set (129)
T/F. During an atmospheric inversion, the air near the ground is warmer than the air above it.
What are the major public health effects caused by air pollution?
constriction of the airways
inhibition or inactivation of the body's natural defenses
induction of fibrosis and thickening of the alveolar walls (reduces breathing capacity)
_________________ must list all of the pollution sources within the state, estimating the quantities of each pollutant emitted annually, including mobile and stationary sources. They also issue operating permits and give timetables for compliance.
State Implementation Plans (SIPs)
T/F. Chronic airway resistance is a condition caused primarily by smoking, in which cilia lining the airways are killed off, accumulating in the bronchioles and restricting airflow.
FALSE. (caused by air pollutants)
T/F. Polluted air can increase susceptibility to infectious diseases by inactivation of natural body defenses, thus permitting invasion of bacteria.
T/F. It is difficult to demonstrate a direct link between a SPECIFIC level of air pollution and the development of respiratory disease.
The National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) set maximum levels from what type of outdoor pollutants?
Criteria air pollutants
What is the most visible form of air pollution? (solid and liquid pollutants)
particulate matter- pollen, dust, smoke, and acid condensates
What is the largest source of air pollution in the industrialized world?
motor vehicles, followed by coal-fired electric power plants and then industry (e.g., steel mills)
What is the most frequent cause of "sick building syndrome"?
From a health standpoint, what is the most significant source of indoor PARTICULATE air pollution?
environmental tobacco smoke
Which regulated air pollutant has been the most difficult to control and is most often the cause of a community's (in)ability to meet national ambient air quality standards?
a mixture of many irritating chemicals that form when auto exhaust reacts with oxygen in sunlight to produce hazardous secondary pollutants
"Emissions trading" represents a novel market-based approach to controlling air pollution, originally conceived as a way of reducing what environmental problem?
What pollutant steadily declined as a result of mandated changes in the composition of gasoline?
What property of radon makes it hazardous to public health?
What percent of TOTAL DEATHS in the US are due to air-pollution induced respiratory or cardiovascular diseases?
Air pollution induced deaths are the greatest threat to _______________ countries
The World Bank estimates that _______% of all deaths in developing countries are due to air-pollution
What air pollutants act as asphyxiating agents that deprive the body of oxygen? Irritants?
Asphyxiating- CO (carbon monoxide), HS (Hydrogen Sulfide)
Irritants- CO2 (carbon dioxide), SO2 (sulfur dioxide), SO3 (sulfuric oxide), NO2 (nitrogen dioxide)
Exposure to particulates (asbestos, coal, silicone, cotton, saw dust, metal, grindings,) cause a variety of diseases and is usually due to what kind of exposure?
chronic, occupational exposure
Between 1980 and 1994 the prevalence of asthma increased by ______ overall and in children between 5-14 years old increased _______
by 75%, 74%; now affects 5 million people under 18
People from what kind of population experience disproportionately higher morbidity and mortality due to asthma? (3)
low income, minority, children living in inner cities
Asthma is the __________ highest ranking cause for hospitalization among children younger than 15
Number of children dying from asthma increased three-fold from 1979 to 1996
part of a complex mixture that makes up diesel exhaust
diesel particulate matter
The Sierra Club of Canada conducted a study on the public health impact of what air pollutant? Findings? (3)
-Fine particulate matter
- 13600 Canadians will develop cancer over their lifetime due to exposure
-DPM causes an estimated 800 non-cancer premature deaths, tens of thousands of asthma attacks, and hundreds of bronchitis hospital admissions each year
-Children riding on diesel school buses are exposed to levels of DPM that over a lifetime would lead to an excess cancer rate of up to 1/256
What is an example of chronic occupational exposure? What is their excess risk of developing lung cancer? Due to what kind of pollutant?
Diesel bus mechanics, people operating and driving trucks, heavy equipment and tractors and those in other highly exposed occupations faced an average 33-47% greater risk of developing lung cancer because of their exposure to DPM
A study funded by the NIEHS assessed the impact of particles smaller than 2.5 microns in cities across the US, followed 500,000 adults from 1982-1998 as part of an ongoing cancer study. Findings?
-cause of death was linked to air pollution levels for cities nationwide and controlled for relevant variables
-risk of dying from lung cancer and heart disease in the most polluted cities was comparable to the risk associated with secondhand smoke exposure over a long period of time
-Deaths from lung cancer increases by 8% for every 10 micrograms of fine particulate matter per cubic meter, according to the study
The study funded by the NIEHS (1982-1988) found that what types of pollutants are not as associated with higher number of deaths?
Larger particles and gaseous pollutants were generally not as associated with higher number of deaths
The American Lung Association annual report (2003) monitored air quality and health in 692 counties around the country (198 million people). What were the findings? (5)
-55.8% of counties received an "F" due to high ozone days
-49% of the US population live in areas with an unhealthy level of ozone despite modest improvements in air quality between 1991-2001
-5 million fewer live in F counties that did the previous year (probably weather differences)
-1.5 million with emphysema live in F counties
-70% of adults and children with asthma live in F counties
widespread air pollutants that the EPA is required to gather scientific and medical information on the environmental and health effects including (6)
Criteria Air Pollutants; particulate Matter10/2.5 (size), sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, lead
airborne gases and aerosols that occur in concentrations that threaten the well-being of organisms or disrupt the orderly functioning of the environment
any droplet of liquid or particulate matter that is suspended in the air over time or distance from the point of origin
pollute the air when they are emitted; examples include lead and ozone
primary air pollutants
created by chemical reactions between primary air pollutants in the atmosphere, may involve sunlight or catalyst in the atmosphere e.g., smog, acid rain
secondary air pollutants
results when the contaminants come from a single location e.g., factory
results when contaminants are introduced into the environment over a large, widespread area, e.g, vehicle
non-point source (engine produces a variety of chemical products including oxides of nitrogen and molecules of unburned hydrocarbons from gasoline)
odorless, colorless; fourth most atmospheric gas, produced from the oxidation of hydrocarbons when fuel is used; acts as an asphyxiant (will take a lot in an enclosed area to see health effects), greenhouse gas
carbon dioxide (CO2)
odorless, colorless gas that is toxic in low concentrations; produced by incomplete combustion of fossil fuels
carbon monoxide (CO)
oxides of carbon are the type of exposure in which if you survive you won't have chronic health problems
volatile hydrocarbons that are mostly derived from natural plant sources (marshes, ruminants, rice paddies, trees)
Benzene tetrachloroethylene, gasoline, formaldehyde, many others are byproducts of the chemical industry from products used as solvents, paints, cleaning agents, etc.
What types of chemicals form secondary pollutants that irritate the eyes and damage the respiratory system by contributing to the formation of photochemical smog?
What kind of chemicals are required for the production of photochemical smog?
Can enrich the environment in the proper amount
produced by soil microbes; not stable, will quickly combine with oxygen to form _____
Nitric Oxide --> NO2
natural, man-made oxide that is used as an anesthetic, greenhouse gas
Nitrous oxide (N2O)
formed in auto engines and electrical generating plants, may contribute to heart, liver, lung, and kidney diseases at high concentrations; responsible for brown haze, smog; forms nitric acid in rainwater (2degree pollutant)
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
sources include volcanoes, sea spray, combustion of fossil fuels (coal); irritate respiratory passages; form acidic aerosols, acid rain; damage lakes, forests, steel and masonry structures
Sulfur Oxides (SO2, 3, 4)
produced in an anaerobic environment; bad odor, toxic asphyxiant, explosive
mixture of suspended particles and gases formed when oxides of NITROGEN and VOCs react in SUNLIGHT; common constituents that are formed during the process?
Photochemical Smog; peroxyacetyl nitrates (PAN) and ozone
the most severe component of photochemical smog that irritates eyes and respiratory passages at high concentrations (.5 ppm)
forms in bright sunlight from NITROGEN OXIDES, HYDROCARBONS, and OXYGEN --> interact chemically to produce powerful oxidants like O3 and PAN
What class of pollutants (primary or secondary) are damaging to plant life and are implicated in the formation of photochemical smog?
secondary pollutants; PAN responsible for eye irritation
Oxides of NITROGEN in the presence of SUNLIGHT will kick off oxygen atom and form nitrogen oxide → combine with VOCs → free oxygen and hydrocarbon form PAN → produce ozone and PAN
How photochemical smog is formed
What source types of suspended particulate matter cause the most damage to human health?
soot, metal particles, acid mist
What size particulate matter causes the most damage to human health?
2.5 microns (smallest)
What type of air pollutants cause the most damage to human health?
grants for first air pollution control agencies and first federal regulatory authority; abatement conferences (to end, reduce)
First "Clean Air Act", 1963
authorized federal emissions standards for all new vehicles; amended to include stationary sources; gave federal government authority to adopt and enforce regulations in areas with air pollution problems
Motor Vehicle Air Pollution Control Act, 1965
an area, designated by the federal government, where communities share a common air pollution problem.
Air Quality Control Regions
1970- amendments required the EPA to publish list of pollutants with health or welfare effects (6 criteria pollutants)
National Ambient Air Quality Control Standards
statutes to control pollution at the sources; require each state to submit an implementation plan describing existing air quality, sources of pollutants and emission levels, measures taken to achieve standards; amendments when to what law?
State Implementation Plans- amendments of 1970 to Clean Air Act
T/F. In 1973 it was found that State Implementation Plans were not adequate to control emissions in some areas. What did the EPA do?
TRUE; EPA required states to submit plans to lower auto pollutants
What areas/facilities were included in the State Implementation Plans?
park and ride facilities
surcharge on downtown parking
exclusive bus and bicycle lanes
state-run inspection and maintenance systems retrofit older cars
(lots of power)
Pollutants whose discharge and concentration in the atmosphere are regulated under the Clean Air Act
Criteria Air Pollutants
What criteria air pollutants are states having a hard time controlling?
ozone and particulate matter
statutes that lowered emissions of NOx and VOCs from small industrial sources, down to 0 for auto emissions, reformulated fuels; reduce SO2 emissions from coal burning power plants by half in 2000; regulate 188 toxic air pollutants; controversial and expensive; amendments to what act, when?
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
created a trading system for emission offsets; regional emission levels set; companies have to limit pollutants; Company may buy an offset from another company in compliance, or implement changes to bring their own operation into compliance.
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990
What problem is there with a carbon tax?
it's a political problem. not attractive for people because it's a "tax"
Based on review of scientific evidence of health risks, tighter restrictions placed on ozone and PM2.5
New PM2.5 standard recognizes that these
extremely small particles are responsible for both
health and visibility problems.
EPA estimates that the new standards, along with
clean air programs already planned, will reduce premature deaths by about 15,000 a year and serious respiratory problems in children by about 250,000 cases a year; amendments to what act, when?
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1997
Houston Galveston Area must meet new ozone standard by 2007; must reduce VOCs by 25%
under new CAA amendments of 1997
grants and rebates for low NOx emissions for trucks and buses
Texas Emissions Reduction Plan (TERP)
In Texas, this allows for the trading of NOx emissions
Emissions Bank and Trade Program
large vehicles allowed to idle no more than FIVE MINUTES
Vehicle Idling Restrictions
fuel that contains low VOC and sulfur
fuel that contains low sulfur and low vapor pressures
Gas-fired Water Heaters, Small Boilers, and Process
Heaters - new units must be low in ______________________
commercial use of small engines not allowed in morning hours in the summer
Small, Spark-Ignition Engine Operating Restrictions
variety of voluntary steps to replace polluting vehicles and other sources as part of the Texas State Implementation Plans
Voluntary Mobile Emissions Reduction Program
T/F. In Texas, motorists must successfully pass both the emissions and safety portions in order to get an inspection sticker.
Gasoline vehicles from 2 through 24 years old are tested annually beginning with the vehicle's second anniversary.
Remote sensing element to randomly test vehicles on highways.
All testing stations are connected to a central database for verification.
Recognized emission repair technicians and facilities ensure quality repair of vehicles.
waivers for eligible citizens
Vehicle Maintenance and Inspection
Nationally, 1 hour ozone levels have decreased by ____%; Texas?
based on clear evidence of serious health effects, no safe exposure levels originally assumed
Toxic Air Pollutants (Standards quickly set for asbestos, beryllium, benzene, mercury, vinyl chloride, radionuclides, inorganic arsenic, coke oven)
risk-based standards now set for 80 categories (188 substances)
categories include emissions from big sources (chemical plants, oil refineries, steel mills) and small sources (dry cleaners, electroplating shops (1.5 million ton reduction)
Levels of benzene, toluene and other tail pipe emissions regulated (expect 75% reduction by 2020) sources, exposures, health effects are being studied
Hazardous Air Pollutants
allowed power companies to switch to coal from oil.
Allowed more time to comply to sulfur and particulates regulations.
Required the same degree of control on all new sources in given category regardless of location
near-surface layer of atmosphere that receives pollutants, use meteorology to determine dispersal of pollutants
Dispersal of Air Pollutants affected by (4) (wind movement)
proximity to water
Typical temperature profile shows cooling with altitude.
Warm air is less dense than cool air and can hold more moisture; warm air tends to rise above cooler air.
As air rises it cools adiabatically (without exchange of energy with surrounding air masses). The effect?
warm air rises and carries away pollutants
When does a temperature inversion occur?
Temperature inversion occurs when cooler air is trapped near surface below warmer air mass.
Air stagnates and holds pollutants/smog near surface until inversion breaks up; happens in oceans, valleys, mountains
Cold, night air moves down into valley where it is trapped
under warmer air mass
Radiational Temperature Inversion
air descending the leeward slopes is warmed by
compression and overlies cold air advected on northerly surface winds (responsible for Denver's air quality problems)
Develops aloft as a result of air gradually SINKING over a broad area and warmed by adiabatic compression ("high pressure system")
develops when a widespread layer of air descends. The layer is compressed and heated by the resulting increase in atmospheric pressure, and as a result the lapse rate of temperature is reduced
Subsidence Temperature Inversion
Combustion gases containing SO2 and NO2 carried downwind are converted to strong acids (H2SO4 and HNO3 - secondary air pollutants).
__________________ (3) deposit acid onto surfaces.
pH may be below 4.5
Buffering capacity of soil and watershed determine
impact on plants and aquatic life.
Acid may have direct effects on plant tissues or
mobilize cations in soil to toxic levels.
Health effects may be direct (lung tissues) or indirect (heavy metals)
Rain, snow and dry particulates
NEED TO LOOK THIS UP IN BOOKS
What is the most important environmental cause of cancer?
INDOOR AIR POLLUTION
What are the causes of sick building syndrome? (8)
cigarette smoke and radon (most)
heating and cooking
T/F. Acid rain has a negative pH balance.
gas released when organic matter decays in the ABSENCE of oxygen
gases that are produced by plants
What are the three largest sources of air pollution?
1. transportation 2. electric power plants that burn coal/oil 3. industry (steel mills, smelters, oil refineries, pulp and paper mills)
specifies the maximum levels of concentration of criteria pollutants allowable in outdoor air
National Ambient Air Quality Standards
act as nuclei and attract other hazardous particles and gases that adhere to them and are inhaled
what are common sources of particulate matter air pollution? (5)
fuel combustion, road traffic, agricultural activities, industrial processes, natural abrasion
Why are the smallest particulates most dangerous to human health?
so small that they evade the body's natural defenses and penetrate deeply into the lungs
by itself is not harmful, but it reacts with water vapor to form other compounds that irritate respiratory system, impair visibility, and stunt growth of plants; source: fuel combustion
SO2 (sulfur dioxide)
gas that has the highest concentrations in the urban atmosphere; source: auto emissions; binds to hemoglobin and reduces amount of oxygen in bloodstream, can lead to heart attacks
CO (carbon monoxide)
formed when combustion occurs at high temperatures; contributes to formation of acid rain
formed when auto-associated pollutants (NO2) and volatile organic compounds (hydrocarbons) react with oxygen and sunlight to produce photochemical smog
T/F. Photochemical smog is visible, especially on BRIGHT days.
T/F. OZONE accounts for 90% of crop reductions due to air pollution.
adverse effects on the intellectual development of children caused it to be phased out of production by 1995; other countries have adopted similar strategies
goal is to reduce SO2 emissions for electric power plants by 1/2; NOx also targeted; market based cap and trade program to reduce emissions
Acid Rain Program
Any precipitation measuring _____ on the pH scale is considered acid rain.
less than 5
T/F. Acid rain is a REGIONAL problem that affects areas far from the source of emissions.
A reduction in the deposition of what 2 chemicals caused an increase in the pH of rain and improved the quality of water in lakes and streams?
SO2 and NO2
What was the first evidence that showed the extent of the acid rain problem?
the disappearance of once-abundant fish and amphibian species in lakes that were FAR from traditional sources of water pollution
forms when SO2 and NO2 are chemically converted through a complex series of reactions involving HYDROCARBONS and OZONE to become SULFURIC ACID and NITRIC ACID; reactions can take place in clouds, the rain droplet phase, gas phase, or on the surface of soil after deposition
acid rain formation
build extremely tall superstacks that discharge pollutants into air currents. this reduces the level of _______ pollution but increases the level of ______ pollution
tall stack strategy; local, regional
Why is acid deposition such a politically charged issue?
because wind currents can carry pollutants 100s of miles away from the sources, crosses borders
an ecosystem's sensitivity to acid deposition is determined primarily by composition of the soil and bedrock; refers to an ability to neutralize acids, working to maintain the natural pH balance of the environment
What element contributes to acidity?
EXCESS of hydrogen ions
What regions and types of soil are most susceptible to ecological damage from acid rain? least susceptible?
Most- New England, Mid-Atlantic, SE, Rockies, Pacific NW, Minnesota, and Wisconsin because they have already acidic or granite bedrock
Least- Midwest, Great Plains, SW have alkaline soils and limestone which have high buffering capacity
What effect does acid rain have on fish populations?
renders them unable to reproduce so the population starts dying off (doesn't kill directly)
Contact with ________ can cause toxic metals to dissolve out of sediment and soil and leach into the aquatic environment
acidic rain; toxic metals can kill fish or bioaccumulate and harm humans
What are the environmental effects of acid rain? (5)
damage to aquatic ecosystems, mobilization of toxic metals, deterioration of buildings/metals, reduction of crop yields, damage to forest productivity,
_______ compounds have important implications for the deterioration of materials (buildings, monuments, etc.); as part of what pollution process?
sulfur compounds (acid rain)
T/F. All air pollutants regulated by the US other than SO2 and OZONE occur at higher concentrations indoors than outdoors.
Why are indoor air pollutants toxic at low levels?
because of close proximity they have a direct route to the body
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
APES chapter 18
AIR POLLUTION: LOCAL, REGIONAL & GLOBAL
APES Chapter 19 Vocab (All)
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Water Environment- Test 3
Water Environment- Test 2
Water Environment- Test 1
Module 14 Food Safety and Security
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
Microbiology: Chapter 14 quiz #1
WEEK 9 LECTURES AND READINGS