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Terms in this set (20)
-Light chains: V, J and constant segments allow for thousands of combinations
- Heavy chains: V, J, D and constant segments allow for thousands of combos as well.
-Between the light and heavy chains all the segments can make billions of different combos
Main class of genes, and how it makes so many combos
Which cells express MHC I
Which cells express MHC II
-In humoral responses, t helper binds to phagocytes with antigen presented and is triggered to divide by cytokines.
How does a helper t-cell become activated
proteins that signal t-helper cells to divide, b-cells to divide
What are cytokines
antigen binds to a specific B-cell that becomes activated and divides. the divided cells become plasma and memory cells.
A weakened or dead version of an antigen in used to develop immunity with memory cells
How does vaccination work
-Positive control: This is used to compare to the experimental results. If the experiment shows negative results and the positive control worked you can be sure it worked correctly.
-Negative control: This is also used to compare to results. If the experiment shows up positive along with positive controls you cant be sure it worked correctly
Controls of ELISA lab
1. add pure antigen to wells
2. Serum sample being tested is added to wells as well to see if the antibody matches the disease antigen being tested for. (primary antibody)
3. A secondary antibody is added and will bind to the primary if the primary bound to the antigen.
4. An enzyme substrate is added to bind to the secondary antibody if secondary and primary are bound causing a change in color.
Main steps of ELISA
Washing removes any proteins that have not bound to the plastic wells and any antibodies
that have not bound to their targets, thus preventing unbound proteins (either antigen or
antibodies) from giving false positive results.
Purpose of washing wells after each step in elisa
Measuring the presence of a certain antigen
What does assay mean
enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
Liver, gall bladder
Bile is produced in the____ and stored in the___
5. small intestine
7. large intestine
Order of digestive organs from food intake to waste expulsion
-In humans the cucum stores bacteria that breaks down cellulose, absorbs water and salts.
-In pigs the cecum functions the same but there is no appendix so it is much more functional than humans.
Cecum, humans and pigs
gas exchange is occurring in the umbilical cord
Why wasn't diaphragm used in fetal pig
mellitus, the insulin is non responsive. There is a lack of insulin receptors.
Type II diabetes
insulin is not being produced
Type I diabetes
when glucose levels are low glucagon is released from the pancreas to break down stored glycogen into glucose.
function of glucagon
insulin is used to breakdown glucose by adding receptors to cell membranes for glucose to be transported into the cell.
function of Insulin
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