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AP WH Ch. 16
Terms in this set (97)
What linked the products and people of Europe, Asia, and Africa in the fifteenth century?
Wealthy Europeans were eager consumers of luxury goods from the East, which they received through -- and -- middlemen.
The --- Ocean was the center of the Afroeurasian trade world, serving as a crossroads for commercial and cultural exchanges among China, India, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe. Why did this trade begin to decrease?
Merchants congregated in a series of ----, cosmopolitan port cities around the Indian Ocean. Most of these cities had a form of ----- govt., and mutual ------- had largely limited violence and attempts to monopolize trade.
The most developed area of this commercial web was made up of the ports surrounding the South --- Sea. ---- became a great commercial entrepôt, a trading post to which goods were shipped for storage while awaiting redistribution to other places.
The Mongol emperors opened the doors of --- to the West, encouraging Europeans like --- ---- to do business there.
Polo's tales of his travels and his encounter with the Great Khan fueled Western fantasies about the ----. Polo vividly recounted the splendors of the city of ----.
After the Mongols fell to the ---- win 1368, --- entered a period of economic growth.
At that time, what was the largest city in the world? China also took a lead in exploration, sending whose fleet as far west as Egypt? How many expeditions did he have? The point of these expeditions was to enhance ---- prestige and seek tribute paying alliances. The high expenses of the voyages in a period of renewed Mongol encroachment led to the ---- of maritime expeditions after the death of Zheng He and the emperor.
Admiral Zheng He
Because China decided to forego large-scale exploration, --- states began to expand their role in Asian trade. After Zheng He's voyages, people emigrated to the -----, where they acquired commercial dominance of Luzon.
What was another center of Indian Ocean trade, which was a crucial link between the Persian Gulf and Southeast Asian and East Asian trade networks? Who revived trade among ports bordering the Indian Ocean in the Middle Ages? The need for ----, led to the establishment of trading posts at Gujarat, Calicut, and Quilon.
Arab merchants who circumnavigated India
When did Hinduism and Buddhism arrive in Southeast Asia from India? Where was most of the worlds pepper from?
--- --- trade connected people from the Malay peninsula, India, China, and East Africa. In spite of their diversity, certain ------ similarities linked these peoples.
Inhabitants in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Philippines all spoke languages of the ----- family. A common ---- led to a diet based on rice, fish, palms, and palm wine. Rice, harvested by ---, is probably indigenous to the region, and it formed the staple of the diet. --- served as the chief male occupation and ---- grew in profusion.
In comparison to India, China, and Europe after the black death, --- --- was sparsely populated. People were concentrated in --- cities and areas of intense --- cultivation. The primary role in planting and harvesting rice gave ---- authority and economic power and had a higher status in southeast asia than in India, China, and Europe.
At marriage, usually at age 20, the groom paid the ----- a bride wealth, which remained under the ---- control. Ad awry in China India and Europe was kept under the --- control. All children in southeast Asia, regardless of gender, inherited ----. In contrast to most parts of the world besides Africa, Southeast Asian people accepted ----- sexual activity and placed no premium on --- at marriage. Either women or man could initiate a -----, and common property and children were ----.
On the east coast of Africa, ------ speaking city states engaged in the Indian Ocean trade. These important cities, Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa converted to----.
Most gold that reached Europe came from the ----- region in West Africa and from the kingdom of ---- near present-day Ghana. In later centuries, the diversion of --- away from the trans-saharan routes would weaken the inland states of Africa politically and economically.
---- and ---- were both important objects of trade. Slavery was practiced in ----. The --- ---- served as an intermediary for trade between Europe, Africa, and Asia and was a good supplier of goods especially silk and cotton. Two great rival empires, the Persian ----- and Turkish ---- dominated the region, competing for control over western trade routes to the East. By mid-sixteenth century, the --- had established control over eastern Mediterranean sea routes to trading centers in Syria, Palestine, Egypt, and the rest of North Africa.
Gold and slaves
---- craftsmen produced few products to rival those of ----. ---- had opened the gateway to Asian trade in 1304, when it established formal relations with the sultan of Mamluk Egypt and started operations in Cairo. Bc Eastern demand for ---- goods was low, Venetians funded their purchases through shipping and trade in firearms and slaves.
Venice's ancient trading rival was ----. In 1291, the ----- sponsored a failed expedition into the Atlantic in search of India, which reveals the early origins of their interest in Atlantic exploration.
Genoa is located on the ----- coast of Italy and had always been active in the western Mediterranean trade. Genoese merchants, navigators, and finances provided their skills and capital to the --- monarchs.
A major element of Italian trade was ----. After the loss of the Black Sea trade routes to the Ottomans, the Genoese seized or bought -----, Muslim prisoners and Jewish refugees, and both black and Berber Africans.
Italian experience served as a model for ---- states.
The causes of European expansion was ----, ----- fervor and --- spirit, and dynamic spirit of the ----.
economic, religious fervor and crusading spirit, Renaissance
The fall of ----- and and subsequent ---- control of trade routes created obstacles to fulfilling demands for luxuries.
Spices were so desirable because they served as flavorings for food, used in anointing oil, perfumes, medicines, dyes, but most importantly was a way for European ---- to show their ---- standing.
As they conquered indigenous empires, Iberians brought the attitudes and administrative practices developed during the reconquista to the ----.
Scholars have frequently described the ---- discoveries as an outcome of Renaissance curiosity about the physical universe. ------, a devout Christian, aimed to discover new territories where Christianity could be spread while seeking a direct route to Asia. The motives of Portuguese explorer ----- ---- were " to serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do."
When the Portuguese explorer ----- -- ------ reached the port of Calicut, India he said he wanted Christians and spices.
Vasca da Gama
Who announced " I have come to win gold, not to plow the fields like a peasant?" What does conquistador mean?
Ordinary seamen joined these voyages to escape -----, continue a family ----, or win a few crumbs of the great riches of the empire. They were --- paid and life at sea was very ---.
-- provided the capital for many early voyages. To gain authorization and financial support for their expeditions, they sought official sponsorship from the -----.
One of the most popular books of the time was ----------, which purported to be a firsthand account of the authors travels in the Middle East, India, and China.
The Travels of Sir John Mandeville
The Portuguese developed the ----, a small, maneuverable, three mast sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 15 century that gave the Portuguese a distinct advantage in exploration and trade.
This period also saw great strides in ---- and navigational aids. Arab scholars reintroduced Europeans to ----- -----, a work that synthesized the classical knowledge of geography and introduced the concepts of longitude and latitude and its ideas allowed cartographers to create more accurate maps. Ptolemy showed the world as much---- than it is, so that Asia appeared not very far to the west of Europe.
The ---- ---- made it possible for sailors to determine their direction and position at sea. The -----, invented by ancient Greeks but perfected by Muslims, was used to determine the altitude of the sun and other celestial bodies. It permitted mariners to plot their ------.
Gunpowder, compass, and sternpost rudder were --- inventions.
For centuries Portugal was a small and poor nation whose principle activities were ---- and -----. However, they had phenomenal success overseas. Bc they were blocked from W Europe because of Spain, they turned to the ----. --- favored the Portuguese, winds blowing along their coast offered passage to Africa its Atlantic islands, and Brazil .
Prince Henry was dubbed the ---- because of his support for the study of geography and navigation and for the annual expeditions he sponsored down the western coasts of Africa.
Portugal conquest of ----- marked the beginning of European overseas expansion. In 1443, they founded their first African commercial settlement at ----. The Portuguese next established fortified trading posts, called -----, on the gold-rich Guinea coast and penetrated into the African continent all the way to Timbuktu. Portugal controlled the flow of African --- to Europe.
The Portuguese did not establish large settlements in West Africa, but instead they sought easier and faster ---- by inserting themselves into pre-existing trading systems.
In 1487, ---- ---- rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa, but storms and a threatened mutiny forced him to turn back. A decade later, ---- -- ----- succeeded in rounding the Cape while commanding a fleet in search of a sea route to India. Thereafter, a Portuguese convoy set out for passage around the Cape every ---.
Vasco da Gama
---- became the entrance port for Asian goods in Europe. --- controlled port city states had long controlled the rich trade of the Indian Ocean, and they did not surrender it willingly. The Portuguese had limited impact on the lives and religious faith of peoples beyond ------ holdings.
Portugal's achievements in Atlantic navigation made the moment right for ---- to attempt to find a westward route across the Atlantic to Asia. He was native of ---- and worked as a ---- in Lisbon. He was also very -----, and witnessed the Spanish conquest of ----. What are written descriptions of the courses along which ships sailed?
Columbus was rejected funding by the ----, ---- and -----, but won support of the --- monarchy in 1492. Columbus had a brief stop on the Canary Islands, and landed on the ----. which he christened San Salvador. Because he believed he was somewhere off the east coast of Japan, he called them -----. Scholars identified the inhabitants as ---- people, speakers of the Arawak language, who inhabited Hispaniola and other islands in the Caribbean.
From San Salvador, Columbus sailed to ---, and since he saw Taino people wearing gold ornaments, he suggested that gold was available in that area.
On Columbus' second voyage, he took control of --- and enslaved the people. On his 3 voyage he arrived in Hispaniola, and saw that a --- had broken against his brother, who was left in charge. The two brothers were ----.
The Florentine navigator --- ---, realized that America was a continent separate from Asia. The letter explain this was titled --- --- , the New World. T/F The continent was named after him.
What was the 1494 agreement giving Spain everything west of an imaginary line drawn down the Atlantic and giving Portugal everything to the east? This decision worked in Portugal's favor when an expedition led by Pedro Alvarez Cabral landed on the coast of -----, which Cabral clamped as Portuguese territory.
Treaty of Tordesillas
The search for ---- determined the direction of Spanish exploration and expansion in South America.
Bc its profits from Hispaniola and other Caribbean islands were insignificant compared to Portugal's enormous riches, Spain renewed the search for a --- passage to Asia. in 1519, Charles V of Spain commissioned --- to find a direct sea route to the spices of the Moluccas. The strait at the tip of South America bears --- name. Storms, disease, starvation, and violence haunted this expedition, and Magellan was killed in a skirmish in the --- ---.
In 1522, one ship with only 18 men returned to Spain, being the first to --- the globe, which took 3 years.This voyage showed the vastness of the ---.
-- --, a Genoese merchant living in London landed on Newfoundland. ---- --- made three voyages in and around the Canadian bay that now bears his name, and brought back ---- that proved to be worthless.
Frenchmen --- ---- made several voyages and explored the St. Lawrence region of Canada, searching for a passageway to the wealth of Asia. When this hope proved vain, the French turned to trade in -- and other ----.
beavers and the furs
The ----- presence in the New World transformed its land and people forever. ---, forced ---, and ----- wrought devastating losses. Although the exchange of goods and people brought devastating loss, it also gave both new and old worlds new -----.
--- landed on the Mexican coast and his camps received visits by unarmed -- leaders bearing gifts. What was also known as the Mexica empire a large and complex Native American civilization in modern Mexico and Central America that possessed advanced mathematical, astronomical, and engineering technology.
To legitimize his authority, Cortes founded the settlement of --- and had himself named military commander. He then ---- his ships to prevent any disloyal followers returning from Cuba.
After learning the Aztec empire had local resentment, he forged an alliance with ---- and attacked Aztec cities. Instead of attacking the Spanish, ----- welcomed Cortez and his men to Tenochtitlan and believed Cortes was an embodiment of the god -----
The Spanish victory on Tenochtitlan was hard won and aided by the effect of --- ---. The ---- divided their empire into -- major provinces. Officials at each level used ---- to transmit info.
While Aztecs used system of --- for writing, the Incas used ----, complex system of colored and knotted cords. The Inca empire also benefitted from use of ------- as pack animals.
By the time of the Spanish invasion, the Inca empire had been weakened by a ---- --- and --- ---. The spanish conquistador --- ---- landed on the coast of Peru the very day the Inca leader ---- won control of the empire over his brother. The Spanish ambushed and captured Atahualpa, took lots of ---, and ---- Atahualpa.
It was possible for several hundred Spanish conquistadors to defeat powerful empires because of the ----- of conquistadors, the military -----, fervent belief in a righteous ---- God, division bw Aztec and Inca Empires that produced native --- for the Spanish, and diseases.
Ironically, well-organized urban-based empires were more ----- to wholesale takeover than more ----- and fragmented groups like the Maya.
When -- --- accidentally landed on the coast of Brazil, the Portuguese soon undertook a profitable trade with local people in brazil wood, a source of --- dye. Portuguese settlers brought ---- to Brazil, but when the indigenous population began to decline, ---- were transported to Brazil.
In 1503, the Spanish granted the port of ---- a monopoly over all traffic to the New World and established the House of Trade to oversee economic matters. In 1523, Spain created the Royal and Supreme Council of the -----, with authority over all colonial affairs subject to approval by the king.
Spanish territories were divided into four----, the name for the four administrative units of Spanish possessions in the Americas: New Spain, Peru, New Granada, and La Plata. Within each territory, the ----, or imperial governor, exercised broad military and civil authority as the direct representative of Spain.
The viceroy presided over the -----, a board of 12-15 judges that served as his advisory council and the highest judicial body. In each city, the municipal council, or ----, exercised local authority. --- were denied participation in public life.
What was a system established by the Portuguese in Brazil in the 1530's whereby hereditary grants of land were given to nobles and loyal officials who bore the costs of settling and administering their territories?
The captaincy of ---- was the site of the capital, Salvador. Throughout the Americas, the ---- Church played an integral rule. Churches and cathedrals were consecrated on ---- sacred sites. Bc officials had greater ----, it helped colonial powers use the church as an instrument to indoctrinate indigenous people in European ways of life.
What was a system whereby the Spanish crown granted the conquerors the right to forcibly employ groups of Indians; it was a disguised form of slavery? King Charles V responded to complaints with the --- ---, which set limits on the authority of encomienda holders. These laws provoked a --- among elites in Peru.
To respond to a shortage of indigenous workers, royal officials established a new govt-run system of forced labor called ---- in New Spain and --- in Peru. What was enormous tracts of farmland worked by dependent indigenous laborers and slaves?
Spanish systems for exploring the labor of indigenous peoples were both a cause and response to the ---- in the population after the arrival of the Europeans. People died because of --- and diseases such as -- --, ---, ----, and other illnesses. Overall, population declined by as much as -- percent or more .
small pox, typhus, influenza
The search for fresh sources of labor had given birth to the new tragedy of the---- slave trade. The century after the discovery of silver marked the high point of --- immigration to the Americas. What were American born Europeans called?
Bc many men took native women as concubines, a percentage of the population became mixed Iberian and Indian descent, also known as -----
A truly --- economy emerged and forged new links among far-flung peoples, cultures, and societies. What was the exchange of animals, plants, and diseases between the Old and New Worlds? Everywhere they settled, the Spanish and Portuguese brought and raised -----. The most significant introduction to the diet of Native Americans came through the --- and --- of livestock. Bc --- gives a high yield per unit of land, has a short growing season, and thrived in climates too dry for rice and too wet for wheat, it proved an especially important crop for the Old World.
The --- ---- spread from west to east, and reached New England from old England. --- --- arrived when plantation owners began to plant them as a food source for enslaved Africans, for whom they were a dietary staple. The --- and ---- were long thought to be poisonous.
tomato and potato
The wave of catastrophic epidemic disease that swept the Western Hemisphere after 1492 can be seen as an extension of the swath of devastation wreaked by the -- --- in the 1300s, first on Asia and then on Europe.
The world after Columbus was unified by ---- as well as by trade and colonization. Two crucial elements of the columbian exchange were --- and --. Black African slavery entered the European world because of the ----- capture of Constantinople which halted the flow of European slaves from the eastern Mediterranean and the success of the ----- reconquest of the Iberian peninsula which diminished the supply of --- captives. Thus, Europe turned to sub saharan Africa.
In 1483, Portugal established an alliance with ----. The royal family converted to ---- and Portuguese merchants intermarried with Kongolese women. Originally, --- was an expensive luxury. The invention of --- --- to crush the cane were invented.
-- percent of slaves died on the voyage from Africa to
America. Causes of death were poor ----, poor-quality food and water, and intense ---.
With Europes discovery of the Americas and their exploration of the Pacific, the entire world was linked for the first time in history by ---- trade. The opening of that trade brought into being 3 successive commercial empires: ---, --- ,----
Portugese, Spanish, Dutch
The ---- were the first worldwide traders and they controlled the sea route to India. The Spanish determination to claim their place in world trade was relay facilitated by the discovery of ---- in Bolivia and Mexico. Across the Pacific the Spanish built a seaborne empire centered at ---- in the Philippines. This city served as a bridge between Spanish America and ---.
The Dutch East India Company was founded in 1602 with the stated intention of capturing the -- trade from the Portuguese. The Dutch emerged as the most powerful worldwide --- trading power.
While Christianity was embraced in parts of the -- World, it was met largely with suspicion in --- and -- . However, the East-West contacts led to --- of influential cultural and scientific ideas.
China and Japan
Converting ---- people to Christianity was very important. --- missionaries were active in Japan and China. The first missionaries accompanied Columbus on his --- voyage.
Catholic --- were among the first Europeans to seek an understanding of native cultures and languages as part of their effort to render Christianity comprehensible to indigenous people. They were also the most vociferous opponents of --- committed by Spanish settlers.
In addition to spreading Christianity, missionaries taught indigenous peoples European methods of --- and instilled --- to colonial masters. Authorities could not prevent the melding together of Catholic teachings with elements of --- beliefs and practices.
---- de las Casas, a Dominican friar and former encomienda holder, was one of the earliest and most outspoken critics of the brutal treatment inflicted on indigenous peoples.
What was the debate organized by Spanish King Charles V in 1550 in the city of Valladolid that pitted defenders of Spanish conquest and forcible conversion against critics of these practices?
One side of the Valladolid debate, led by --- --- de Sepulveda, argued that conquest and forcible conversion were necessary to save indigenous people from horrors of human sacrifice, cannibalism, and idolatry. To counter these arguments, --- --- and his supporters depicted the native people as rational and innocent children who deserved protection.
--- sides claimed victory but it had little effect on the situation in the Americas.
What was the notion that the Spanish were uniquely brutal and cruel in their conquest and settlement of the Americas, and idea propagated by rival European powers?
At the beginning of the Atlantic slave trade, Europeans would have thought of Africans as --- in their social customs and religious practices. They grouped Africans into the despised categories of -- heathens or ---- infidels.
Europeans drew on beliefs about Africans primitiveness and barbarity to defend -- . Over time, the institution of slavery fostered a new level of --- inequality. --- became seen as utterly distinct from or wholly inferior to Europeans.
--- --- became equated with slavery itself. Support for this belief went back to ----- argument that some people are destined for slavery and to biblical association between darkness and sin. Another justification was found in the story of ----; biblical genealogies losing Ham's sons as those who peopled North Africa and Kush were interpreted to mean that all inhabitants of those regions bore Noah's ---.
After 1700 the emergence of new methods of observing and describing nature led to the use of science to define ----. Biblical justifications for inequality thereby gave way to allegedly --- ones.
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