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Commonwealth vs. Hunt

A court case in 1842 where the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court ruled that labor unions were not illegal monopolies that restrained trade.

African Methodist Episcopal churches

First American denomination established by and for African-Americans.

American System of Manufacturing

System of manufacturing that used interchangeable parts.

Erie Canal

Major canal that linked Great Lakes to New York City, opening upper Midwest to wider development.

Market economy

Newly developing commercial economy that depended on goods and crops produced for sale rather than for personal consumption.

Panic of 1837

A severe depression that struck the United States beginning in May 1837.

Samuel Slater

British mechanic who carried plans for textile mills to United States.

separate spheres (the cult of domesticity)

Middle-class ideology that emerged with the market revolution and divided men's and women's roles into distinct and separate categories based on their perceived gender differences, abilities, and social functions. Men were assigned the public realm of business and politics, while women were assigned to the private world of home and family.

transportation revolution

Rapid expansion of canals steamships, and railroads.

Waltham, Lowell

Sites of early textile mills in New England which were precursors to modern factories. Nearly 80 percent of the workers in Waltham, Lowell, and similar mills were young, unmarried women who had been lured from farms by the promise of wages.

Angelina and Sarah Grimké

Southern-born sisters who were powerful antislavery speakers; later leaders of women's rights movement.

Charles G. Finney

A lawyer turned- Presbyterian minister who conducted revivals in towns like Utica along the Erie Canal and who stressed individual responsibility.


Members of the party that emerged from Jefferson's Republican party as one of the two dominant parties in the second party system.

Dorothea Dix

Leader of movement to improve conditions for the insane.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Susan B. Anthony

Vocal advocates of women's suffrage.

Horace Mann

First secretary of the newly created Massachusetts Board of Education who presided over sweeping reforms to transform schools into institutions that occupied most of a child's time and energy.

Joseph Smith

Founder of the Mormon Church.


Members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the first major denomination founded in 1830 in the United States; members were persecuted for many years.

New Harmony

An important and well-known utopian community, founded in Indiana by Robert Owen.

Second Great Awakening

Religious revival that swept the country and fed into reform movements.

Seneca Falls

The location of a women's rights convention in 1848.


Utopian sect that stressed celibacy and emphasized agriculture and handicrafts; became known for furniture designs long after the community itself ceased to exist.

spoils system

Practice of rewarding political supporters with public office.

Tariff of Abominations

Protective tariff of 1828 that infuriated southerners; spawned nullification crisis.


Abstinence from alcohol; name of the movement against alcohol.


The belief that the physical world is secondary to the spiritual realm, which humans can reach only by intuition.


Formerly called the National Republicans; a major political party in the 1830s.

William Lloyd Garrison

Founder of The Liberator and a controversial white abolitionist, he demanded an immediate end to slavery and embraced civil rights for blacks on par with whites.

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