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Terms in this set (145)
The detection of the elementary properties of a stimulus. (brightness, colour, warmth, sweetness)
The detection of the more complex properties of a stimulus, including its location and nature; involves learning.
The conversion of physical stimuli into changes in the activity of receptor cells of sensory organs.
A neuron that directly responds to a physical stimulus, such as light, vibrations, or aromatic molecules.
Location of the stimulus on the body activates different axons - tells where
Coding in terms of time - rate of firing tells how intense the stimulus is
A branch of psychology that measures the quantitative relation between physical stimuli and perceptual experience
just-noticeable difference (jnd)
The smallest difference between two similar stimuli that can be distinguished; also called difference threshold
The ratio between a just-noticeable difference and the magnitude of a stimulus; reasonably constant over the middle range of most stimulus intensities.
The point at which a stimulus, or a change in the value of a stimulus, can just be detected.
An alternative name for just-noticeable difference (jnd)
The minimum value of a stimulus that can be detected (discriminated from no stimulus at all)
signal detection theory
A mathematical theory of the detection of stimuli, which involves discriminating a signal from the noise in which it is embedded and which takes into account participants willingness to report detecting the signal.
receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve)
A graph of hits and false alarms of participants under different motivational conditions; indicates people s ability to detect a particular stimulus.
The distance between adjacent waves of radiant energy; in vision, most closely associated with the perceptual dimension of hue.
The transparent tissue covering the front of the eye
The tough outer layer of the eye; the white of the eye.
The pigmented muscle of the eye that controls the size of the pupil.
The transparent organ situated behind the iris of the eye; helps focus an image on the retina.
Changes in the thickness of the lens of the eye that focus images of near or distant objects on the retina.
The tissue at the back inside surface of the eye that contains the photoreceptors and associated neurons.
A receptive cell for vision in the retina; a rod or a cone.
A circular structure located at the exit point from the retina of the axons of the ganglion cells that form the optic nerve.
A neuron in the retina that receives information from photoreceptors and passes it on to the ganglion cells, from which axons proceed through the optic nerves to the brain.
A neuron in the retina that receives information from photoreceptors by means of bipolar cells and from which axons proceed through the optic nerves to the brain.
A photoreceptor that is very sensitive to light but cannot detect changes in hue.
A photoreceptor that is responsible for acute daytime vision and for colour perception.
A small pit near the centre of the retina containing densely packed cones; responsible for the most acute and detailed vision.
A complex molecule found in photoreceptors; when struck by light, it splits and stimulates the membrane of the photoreceptor in which it
The photopigment contained by rods.
The process by which the eye becomes capable of distinguishing dimly illuminated objects after going from a bright area to a dark one.
The co-operative movement of the eyes, which ensures that the image of an object falls on identical portions of both retinas
The rapid movement of the eyes that is used in scanning a visual scene, as opposed to the smooth pursuit movements used to follow a moving object.
The movement that the eyes make to maintain an image of a moving image upon the fovea.
A perceptual dimension of colour, most closely related to the wavelength of a pure light.
A perceptual dimension of colour, most closely related to the intensity or degree of radiant energy emitted by a visual stimulus.
A perceptual dimension of colour, most closely associated with purity of a colour.
The perception of two or more lights of different wavelengths seen together as light of an intermediate wavelength.
The theory that colour vision is accomplished by three types of photoreceptors, each of which is maximally sensitive to a different
wavelength of light.
The representation of colours by the rate of firing of two types of neurons: red/green and yellow/blue
The image seen after a portion of the retina is exposed to an intense visual stimulus; a negative afterimage consists of colours complementary to those of the physical stimulus.
A form of hereditary anomalous colour vision; caused by defective red cones in the retina.
A form of hereditary anomalous colour vision; caused by defective green cones in the retina.
A form of hereditary anomalous colour vision; caused by a lack of blue cones in the retina.
The primary measure of the frequency of vibration of sound waves; cycles per second.
One of the three bones of the middle ear (the hammer, anvil, and stirrup) that transmit acoustical vibrations from the eardrum to the membrane behind the oval window of the cochlea.
A snail-shaped chamber set in bone in the inner ear, where auditory transduction takes place.
An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea. The stirrup presses against a membrane behind the oval window and transmits sound vibrations into the fluid within the cochlea.
One of two membranes that divide the cochlea of the inner ear into three compartments; the receptive organ for audition resides here.
An opening in the bone surrounding the cochlea. Movements of the membrane behind this opening permit vibrations to be transmitted through the oval window into the cochlea
auditory hair cell
The sensory neuron of the auditory system; located on the basilar membrane.
A hair-like appendage of a cell; involved in movement or in transducing sensory information. Cilia are found on the receptors in the auditory and vestibular systems.
A membrane located above the basilar membrane; serves as a shelf against which the cilia of the auditory hair cells move.
A component of a complex tone; one of a series of tones whose frequency is a multiple of the fundamental frequency. In music theory, also known as an overtone.
The lowest, and usually most intense, frequency of a complex sound; most often perceived as the sound s basic pitch.
A perceptual dimension of sound, determined by the complexity of the sound for example, as shown by a mathematical analysis of the sound wave.
One of the two sense modalities (gustation and olfaction) that detect the presence of particular molecules present in the environment.
The sense of taste.
A small bump on the tongue that contains a group of taste buds.
A small organ on the tongue that contains a group of gustatory receptor cells.
The sense of smell.
Chemical signals, usually detected by smell or taste, that regulate reproductive and social behaviours between animals.
The mucous membrane lining the top of the nasal sinuses; contains the cilia of the olfactory receptors
Stalk-like structures located at the base of the brain that contain neural circuits that perform the first analysis of olfactory information.
Bodily sensations; sensitivity to such stimuli as touch, pain,
free nerve ending
A dendrite of somatosensory neurons.
A specialized somatosensory nerve ending that detects mechanical stimuli, especially vibrations.
two-point discrimination threshold
The minimum distance between two small points that can be detected as separate stimuli when pressed against a particular region of the skin.
Sensations that appear to originate in a limb that has been amputated.
A muscle fibre that functions as a stretch receptor; arranged parallel to the muscle fibres responsible for contraction of the muscle, it detects muscle length.
The receptive organs of the inner ear that contribute to balance and perception of head movement.
One of a set of three organs in the inner ear that respond to rotational movements of the head.
One of a set of two receptor organs in each inner ear that detect changes in the tilt of the head.
A rapid, automatic, unconscious process by which we recognize what is represented by the information provided by our sense organs.
A block of cortical tissue that receives information from the same group of receptor cells.
That portion of the visual field in which the presentation of visual stimuli will produce an alternation in the firing rate of a particular
The flow of information from the primary visual cortex to the visual association area in the lower temporal lobe; used to form the
perception of an object s shape, colour, and orientation (the what system).
The flow of information from the primary visual cortex to the visual association area in the parietal lobe; used to form the perception of an object s location in three-dimensional space (the where system).
The inability of a person who is not blind to recognize the identity of an object visually; caused by damage to the visual association
A form of visual agnosia characterized by difficulty in the recognition of people s faces; caused by damage to the visual association
fusiform face area (FFA)
A region of the ventral stream of the visual
system that contains face-recognizing circuits.
extrastriate body area (EBA)
A region of the occipital cortex, next to the
primary visual cortex, that responds to forms resembling the human body.
parahippocampal place area (PPA)
A region of the ventral stream, below the hippocampus, that is activated by visual scenes.
The inability to discriminate among different
hues; caused by damage to the visual association cortex.
An inability to see motion.
A visual stimulus that is perceived as a self-contained object.
A visual stimulus that is perceived as a formless background against which objects are seen.
A branch of psychology that asserts that the perception of objects is produced by particular configurations of the elements of stimuli.
law of proximity
A Gestalt law of organization; elements located closest to each other are perceived as belonging to the same figure.
law of similarity
A Gestalt law of organization; similar elements are perceived as belonging to the same figure.
A Gestalt law of organization; given two or more interpretations of elements that form the outline of the figure, the simplest interpretation will be preferred.
law of closure
A Gestalt law of organization; elements missing from the outline of a figure are filled in by the visual system.
law of common fate
A Gestalt law of organization; elements that move together give rise to the perception of a particular figure.
A hypothetical pattern that resides in the nervous system and is used to perceive objects or shapes by a process of comparison.
A hypothetical idealized pattern that resides in the nervous system and is used to perceive objects or shapes by a process of comparison; recognition can occur even when an exact match is not found.
A physical characteristic of an object that helps distinguish it from other objects.
A perception based on successive analyses of the details of the stimuli that are present.
A perception based on information provided by the context in which a particular stimulus is encountered
Cues to distance that depend on input from two eyes.
Cues to distance that depend on input from only one eye
The result of vergence eye movements whereby the fixation point for each eye is identical; feedback from these movements provides information about the distance of objects from the viewer.
The fact that points on objects located at different distances from the observer will fall on slightly different locations on the two retinas; provides the basis for stereopsis, one of the forms of depth perception.
A form of depth perception based on retinal disparity.
A monocular cue of depth perception; an object that partially blocks another object is perceived as closer.
A monocular cue of depth perception; the arrangement or drawing of objects on a flat surface such that parallel lines receding from
the viewer are seen to converge at a point on the horizon.
A monocular cue of depth perception; the fineness of detail present in the surfaces of objects or in the ground or floor of a scene.
A monocular cue of depth perception; objects that are less distinct in their outline and texture are seen as farther from the viewer.
A monocular cue of depth perception; determines whether portions of the surface of an object are perceived as concave or convex.
A monocular cue of depth perception; objects nearer the horizon are seen as farther from the viewer.
A monocular cue of depth perception. As we pass by a scene, objects closer to us pass in front of objects farther away.
A mechanism that maintains a perceptual
judgment as the external stimulus changes.
The apparent shift in location of a sound from its auditory source to its perceived visual location.
The perception of movement caused by the turning on of two or more lights, one at a time, in sequence; often used on theatre
marquees; responsible for the apparent movement of images in movies and television.
A branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour.
The minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/.
The delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing sound of the phoneme /p/) and the onset of vibration of the
The smallest unit of meaning in language
A grammatical rule of a particular language for combining words to form phrases, clauses, and sentences
A preposition, article, or other word that conveys little of the meaning of a sentence but is important in specifying its grammatical
A noun, verb, adjective, or adverb that conveys meaning.
A sound or group of letters that is added to the beginning of a word (prefix) or to its end (suffix).
The meanings and the study of the meanings represented by words.
The use of changes in intonation and emphasis to convey meaning in speech besides that specified by the particular words; an important means of communication of emotion.
The essential meaning of a sentence, without regard to the grammatical features (surface structure) of the sentence that are needed to
express it in words.
The grammatical features of a sentence.
The characteristics (events, rules, and so on) that are typical of a particular situation; assists the comprehension of verbal discourse.
Broca s aphasia
Severe difficulty in articulating words, especially function words, caused by damage that includes Broca s area, a region of the frontal cortex on the left (speech-dominant) side of the brain.
A language disturbance; difficulty in the production and comprehension of grammatical features, such as proper use of function words, word endings, and word order. Often seen in cases of Broca s aphasia.
Wernicke s area
A region of the auditory association cortex located in the upper part of the left temporal lobe; involved in the recognition of spoken
Wernicke s aphasia
A disorder caused by damage to the left temporal and parietal cortex, including Wernicke s area; characterized by deficits in the perception of speech and by the production of fluent but rather meaningless
pure word deafness
The ability to hear, to speak, and (usually) to write, without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech; caused by bilateral temporal lobe damage.
A language disturbance that includes an inability to comprehend speech or to produce meaningful speech, accompanied by the
ability to repeat speech and to learn new sequences of words; caused by brain damage to the left temporal/parietal cortex that spares Wernicke s area.
A brief interval between saccadic eye movements during which the eye does not move; visual information is gathered during this time
Reading by decoding the phonetic significance of letter strings; sound reading.
Reading by recognizing a word as a whole; sight reading.
A reading disorder in which people can read words phonetically but have difficulty reading irregularly spelled words by the wholeword
A reading disorder in which people can read familiar words but have difficulty reading unfamiliar words or pronounceable nonwords
because they cannot sound out words.
A language disorder caused by brain damage in which people can read words aloud without understanding them.
A facilitating effect on the recognition of words having meanings related to a word that was presented previously
A unique string of phonemes that an infant invents and uses as a word.
The speech of an adult directed toward a child; differs in important features from adult-directed speech and tends to facilitate learning of language by children.
A change in the form of a word (usually by adding a suffix) to denote a grammatical feature such as tense or number.
Errors in language that occur when learners
produce incorrect words or statements based on other rules of language.
The use of a word to denote a larger class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring to the moon as a ball.
The use of a word to denote a smaller class of items than is appropriate; for example, referring only to one particular animal as a dog.