Names, word, design, symbol, or other characteristic such as color or shape that identified one marketer's product, service, person, place, or idea as distinctly different from those being offered by other marketers
assumed to capture all the meanings, images, sensations, experiences, and other content that customers associate with products or services offered by specific Firms, person, place idea
Core brand values
benefits, utilities, and values delivered by the brand as a member of its respective product category.
captures the various meanings, associations, usage experiences, emotions, and other associations consumers consciously or subconsciously attach to brands
brand names, logotypes (or logo), brand marks, trademarks, service marks, trade characters, and slogans.
part of a brand that is spoken or verbalized
distinctive way the lettering is employed to spell the brand name.
total visual component of a brand. Brand marks include the logotype, if distinctive lettering is employed to spell the brand name
any aspect of brand (i.e. brand name, brand mark, logo, slogan, etc.) that has been registered with the US Patent Office. Trademarks are legally protected.
strong brands possess substantial value and are enduring assets that can be reported on balance sheets extent to which customers are willing to pay more for this particular branded product as opposed to another branded product from the same product category.
trademark applied to services. World Gym, Jiffy Lube, and Terminix are registered service marks. Service marks can be legally protected in precisely the same fashion as trademarks.
special cases of brand marks. Trade characters can be anything from cartoon characters (Geico Insurance and the Gecko) to real people
Generic brand names
names used to describe entire product categories. Typically, generic brands originated as trademarked brands owned by specific companies. However, over time, consumers began to equate the brand name with the product category as a whole.
Steps to protect firm from "generic"
The first, most obvious step is to trademark the brand. This action would provide some measure of legal protection but would not guarantee the safety of the brand.
develop and deliver advertising that specifically reminds consumers of the brand's trademark status.
Brands can be owned by
national brands (older terminology), manufacturer's brands, or producer's brands.
Brands owned by products manufacturer which most are. Because these products are branded by their producers, most responsibility for promoting the brand is assumed by the manufacturer. producer's brand is essentially pre-sold to consumers because of this "pull strategy."
owned and promoted by middlemen. Distributor's brands are also called private labels, middlemen's brands, and store brands. Provide more value to the customer, not promoted as extensively as national brands.
can be distributor's brands. Like standard distributor's brands, generics are produced to meet the middleman's specifications. But their label is very plain, as in "not distinctive," generally consisting only of white labels with simple black lettering that provides the name of the product category and any other information required by law. Generic products today are most prevalent in pharmaceuticals.
Point of sale
sales personnel may provide merchandising assistance to retailers in the form of free-standing displays and other point-of-sale materials, along with their assistance in setting up the displays.
may be offered to partially offset the costs of advertising the producer's brand in local media.
Who Produces Middlemen Brands?
contract or source the production of their private label products to outside producers. Many such producers exist solely to make middlemen's brands Producers of national brands, smaller manufacturers, major retailers and wholesalers, producers of regional brands
occurs when all or part of a Firm's product mix carries the same brand.
Corporate family brand
exist when most items in the Firm's product mix are given the same family brand. In most applications, the family brand name is the company's trade name. Kraft, Heinz, Hunt, and Honda use the company's trade name as the brand name for most of their products.
Product line family branding
occurs when the Firm uses different family brands for different product lines within its overall product mix
each product item in the Firm's mix receives its own, unique brand name. In contrast to family branding, there is little common imagery across products produced by the same Firm.
Product line extension
new products introduced into a product line in which the producer already has product representation. Product line extensions are always family branded.
special case of multiple branding in which new products are added to an existing product line using different brand names.
Products category extensions
New product introductions that are launched into different product categories (i.e. those in which the Firm does not currently have representation) Example: Whenever Black & Decker introduces new power tools into its existing power tool product line
occurs when a new product is launched into a different product category (category extension) using the family brand. Brand extensions, therefore, are simply a product category extension that has employed the family brand. Brand extension is the single-most used strategy for introducing new products.1
branding strategy that appears nearly identical to brand extension. However, the two strategies are distinctly different. With brand licensing, the brand's owner simply rents the name to another manufacturer in exchange for a licensing fee.
type of brand extension. Co-branding occurs when two Firms jointly place their brands on a new product. Both brands are prominently displayed on the package to promote the alliance to consumers.
form of co-branding that generally is used to gradually change a brand's name over time. The goal is to avoid customer confusion and potential lost sales as the name change occurs.
Developing Effective Brand Names
easy to pronounce short, distinctive, and unique, suggest positive images, feelings, or associations communicate key product benefits and functions should avoid verbal traps.