54 terms

World Final

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Mohammed
* Orphaned at a young age

* Became a merchant and failed

* Claimed to have received revelation from God throughout his life

* Revelations given later in his life outweigh previous ones

* Claimed to be a prophet of Allah and gained a following in Mecca
Justinian
* Ruled Byzantine empire in the 6th century

* Attempted to restore glory of Rome by capturing territory. Had short term success but failed in the long run

* Best known for corpus juns civilis: told advisors to find Roman law and put it all into a volume. This was the first attempt to combine all law into one unit.

* Built the Sophia which signified the tie between Christianity and the Byzantine Empire
Ummayad
* The Umayyad Caliphate was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad. This caliphate was centered on the Umayyad dynasty, hailing from Mecca.

* Five pillars of Islam established during this period
Abbasid
* the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The Abbasid dynasty descended from Muhammad's youngest uncle, Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib (566-653 CE), from whom the dynasty takes its name. They ruled as caliphs, for most of their period from their capital in Baghdad in modern-day Iraq, after assuming authority over the Muslim empire from the Umayyads in 750 CE
Carolingian Renaissance
* A rebirth of learning initiated by Charlemagne

* He saw that clergy wasn't educated

* Created monastic schools where clergy went to learn basics of Latin

* Scriptoria are issued. Place where scrolls and books are copied. The basic cursive script is developed. Miniscule script is developed

* There were many translations of classical authors (90%)
Charles Martel
* Charles the Hammer

* Mayor of palace

* Formed army that won victory in Battle of Tours against Muslim army
Charlemagne
* 762 - 814

* Warrior-king who styled himself as a Roman like emperor

* In 800 crowned emperor of Holy Roman Empire after mediating between Pope and Nobles and solving issues between the two

* This doesn't set well with Byzantine emperor in the East who held the same claim

* Goes on annual raids in Northern Germany against the Saxons and decimates them. Ends when Saxon leader converts

* after 732 he initiates raids across the Pyrenees against Muslim populations

* dies in 814
Vikings
`raiders as well as settlers and traders.
`their boats could maneuver up streams
` settled in different areas: ukraine, ireland/england, iceland/greenland, canada/us
' Lindsfarne
Sui Dynasty
* Wen Di and Yong Di are significant figures during this time

* This is when a new law code is introduced

* Military centralization of power and expansionary efforts

* Invasion of Korea which ends up being a mistake (Vietnam, Manchuria, and Tibet)

* Focused on expansion to deal with threats from Mongolic tribes
Tang Military
* Thai Zong attacked eastern Turks

* Massively huge force

* Army is composed of draftees

* Focused heavily on expansion
Tang civil service exam
* Performance on exam determined social standing within the Tang dynasty

`You would have to find a sponsor if you were poor.
` go to school and take the test
`then afterwards go to the city and take another test for power.
Mandate of Heaven
* The idea that the ruler of China has been divinely appointed

* Natural disasters were thought to be a result of rulers not following divine rules

* Tian: name of diety representing heaven
Empress Wu
* Gains power in the Tang dynasty after Thai Zong

* Starts as concubine but works her way up and seizes power

* Attempts to undercut the Confucian bureaucracy and supports Buddhism
Taika Reforms Edict
* The Reform began with land reform, based on Confucian ideas and philosophies from China, but the true aim of the reforms was to bring about greater centralization and to enhance the power of the imperial court, which was also based on the governmental structure of China. Envoys and students were dispatched to China to learn seemingly everything from the Chinese writing system, literature, religion, and architecture, to even dietary habits at this time. Even today, the impact of the reforms can still be seen in Japanese cultural life.

* Established by Emporer Kotoku
Silla Korea
`takes over two kingdoms in korea in the late 500's
` is able to unify korean peninsula
Five Dynasties Period
Short lived, not very powerful, ruled by Khitan Mongols, who eventually form Liao Dynasty. Did not survive past first charismatic ruler.
Heian Japan
Period from 794 to 1185, during which began the pattern of regents ruling Japan in the name of the sacred emperor
Angkor Wat
Magnificent Khmer Vaishnavite temple that crowned the royal palace in Angkor. It had statues representing the Hindu pantheon of gods.
Wanli
...
Magellan
Sailor
dies on journey; 1519
1 ship returns
circumnavigation
lands in Philippines and is killed
-Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth
Martin Luther
Became a monk
has a problem with assurance of salvation
studies theology
professor at Wittenberg
Hernan Cortes
Comes to Mexico in 1519
searching for gold
conquered Aztecs
Defeats Montezuma and his administrators and places his officers in their palace
-Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century. -Cortés was part of the generation of Spanish colonizers who began the first phase of the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Mongols
Being nomads, they moved quickly, looked for weak spots, attacked, and moved on. The soldiers were skilled horseman and fierce, disciplined warriors, and Genghis Khan was a military genius
Dhimma
protected persons allowing Jews and Christians to practice in Islamist countries after tax
Jizya
Special tax that non-Muslims were forced to pay to their Islamic rulers in return for which they were given security and property and granted cultural autonomy
Song Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that took over the mandate of heaven for three centuries starting in 976 CE. It ruled an era of many economic and political successes, but it eventually lost northern China to nomadic tribes.
Sufism
Emotional and mystical form of Islam that appealed to the common people
Averros
Important Muslim philosopher, born in Muslim Spain, whose interpretation of Aristotle's work were influential in Christian Europe
Mahmud of Ghazni
Third ruler of Turkish slave dynasty in Afghanistan; led invasions of northern India; credited with sacking one of wealthiest of Hindu temples in northern India; gave Muslims reputation for intolerance and aggression.
Delhi Sultanate
(1206-1526) Turkish regime of Northern India. The regime strengthened the cultural diversity and tolerance that were a hallmark of the Indian social order, which allowed it to bring about political integration without enforcing cultural homogeneity.
feudalism
System instituted in medieval Europe after the collapse of the Carolingian Empire (814 CE) whereby each peasant was under the authority of a lord
Investiture Controversy
Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in imperial lands.
Reconquista
Spanish reconquest of territories lost to the Islamic Empire, beginning with Toledo in 1061.
First Crusade
(1096 to 1099) launched by Pope Urban II; considered successful because they recaptured the Jerusalem and the Holy Land, which freed Christians from Muslim rule
Third Crusade
(1189 - 1192) Crusade led by King Richard the Lionhearted to recapture the city of Jerusalem from Islamic forces led by Saladin; failed in attempt.
Scholasticism
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century.
Zheng He
explorer
explored new areas of the world
Indian ocean 1405
reaches africa and brings back many exotic animals and goods
Chimu
`commercialized economy: cotton, agriculture, irrigation
`modern day peru
` terris farming
` Inca's take over.
Toltecs
(1000-1200 AD) Ancient civilization of Mexico. The name in Nahuatl means "master builders." The Toltec formed a warrior aristocracy that gained ascendancy in the Valley of Mexico c. AD 900 after the fall of Teotihuacán; strongly militaristic ethic including human sacrifice;

`15th century
`maize-based economy
`temples were pyramidal structures.
`shaminism
`developed in the Andes
`mesomerica society
`rituals usually involving blood: human sacrifice.
John Calvin
French
moved to Geneva
Predestination
"Institutes of the Christian Religion" 1536
Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire.
Kubilai Khan
(1215-1294) Mongol leader who seized southern China after 1260 and founded the Yuan dynasty.
Hulagu Khan
Genghis Khan's grandson who took Baghdad in 1258, when the Mongol army was rampaging west from the east
Yarluk
Russian princes to remain in power
Black Death
Bubonic plague (yershihia destis)
starts in mongolia asia and spreads west
30-50% europes population
hit heavily populated areas
followed trade routes
famine reduces the survival rates
Yuan Dynasty
Dynasty established by the Mongols after the defeat of the Song. The Yuan dynasty was strong from 1280 to 1368; its capital was at Dadu, or modern-day Beijing.
Zhu Yuangzhang
memorial name: "Hongwu"
founded ming dynasty
seized Yuan capital Dadu
moves capital to nanjing
support of local princes
use of burreacrats
Yongle
Successor of Hongwu
sponsored "The forbidden City"
sponsored Zheng He expiditions
Zheng He
explorer
explored new areas of the world
Indian ocean 1405
reaches africa and brings back many exotic animals and goods
Mehmet II
Captured Constantinople (1403)
turns into Istanbul
Construction of a palace for the Sultan (topkai)
Safavid Dynasty
founded by Shah Ismail
islam as state religion in 1293
Mongol decline
Safi al-Din Ardibali emerges
Islam becomes shiite, militant, and extreme with later Safavid rulers.
Hundred Years War
1337- 1453
Intermitten periods of conflict
cause: taking of gascony by philip VI
Jan Hus
Hussites
Conservatives catholic priest
burned at stake
Heresies
transubstantiation
Vasco da Gama
- first voyage across the Indian ocean, lands on malabar coast in India.
- important source of spices in the area
-opened up a trade route with the East by sea
- From Portugal