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AP Gov China Vocab
Terms in this set (50)
China has five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Meng Gu, Ningxia Hui, Xinjiang, and Xizang or Tibet. These regions are different than provinces by the fact that these are comprised of a minority ethnic group. They are ruled under the central government, but they have more legislative authority over their region.
They are public officials holding a responsible or managerial position, usually full time, in party and government. The cadre (ganbu) system in China is the rough equivalent of the civil service system in many other countries.
is the highest authority within the Communist Party of China. Its approximately 350 members and alternates are selected once every five years by the National Party Congress. The membership of the Central Committee experiences rapid turnover.
Living from October 31, 1887 to April 5, 1975, Chiang Kai-shek was a Chinese military and political leader who led the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party) for five decades and was head of state of the Chinese Nationalist government between 1928 and 1949.
The practice or principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it. Collectivism is a basic cultural element that is the opposite of individualism and stresses the priority of group goals. Societies like this usually focus on community, society, or nation.
Chinese Communist Party (CCP)
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and the ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It is the world's largest political party.
The teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity. There is high value given to learning and to devotion to family and ancestors. Concepts such as peace and justice are influential. These are the ethical teaching that have been critical in developing the traditional culture of China.
A political upheaval in China 1966 to 1976, intended to bring about a return to revolutionary Maoist beliefs. Largely carried forward by the Red Guard, it resulted in attacks on intellectuals, a large-scale purge in party posts, and the appearance of a personality cult around Mao Zedong. It led to considerable economic dislocation and was gradually brought to a halt by premier Zhou Enlai.
This means 'work unit'. The majority of Chinese still belong to one or other danwei which is responsible not only for their employment, but for virtually every aspect of their lives. Your 'danwei' will almost certainly be the school or factory which employs you.
the process of dispersing the governing bodies from a central unit and closer to the people.
This system requires that party leaders provide opportunities for discussion, criticism and proposals in party organizations as a part of making policy. It also requires unified discipline throughout the party. Party members are allowed to voice their criticisms through proper channels but are not allowed to act against party decisions.
The Chinese politician who, as leader of the Communist Party, led the country to a market economy. He was the Paramount leader of the People's Republic of China from 1978 to 1992. During his early years in the Communist party, he worked in places such as Tibet in order to consolidate the Communist control.
the theory that applies to the ancient Chinese governmental system of emperors that every dynasty goes through a culture cycle.
The French thought that everyone is equal in fundamental worth or social status. Taken politically it means that everyone should have the same political, economical, social, and civil rights. Taken socially it means that there should be the removal of inequalities among people, especially economic. One who believes this believes that equality reflects the natural state of humanity.
a tightening up, loosening up cycle used by factions; lack of transparency, with policymakers meeting behind closed doors and revealing their plans when the government takes action
the term used for outsiders in China. Originated when the Qing Dynasty collapsed in 1911 and the scramble for China began. Many nations tried to gain control over China in this period, and the Chinese referred to these foreigners as devils.
were goals, set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, science and technology in China. Henceforth the Four Modernizations were a focus of the Chinese government, especially under Deng Xiaoping.
free market socialism
After the death of Chairman Mao, Deng Xiaoping changed to economy into more of this ideology. This Chinese economy is a mix between state owned enterprises and an open market economy. This has been the Chinese economic system since 1978 when the reforms in China occurred under Deng Xiaoping. This market economy was a part of his "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" platform.
"Gang of Four"
The nickname of four Chinese Communist Party officials who came to the public eye during the Cultural Revolution between 1966 and 1976. These four implemented harsh policies directed by the Chinese Communist Party chairman Mao. The members of the group were Jian Quing, the third wife to Mao, Zhang Chunqiao, Wang Hongwen, and Yao Wenyuan.
The system of social networks and influential relationships that facilitate business and other dealings in China.
Great Leap Forward
"politics in command". It was an economic development strategy and political campaign that abandoned material rewards for moral incentives.Leaders demanded high output quotas which led to inflated production results. It also led to famine because the Chinese were so focused on production that they did harvest enough crops.
an ethnic group native to China.
an indirect imperialistic rule by one dominant state over another. In recent years, it appears that China is attempting to revive the "Middle Kingdom" and once again dominate and control the majority of Asia. The Chinese want to shift away from European and American powers and create their own sphere of influence once again.
household responsibility system
In the PRC this was first adopted into agriculture in 1981 then spread throughout all different sectors of the economy. The household responsibility system is a system by which local managers are held responsible for all of the profits and losses of the whole enterprise, instead of just their individual section.
It is one of the Special Administrative Regions of China. This city state is one of the most densely populated areas in the world. The economy of Hong Kong is what makes it so recognizable. It has a major capitalist service economy characterized by free trade and low taxation. Their stock exchange is the seventh largest and their dollar is the eighth most traded in the world. There is very little agricultural activity and most of the
The President of the PRC, the head of the Communist Party and the Central Military Commission. The President is a purely ceremonial office, however his position as the head of the party has real influence in government.
Iron rice bowl
When the Communists came into power, all workers and farmers were now under state control and it controlled every aspect of their lives. In return, the state would be employed for their whole life.
is a former Chinese politician, who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003, and as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2005. His long career and political prominence have led to him being described as the "core of the third generation" of Communist Party leaders.
served as the fourth Premier of the People's Republic of China, between 1987 and 1998, and the Chairman of the Standing Committeeof the National People's Congress, China's top legislative body, from 1998 to 2003. For much of the 1990s Li was ranked second in the Communist Party of China(CPC) hierarchy behind then Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin. He retained his seat on the CPC Politburo Standing Committee until 2002.
as a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of theCommunist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
mandate of heaven
Similarly to the European Divine Right of Kings, the mandate of heaven is about the leader being watched under by the powers above. They differ in that the MOH states that heaven will help and bless the authority of a ruler they see fit, but cause the overthrow of one they see as despotic.
a Chinese communist revolutionary, Marxist political philosopher, and leader of the Chinese Revolution. He also was the founding father of the People's Republic of China. He ruled the PRC from 1949 until his death in 1976. He wanted China to align with Russia at some point because he believed in the ways of Stalin.
the communist teachings of Mao Zedong. It was used as the military and political guide of the Communist Party of China. It is the belief of the mobilization of the masses, such as in great political movements that Mao highly favored. It goes together with the egalitarianism (as defined above) that occurred during Mao's reign.
The party leads but its leadership is not completely isolated from the opinions and preferences of the mass public.
"Middle Kingdom" (zhongguo)
Another name for China. This is the translation of the Mandarin name for the country. The first character, zhong, means middle, and guo means nation, or kingdom. This became the recognized name of China in 1911.
National People's Congress
This is the highest state body and the only legislative house in the People's Republic of China. The National People's Congress is held in the Beijing. Consisting of 2,987 members, it is the largest parliament in the world. They gather each year to make important decisions of a national level.
Nationalist Party (KMT or Guomindang)
The oldest political party in China. The party supports the eventual unification of Taiwan with the mainland of China. It believes that the Republic of China is the only legitimate government, not the People's Republic of China. It now uses the "three nos" to ease tensions with the PRC: no unification, no independence, no use of force.
the most important mechanism by which the Communist Party exerts control over officials. The management of all party and government officials in positions of even moderate importance by party committees.
This is the self explainitory limitiation of only being allowed to have one child that applies to approzimately 35.9% of the Chinese populations. It officially restricts married or urban couples from having more than one child, while allowing exemptions for several cases, including rural couples, ethnic minorities, and parents without any siblings themselves.
"one country, two systems"
joint declaration between Britain and China, that Hong Kong would revert to Chinese sovereignty in 1997 but would continue to enjoy a high degree of autonomy. Hong Kong became a special administrative region of communist-ruled China.
People's Liberation Army
The armed forces of the People's Republic of China, including all its land, sea, and air forces. The PLA traces its origins to an unsuccessful uprising by communist-led troops against pro-Nationalist forces in Jiangxi province.
this group of 24 people oversee the Communist Party of China. Their power is centralized in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China. This group is supposedly appointed by the Central Committee of the CPC but in reality it is self-perpetuating. The power it holds is due to the fact that most members area also holding positions in the People's Republic of China.
The Secretariat of the Communist Party of China Central Committee is a permanent bureaucracy of the PRC. It is a parallel structure to state organizations of the PRC. The Secretariat manages the Politburo, it's work, and the Standing Committee. Although this faction does not have policy-making power, it does have significant authority within the Communist Party. It can also make personnel decisions in the Party and state.
Special Economic Zones
geographical regions that have economic and other laws that are more free-market-oriented than a country's typical or national laws. "Nationwide" laws may be suspended inside a special economic zone.
A system of economic, political, or social organization that involves the association of people into corporate groups, such as business, religious, agricultural, or any basis of common interests that is controlled by one, central state power. One example in China is the Islamic Association in the PRC: the state controls almost everything about it - the appointment of imams, controls the educational content of their seminars, and all actions and words must be approved by the government.
Sun Yat-sen was the leader who organized the overthrow of the Manchu Dynasty in 1911. He established the Republic of China in 1912, but was forced out in the second revolution just a year later.
is an island or island group in the western Pacific Ocean located off the southeast coast of mainland China. The main island has constituted over 99% of the territory controlled by the Republic of China (ROC) after its defeat during the Chinese Civil War in 1950, and the country is now commonly known as "Taiwan". (See also Names of the Republic of China.) The political status of Taiwan is disputed because it is claimed by the People's Republic of China, which was established in 1949 by the communists on mainland China and considers itself the successor state to the ROC. Since PRC's establishment, it never controlled any of the territories the ROC government currently governs. Japan had originally acquired Taiwan from the Qing Empire in 1895 under Article 2 of the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
an expert who is a member of a highly skilled elite group.
Tibet is governed under China as an autonomous region in southwest China. It has been under Chinese rule since 1951 when it was incorporated into China and striped of its independence.
is the sixth and current Premier and Party secretary of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government and leading its cabinet. In his capacity as Premier, Wen is regarded as the leading figure behind China's economic policy. He also holds membership in the Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China.
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